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n . 


THE      MORE  A. 



F.R.S.  ETC. 







V,  3 




River  Phellia. — Pharis. — Bryse^. — Ancient  places 
on  Mount  Taygetum. — Ancient  topography  of  the 
part  of  Laconia  eastward  of  the  Eurotas. — Pal^a, 
GeranthrjEj  GlympiAj  MariuSj  Sklinus. — From 
Mistra  to  Perivolia. — Tomb  of  Ladas. — Pellana. — 
From  Perivolia  to  Barbitza. — Belemina. — Source  of 
the  Eurotas. — Of  the  Passes  leading  into  Laconia. 
— SciRiTis.— luM. — EutjEA. — From  Barbitza  toTri- 
politza. — Temple  on  Mount  Boreium. — Of  the  sub- 
terraneous course  of  the  Rivers  Alpheius  and  Eu- 



IMiHtary  importance  of  Mantineia. — Approaches  to 
the  Mantinice  from  the  Isthmus. — Roads  from 
Argos  to  Mantineia. — The  Inert  plain. — Course  of 
the  waters  in  the  Mantinice  and  Tegeatis. — An- 
cient military  occurrences  in  the  Mantinice  ;  parti- 
cularly the  three  battles  :  namely,  1.  In  the  Pelopon- 
ncsian  war,  between  the  ArgivTs  and  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians under  Asiis. — 2.   That  in  wliich  the  Boeotians 





under  Epaminondas  were  opposed  to  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians and  Athenians. — 3.  Between  the  forces  of  the 
Achaian  league  under  Philopoemen  and  the  Lacedae- 
monians under  Machanidas 44 


From  Tripolitza  to  Kalpaki. — Ancient  roads  from  Man- 
TiNEiA  to  Orchomenus. — Orchomenus. — Aucicut 
roads  from  thence  to  CAPHYiE,  Pheneus,  and  Stym- 
PHALUS. — From    Kalpaki  to   Kandili. — IMount    Ly- 

korema. —  Kastania. —  Fonia.  —  Stymphalus Ca- 

PHYiE. — Battle  of  Caphyje    94 


Pheneus. — The  Pheneatice. — Fonia,  itsplain,  rivers, 
and  mountains. — The  Arcadian  zerethra. — From  Fo- 
nia to  Klukines. — The  mountain  and  river  Crathis. 
— Styx. — To  Megaspilio.  —  Lusi,  CYNiETHA.  —  To 
Vostitza. — Ceryneia,  JEgium. — To  Patra 135 


Ancient  History  of  Achaia.  —  Twelve   Cities. — From 
Patra  to  Vostitza. — By  Sea  to  Xylo-kastro. — To  Trik- 
kala. — Pellene. — MYSiEUM. —  Cyrus. — Trlkkala. 
— Olurus.— To  Vasilika.— To  Corinth 196 



Corinth  and  its  two  ports. — Ancient  descriptions  of  the 



city  by  Strubo  and  Pausanias. — Existing  monuments. 
— Long  Walls. — Description  of  Corinth  by  Wheler. 
— District  of  Corinth. — An  ancient  Peristomium.  229 


HiERUM  of  the  Isthmus.— Ancient  attempts  to  make  a 
Canal  through  the  Isthmus. — Ancient  fortifications 
across   the    Isthmus. — Crommyon. — Sidus. — Soly- 

GEIA,     ChERSONESUSj     RhEITUS.  —  PottS    PEIRiEUS, 

Anthedon,  and  Bucephaleia.  —  Capes  Her^eum 
and  Olmi^. — CEnoe,  Peir>eum,  Therma. — Tenea.  285 



From  Corinth  to  St.  George. — CleonjE. — Ancient  Roads 
from  Cleon^. — Nemea. — St.  George. — Phlius. — 
The  Phliasia. — Ancient  Military  Operations  in  this 
District. — Orne^. — From  St.  George  to  Vasilika. — 
SiCYON.  —  Subordinate  Places  of  the  Sicyonia.  — 
Epieicia,  Thyamia,  GERiE,  Titane 324 


From  Vasilika  to  Xylo-kastro,  and  Kamares. — Rivers 
Helisson  and  Sys. — Donussa. — To  Mavra  Litharia. 
— j^GEiRA,  Phelloe,  Aristonaut^e. — To  Akrata. 
— JEgm. — To  Trupia. — Bura. — Helice. — To  Vos- 
titza.  —  Ceryneia.  —  Ancient  Geography  between 
^GiUM  and^GEiRA. — To  Patra. —  Port  Erineus. — 
Ancient  Geography  between  Patrje  and  JEgivm. — 
Leonti  um  382 

INDEX 421 







RiTcr  Phellia. — Pharis. — Bryse^. — Ancient  places  on 
Mount  Taygetum. — Ancient  topography  of  the  part  of  La- 
CONIA  eastward  of  the  Eurotas. — Pal^ea,  GeranthrjE, 
Glympia,  Marius,  Selinus. — From  Mistra  to  Perivolia. 
— Tomb  of  Ladas. — Pell  ana. — From  Perivolia  to  Bar- 
bitza. — Belemina. — Source  of  the  Eurotas. — Of  the 
Passes  leading  into  Laconia. — Sciritis. — Ium. — Eut^a. 
— From  Barbitza  to  Tripolitza. — Temple  on  Mount  Bo- 
reium. — Of  the  subterraneous  course  of  the  Rivers  Al- 
PHEius  and  Eurotas. 

March  25. — I  visit  again  the  castle  of  Mistra, 
ride  up  by  the  direct  road,  and  in  descending 
pass  round  the  hill,  which  is  quite  insulated, 
and  then  through  the  great  precipitous  opening 
of  the  Pandeleimona  into  the  southern  part  of 
the  town,  from  which  this  is  the  shortest  and 

VOL.  III.  B 

S  alesi;e,  bryse^.       [chap,  xxiii. 

easiest  approach  to  the  castle.  Nothing  can  be 
finer  than  the  scenery  of  this  descent ;  the  steep 
rocks  of  the  castle  hill,  tiie  cultivated  terraces 
of  Vlakhokhori  and  Barseniko,  and  the  rockv 
torrent  rushing  between  the  two  precipices, 
present  a  variety  of  beautiful  contrasts  with  the 
rich  and  extensive  view  of  the  plain  of  Sparta 
which  is  seen  through  the  opening. 

The  elevated  district  lying  in  the  hollow  con- 
tained between  the  highest  summits  o^Tai/getum 
and  the  cliffs  bordering  the  plain  of  Sparta,  is 
noticed  by  Pausanias  in  the  following  passage  ^, 
which  previously  describes  the  road  across  the 
plain  from  Sparta  to  the  place  where  the  road 
entered  the  mountain.  "  In  proceeding  from 
the  temple  of  Neptune  Gseauchus  toward  Tay- 
getum,  there  is  a  heroum  of  Lacedsemon,  son  of 
Taygete,  at  a  place  called  Alesige ;  beyond  which, 
after  having  crossed  the  river  Phellia  near  [or 
beyond]  Amyclae",  and  proceeded  in  the  di- 
rection of  the  sea  %  occurs  Pharis,  formerly  a 
Laconic  city.  But  the  road  to  the  mountain 
Taygetum  turns  from  the  Phellia  to  the  right, 
In  the  plain  there  is  a  sacred  portion "  of 
Jupiter  Messapeus  ;  beyond  which  is  situated 
Bryseae,  near  the  place  where  the  road  issues 

"  Pausan.  Lacon.  c.  20.  ^  riixDio;.     The   place   was 

''  va^a.  'AuvkXccc.  called  Messapeae.  V.  Stephan. 


out  of  Taygetum  into  the  plain.  Bryseae  was 
formerly  a  city*;  a  temple  of  Bacchus  still  re- 
mains there,  with  a  statue  in  the  open  uir'',  and 
another  statue  in  the  temple,  which  the  women 
only  who  perform  the  secret  rites  are  per- 
mitted to  see.  The  summit  of  Taygetum,  called 
Taletum,  rises  above  Bryseae ;  it  is  said  to  be 
sacred  to  the  sun,  to  which,  among  other  things, 
horses  are  here  sacrificed:  the  same  religious  cus- 
tom prevails  among  the  Persians.  Not  far  from 
Taletum  is  Evoras,  which  produces  wild  goats 
and  other  wild  animals ;  indeed,  every  part  of 
Taygetum  affords  a  chase  of  goats  and  hogs, 
and,  in  still  greater  plenty,  of  stags  and  bears. 
The  interval  between  Taletum  and  Evoras  is 
called  Therae^  Not  far  from  the  summits  of 
Taygetum  there  is  a  temple  of  Ceres  Eleusinia. 
Lapitheeum  is  situated  fifteen  stades  from  thence. 
Derrhium  is  not  far  from  the  latter.  Here  is 
a  statue  of  Diana  Derrhiatis  in  the  open  air, 
and  by  it  a  fountain  called  Anonus.  About 
twenty  stades  beyond  Derrhium  is  Harpleia, 
which  borders  on  the  plain." '^ 

Pharis  was  one  of  the  Homeric  cities  of  La- 
conia,    and   Strabo    agrees   with   Pausanias    in 

Toti  Tixvy'-Tov  y^tD^'iov,  6>9a  7roX»?  «  The  Hunting  Place. 

Horn.  II.  B.  V.  583. 

B  2 

4  PHARIS,    BRYSE.E.        [CHAP.  XXIII. 

placing  it  in  the  plain  of  Sparta.  It  appears 
from  the  preceding  extract  to  have  been  to  the 
southward  of  Amyclae  and  near  the  Eurotas, 
data  which  fix  it  with  great  appearance  of  pro- 
bability at  Vafio',  where  a  remarkable  height, 
similar  to  that  of  Ala  Kyriaki  rises  from  the 
right  bank  of  the  river.  I  have  been  informed, 
since  I  passed  near  the  site,  that  some  remains 
are  to  be  seen  there  of  a  subterraneous  building, 
similar  to  those  at  Mycenag;  a  circumstance  which 
is  in  accordance  with  that  of  Pharis  having  chiefly 
flourished  before  the  Trojan  war.  The  river  now 
called  Takhurti,  which  joins  the  Eurotas  a  little 
above  Vafio,  being  the  most  considerable  stream 
in  the  plain,  next  to  the  Tiasa,  is  probably  the 
Phellia;  in  this  case,  the  words  'Kapa'' AiivkXasy 
in  Pausanias,  must  have  been  intended  to  signify 
"  beyond  Amyclae." 

Leaving  this  river  on  the  left,  and  proceeding 
in  the  direction  of  the  highest  summit  of  Tay- 
getum,  we  arrive  at  the  position  under  the  cliffs 
near  Sinan  Bey  and  not  far  from  Sklavokhori, 
where  I  found  a  fountain  and  a  sculptured 
marble,  and  which  thus  corresponds  exactly  with 
BrysecBy  if  we  suppose  the  peak  of  St.  Elias  to  be 
the  ancient  Taletum.  Of  this,  I  think,  there  can 
be  little  doubt,  as  it  cannot  be  supposed  that  any 
but  the  highest  and  most  conspicuous  of  the 


summits  would  have  been  in  preference  held 
sacred  to  the  sun,  or  Apollo,  who,  we  know, 
delighted  in  lofty  mountains '.  Evoras^  a  word 
synonymous  with  the  modern  Greek  Kaloskopi 
or  the  Italian  Belvedere,  was  probably  the 
broader  summit,  nearer  to  Mistra,  now  called 
Paximadhi.  It  confirms  all  these  points  of 
comparative  geography,  that  the  opening  be- 
hind Sklavokhori  is  the  natural  entrance  into 
the  upper  Taygetum  from  the  parts  of  the  plain 
about  Amyclce  and  Pharis ;  it  seems  evidently 
therefore  to  be  the  place  near  Bryseae,  where 
the  road  issued  from  the  mountain. 

As  to  the  situation  of  the  Eleusinium,  or  as 
to  those  of  Lapithseum,  Derrhium,  and  Harpleia, 
it  is  impossible  to  give  any  opinion  without  ex- 
amining that  elevated  valley  in  detail,  more 
especially  as  Pausanias  leaves  doubtful  the  di- 
rection followed  by  him  from  the  Eleusinium 
to  Harpleia,  whether  northward  or  southward. 
I  am  inclined  to  think  it  was  the  former,  be- 
cause the  finest  part  of  the  Taygetic  district 
lies  towards  the  northern  end.  In  this  case, 
Mistra,  which  is  the  natural  exit  of  the  moun- 
tain at  that  extremity,  may  be  the  site  of  Har- 
pleia ''. 

*  Homer.  Hymn,  in  Apoll.  as    to    the    fine   position    of 

**  There    is    another    con-  JMistra^  namely,  that  it  is  the 

jecture  which  may  be  made  site  of  the  JMesse  of  Homer, 


The  mountainous  part  of  the  Laconice,  si- 
tuated eastward  of  the  Eurotas,  contained  some 
inland  towns,  which  are  thus  described  by  Pau- 
sanias  ^.  '*  Geranthrae  is  situated  inland  ^,  from 
Acriae,  at  a  distance  of  1^0  stades.  In  the  w^ay 
thither,  there  is  a  town  called  Palgea.  Geran- 
thrae was  a  city  before  the  Heracleidae  came 
into  the  Peloponnesus  ;  after  that  event  the 
Dorians  of  Sparta  expelled  the  ancient  inha- 
bitants, and  sent  to  Geranthrae  a  colony  oftheir 
own.  It  is  now  a  portion  of  the  Eleuthero- 
Lacones.  There  is  a  temple  and  a  grove  of  Mars, 
in  which  an  annual  festival  is  held,  when  women 
are  not  permitted  to  enter  the  grove.  The  Agora 
contains  sources  of  water  good  for  drinking*".  In 
the  Acropolis  there  is  a  temple  of  Apollo,  con- 
taining the  head  of  a  statue  made  of  ivory,  of 
which  the  remaining  part  was  destroyed  by  fire 
together  with  the  former  temple.  Marius,  another 
city  of  the  Eleuthero-Lacones,  is  distant  from  Ge- 

whose  arrangement  of  the  La-  IMistra  are  not  less  productive 

conic   cities    seems    to   place  than  those  of  Mezapo  of  the 

Messe  in  the  y.o'.Xyi  Aot,KiScciiy.uv,  Avild  pigeons^  which  suggest- 

or  plain  of  Sparta,  rather  than  ed  to  Homer  the  epithet   of 

at  IMessa,    now  Mezapo,   in  TroXvTprifniv  applied  by  him  to 

the  Messeniac  Gulf.    The  in-  Messe.     See  Vol.  I.  p.  287- 
scription  with  the  ethnic  Msa--  *  Pausan.  Lacon.  c.  22. 

crto^  which  I  found  at  Mistra,  ^  um  ^ocXota-a-n^  aiu. 

is  favourable  to  such   a  con-  '^  ?s-sp)  rhv  ayopav    a^iaiv  ccl 

jecture  ',    and   the    rocks    of  vYiyotl  tm  vtot/ji^wk  ihtIv  I^utuv. 


ranthrae  one  hundred  stades.  Here  is  a  temple 
of  All  the  Gods  standincc  i'l  a  o-rove  in  wliich 
there  are  springs  of  water ;  there  are  sources 
also  in  the  sanctuary^  of  Diana  :  in  short,  there 
is  no  place  which  more  abounds  in  perennial 
fountains  than  Marius.  Beyond  this  city''  there 
is  another  inland  town  %  called  Glyppia  ;  to 
another  ■*,  named  Selinus,  there  is  a  road  of 
twenty  stades  from  Geranthrae.  Such  are  the 
mland  places  above  Acriae.'* " 

Immediately  after  this  passage,  Pausanias 
proceeds  to  describe  the  towns  of  the  Eleuthero- 
Lacones  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Laconia,  be- 
ginning with  Asopus,  making  the  circuit  of  the 
Bceatic  peninsula,  and  then  following  the  eastern 
coast  northward  as  far  as  Prasise,  which  was  the 
last  of  the  Eleuthero-Laconic  towns  in  that 
direction.  In  the  passage  just  cited,  therefore, 
it  is  evident,  that  he  intended  previously  to  dis- 
pose of  all  the  inland  places  which  he  had  not 
already  introduced  to  the  reader's  notice,  and 
that  the  towns  here  enumerated  were  the  only 
places  of  note  in  the  mountainous  country  lying 
eastward  of  the  Eurotas. 

That  Geranthras  was  situated  towards  the 
plain  of  Sparta  is  rendered  probable  by  its 
having  shared  the  fate  of  Amyclai  and  Pharis, 

*"     KiOfJt,vt. 


when  the  ancient  Achaian  inhabitants  of  these 
three  places  were  obHged  by  the  Doric  pos- 
sessors of  Sparta*  to  retire  from  Laconia.  1 
have  already  remarked,  that  there  are  said  to 
be  some  remains  of  Hellenic  antiquity  at  leraki 
orGheraki,  for  both  modes  of  writing  the  name 
are  used,  the  sounds  in  modern  Greek  being 
ahnost  the  same.  Gheraki  occupies  a  com- 
manding position  on  the  south-western  face  of 
tlie  mountain,  in  a  place  abounding  in  water, 
and  it  adjoins  the  ruins  of  a  town  of  the  lower 
empire.  Its  distance  of  eleven  geographical 
miles  in  direct  distance  from  the  site  of  AcriaB, 
corresponds  exactly  with  the  120  stades  of  road 
distance  which  Pausanias  indicates  between  the 
two  places.  The  route  thither  must  have  passed 
through  or  near  Apidhia,  which  may,  therefore, 
stand  on  the  site  of  Palcea  ^  'lepaKtov  existed 
under  that  name  in  the  fourteenth  century,  and 
appears  at  that  time  to  have  been  one  of  the 
principal  places  in  Laconia  ". 

Of  the  other  towns  mentioned  in  the  passage 
of  Pausanias  under  consideration,    Glyppia  is 

^  Strabo,  p.  365.  Pausan.  third  of  his  forces  at  Pleia,  for 

Lacoii.  c.  2.  22.  the  purpose  of  covering  the 

^  This  is  evidently  the  same  approaches    to    Gythium    by 

place  which  is  named  Pleia  in  land.    Liv.  1  35.  c.  27.    The 

the  text  of  Livy^  and  where  historian  observes,  that  Pleia 

PhilopcEmen     surprised    the  was  situated  above  Leucae  and 

camp  of  Nabis,  who  was  then  Acriee    (imminet    Leucis    et 

engaged  in  the  siege  of  Gy-  Acriis). 

thium,  and  had  stationed  a  "^  Pachymer,  1.  1.  c.  31. 


the  only  one  concerning  the  situation  of  which 
we  derive  assistance  from  any  other  author ; 
for  I  take  it  for  granted  that  it  was  the  same  as 
the  town  of  the  Glympenses  ^,  which  I  have 
already  had  occasion  to  allude  to  as  the  place 
where  Lycurgus,  in  the  second  year  of  the 
Social  War,  making  a  forced  march  from  Sparta, 
defeated  the  Messenians,  who  had  moved  from 
Tegea  through  the  Argolis,  intending  to  join 
Philip  to  the  southward  of  Sparta ''.  Glympia 
was  at  that  time  included  in  the  Argive  com- 
munity, together  with  Prasiae,  Cyphanta,  and 
Zarax,  whence  it  may  be  presumed  that  it  was 
on  the  eastern  face  of  the  mountains,  not  far 
from  the  coast,  on  which  those  three  maritime 
towns  were  situated.  It  seems  probable,  more- 
over, from  the  incidents  attending  the  march 
and  defeat  of  the  Messenians,  that  Glympia 
was  not  far  from  the  Cynurian  passes  leading 
to  Sparta,  though  not  absolutely  in  the  Cy- 
nuria,  as  Pausanias  does  not  name  Glympia, 
when  treating  of  Thyrea  and  the  neighbouring 
towns. — To  these  circumstances,  as  leading  to 
the  position  of  Glympia,  it  may  be  added,  that 
the  object  of  the  Messenians  having  been  that  of 
entering  the  valley  of  the  Eurotas,  not  at  Sparta, 
but  to  the  southward  of  that  city,  it  is  probable 

^  rxu/^7reif.  Chapter  IV. 

"  Polyb.  1.  5.  c.  20.     See 

10  POLICHNA,    LEUCiE.        [CHAP.  XXIII. 

that  they  had  attained,  previously  to  crossing 
the  mountain,  some  place  to  the  southward  of 
the  Tanus,  or  pass  of  Kastanitza,  which  was  the 
direct  road  to  Sellasia  and  Sparta.  Glympia 
therefore  seems  to  have  been  about  Piasto  or 
Lenidhi,  more  probably  at  the  former,  as  it  is 
nearer  to  Sparta;  for  that  the  distance  of  Glym- 
pia from  that  city  was  not  very  great,  may  be 
inferred  from  the  circumstance  of  Lycurgus 
having  obtained  such  speedy  information  of  the 
arrival  of  the  Messenians  at  Glympia,  and  hav- 
ing made  that  sudden  attack  upon  them  which 
frustrated  their  expedition. 

Polichna  was  another  town  which  appears, 
from  the  same  historian,  to  have  stood  on  the 
maritime  side  of  the  eastern  ridge  of  Laconia, 
About  two  years  before  the  time  of  the  transac- 
tion just  alluded  to,  Lycurgus  invaded  the  Argeia, 
to  which  province  the  eastern  coast  then  be- 
longed, and  took  Polichna,  Prasiae,  Leucae,  and 
Cyphanta,  in  the  iirst  attack  ;  but  Glympia  and 
Zarax  he  was  unable  to  make  himself  master  of. 
Leucae  I  presume  to  have  been  the  same  as  the 
Leuce  mentioned  by  Strabo,  and  which  I  suppose 
to  have  stood  in  the  plain  of  Finiki  ^ ;  the 
Argives  may  have  been  at  that  time  in  the 
temporary  possession  of  it,  in  consequence  of 
its  proximity  to  Epidaurus  Limera,  which  was 
»  Strabo,  p.  363.     See  Chapter  Yl. 

CHAP.  XXIII.]       MARIUS,    SELINUS.  11 

then  one  of  their  towns.  Polichna,  perhaps, 
was  situated  at  or  near  the  modern  Kunupia. 

The  situation  of  Marius  seems  to  be  indicated 
by  the  name  of  Mari,  in  the  road  from  Gheraki 
over  the  mountain  to  Kremasti,  which  last  stands 
in  a  lofty  situation  above  the  port  of  Kypa- 
rissia.  Kato  Mari,  or  Lower  Mari,  so  called  to 
distinguish  it  from  an  upper  village  of  the  same 
name,  is  reckoned  four  hours  from  Gheraki  and 
three  from  Kremasti ;  and  four  computed  hours 
answer  very  well  to  the  hundred  stades  between 
Gercmthrce  and  Marius. 

It  is  evident,  from  the  words  of  Pausanias 
cited  above,  that  Seliniis  and  Marius  were  si- 
tuated in  different  directions  from  Geranthrse  ; 
if  Marius  lay  eastward,  therefore,  Selinus  was 
probably  to  the  northward  of  Gheraki,  on  the 
western  face  of  the  mountain.  Thus  situated, 
the  non-occurrence  of  its  name  amons:  the 
places  in  the  possession  of  the  Argives  in  the 
time  of  the  tyrant  Lycurgus  is  perfectly  ac- 
counted for.  In  the  text  of  Pausanias  the 
distance  of  Selinus  from  Geranthrse  is  only 
twenty  stades,  or  about  two  miles  and  a  half; 
but  as  such  a  proximity  is  very  improbable  in  a 
country  of  no  great  resources,  or  where,  at 
least,  the  towns  were  widely  separated,  I  am 
inclined  to  think  there  is  some  mistake  in  the 
number  of  stades,  and  that  the  remains  of  Seli- 

12  TO    PERIVOLIA.  [chap.  XXIH. 

nus,  if  any  exist,  will  be  found  nearer  the 
middle  distance  between  Gheraki  and  the  posi- 
tion of  Sellasia,  perhaps  about  Zarafona. 

March  26. — I  leave  the  southern  extremity  of 
Mistra  this  morning  at  9-50,  and,  descending  into 
the  mulberry  plantations,  ride  through  them  till 
10.15,  when,  crossing  the  northern  branch  of  the 
Tiasa,  we  enter  the  hills  on  the  other  side  of  it, — 
soon  after  cross  the  Cnacion,  Trypiotiko, — and 
at  10.45,  in  an  uncultivated  valley  watered  by 
a  little  stream,    cross  the  ruins  of  the  aque- 
duct of  Sparta,  of  which  one  of  the  piers  is  here 
standing,  lofty  and  well  built.     From  hence  we 
cross  the  range  of  hills  which,  branching  from 
Xerovuni,   as  the  part  of  the  Taygetic  range 
near  Longastra  is  called,  slopes  gradually  till  it 
terminates  at  the  northern  extremity  of  Sparta. 
At  11  descend  into  the  vale  of  the  Eurotas,  about 
four  miles  above  Sparta.     The  valley  of  the 
Eurotas,  which  is  narrow  and  appears  to  be 
often   overflowed,    is    grow^n   with    arabostari. 
Near  the  summit  of  the  steep  height  which  rises 
from  the  opposite  or  left  bank,  stands  the  vil- 
lage of  St.   John  Theologos,  at  a  distance  of 
three  miles  on  our  right.     At  11.5,  Kladha,  a 
small  zevgalati,  is  below  it  near  the  river  side. 
At  11.18  we  cross  over  some  low  hills,  leaving 
the  Eurotas  flowing  through  a  gorge   on  our 
right  \  but  in  ten  minutes  descend  again  upon 


its  right  bank,  where,  at  the  foot  of  some  steep 
heights  which  leave  only  a  narrow  path  between 
them  and  the  bank,  I  find  an  inscribed  marble 
lying  by  the  road  side.  Here  also  are  the 
foundations  of  a  Hellenic  wall  on  the  edge  of 
the  river's  bank,  and  a  little  beyond  it  some 
marks  of  the  ancient  road  in  a  rock  at  the  foot 
of  the  hill.  Above  this  spot  I  perceive  a  ca- 
vern in  the  rocks  with  two  openings,  one  of 
which  appears  to  have  been  fashioned  by  art ; 
a  little  beyond  it  there  is  a  semicircular  sepul- 
chral niche,  like  those  at  Delphi  and  other 
places.  The  peasants  call  the  place  o-tous- 
^ovpvovs^.  Skura,  a  small  zevgalati  and  tower, 
stands  on  the  heights  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  river.  Having  halted  here  ten  minutes, 
we  continue  to  follow  the  narrow  vale  of  the 
Eurotas,  the  road  passing  upon  the  foot  of  the 
hills  which  border  the  western  side  of  the  valley, 
till,  at  12.50,  we  make  our  meridian  halt  on 
the  river's  bank,  at  a  spot  where  the  ravine 
opens  into  an  extensive  valley.  Low  rocky 
eminences  here  descend  to  the  water ;  on  the 
opposite  side,  the  foot  of  a  rugged  mountain, 
crowned  by  two  peaked  rocks,  on  each  of  which 
stands  a  chapel,  is  separated  only  from  the  river 
by  a  narrow  grassy  level ;   where  the  bank  of 

3  The  Ovens. 

14  PELLANA.  [chap.   XXIII. 

the  river  for  the  length  of  200  yards  is  sup- 
ported by  a  Hellenic  wall  :  there  remain  three 
or  four  courses  of  an  irregular  species  of  ma- 
sonry, nearly  approaching  to  the  second  order. 
On  the  farther  side  of  the  meadow  some  very 
copious  sources  issue  from  the  foot  of  the  rocks, 
and  form  a  stream  which  joins  the  river  at  the 
southern  end  of  the  meadow,  where  the  wall 
ends.  The  wall  seems  to  intimate  the  site  of 
the  ancient  Pellana,  where  Pausanias  *  notices 
only  a  temple  of  ^sculapius  and  two  fountains", 
Pellanis  and  Lanceia"". 

It  may  be  worth  while  to  trace  the  route  of  the 
Greek  traveller  all  the  way  hither  from  Sparta. 
"Near  the  walls  of  that  city,"  he  says,  *'  on  the 
road  into  Arcadia,  are  a  statue  of  Minerva  Pareia, 
in  the  open  air,  and  near  it  a  temple  of  Achilles. 
Between  these  and  the  statue  of  ^do,  [Modesty,] 
which  is  thirty  stades  distant  from  the  city, 
stands  the  monument  of  the  Horse'*,  a  little  be- 
yond which  are  seven  columns,  symbolical  of 
the  seven  planets, — then  the  temenus  of  Cranius 
Stemmatias '*, — and  the  temple  of  Diana  Mysia. 
The  statue  of  ^do  is  said  to  have  been  dedi- 

*  Pausan.  Lacon.  c.  20,  21.  Heed  a  horse  and  administered 
^  Trrr/a.).  an   oath   of   alliance   to  the 
'^  AuyKilcc.  suitors  of  Helene. 
^  'iTTsof  p,v55/xa.  Tyndareus  ^  Apollo  Carneius  crown- 
was  said  to  have  here  sacri-  ed  ? 

CHAP.   XXIir.]       TOMB    OF    LAUAS.  1.5 

cated  by  Icarius,  father-in-law  of  Ulysses. 
When  Ulysses  had  set  out  from  Sparta  with  his 
bride,  Icarius  followed  his  car  to  this  place, 
entreating  his  daughter  to  return  and  live 
with  him.  Ulysses  stopped  and  gave  his  bride 
her  choice :  she  replied  only  by  throwing  her 
veil  over  her  face,  which  Icarius  taking  for  a 
negative  returned  to  Sparta.  Twenty  stades 
farther,  the  tomb  of  Ladas  is  above  the  road, 
which  here  passes  very  near  to  the  river  Eu- 
rotas.  Proceeding  towards  Pellana  occurs  the 
place  called  Characoma,  and  then  Pellana,  for- 
merly a  city.  One  hundred  stades  beyond  the 
latter  is  Belemina.  There  is  no  place  in  Laconia 
more  abundantly  supplied  with  water ;  for  be- 
sides the  Eurotas,  which  flows  near  it,  Belemina 
contains  perennial  fountains.'* 

The  tomb  of  Ladas  having  been  distant  fifty 
stades  from  Sparta,  at  a  place  where  the  road 
touched  the  bank  of  the  Eurotas,  corresponds, 
both  in  description  and  in  position,  to  the  pass 
at  11.28,  where  I  observed  marks  of  the  ancient 
road  in  the  rock,  and  above  it  a  cavern  and  se- 
pulchral niche.  The  latter  is  probably  the  tomb 
of  Ladas,  for  Pausanias  describes  it  as  being  above 
the  road  \  Unfortunately,  he  does  not  inform  us 
at  what  distance  beyond  this  point  Pellana  stood, 

16  PELLANA.  [chap.  XXIII. 

nor  on  which  bank  of  the  river.  It  may  be 
thought,  perhaps,  that  his  silence  on  this  head 
is  an  argument  that  it  was  on  the  same  bank 
on  which  he  had  described  the  preceding  ob- 
jects, namely,  the  right ;  but  on  the  other  hand,  he 
does  not  state  on  which  bank  stood  Belemina, 
the  next  place  named  by  him  after  Pellana, 
though  it  was  certainly  on  the  left.  In  the  ab- 
sence of  better  authority,  I  think  that  the  Hel- 
lenic wall  on  the  left  bank,  and  the  fountains 
answering  to  those  which  he  mentions,  are  strong 
presumptions  that  Pellana  occupied  that  po- 

At  1.37  we  move  again  : — our  road  now 
enters  an  open  country,  varied  with  small  hills, 
which  are  connected  with  the  last  slopes  of 
the  range  of  Xerovuni.  We  leave  the  river  con- 
siderably on  the  right,  flowing  near  the  foot  of 
the  heights  which  inclose  the  valley  to  the  east- 
ward, and  on  the  side  of  which,  at  1.47,  Konid- 
hitza*  is  two  miles  to  the  right,  in  direct  dis- 
tance. At  1.55,  cross  a  large  stream,  flowing 
to  the  Eurotas  from  the  mountain  on  the  left. 
Here  Demiro,  a  small  village,  is  one  mile  and  a 
half  on  the  left,  in  the  plain,  and  Kastri  three 
miles  distant  in  the  same  direction,  on  the  side 
of  the  mountain.  The  tributary  of  the  Eurotas 
descends  from  a  rocky  gorge,  half  way  between 

*  Kovj^tT^a. 


Kastri  and  Ghiorghitza,  which  last  is  situated 
on  the  face  of  an  advanced  height  of  the  range 
of  Taygetum^  in  a  very  steep  and  lofty  situation. 
The  highest  summit  of  this  part  of  the  range  is 
called  Korakolithi  (Crow-stone),  or  Malevo, 
from  the  Slavonic  Male,  mountain. 

Ghiorghitza  is  a  large  Greek  village,  standing 
among  many  gardens  and  cultivated  terraces. 
At  the  foot  of  the  same  height  is  situated  Peri- 
volia,  inhabited  by  Turks,  and  about  six  Greek 
families  ;  there  is  a  mosk,  and  the  houses  are 
prettily  dispersed  amidst  large  groves  of  the  mul- 
berry and  olive.  Here  we  arrive  at  2.15,  having 
travelled  half  an  hour  after  turning  out  of  the  di- 
rect road  to  the  left.  The  passage  of  Mount  Kora- 
kolithi is  not  difficult  from  thevillao^es  along;  its 
eastern  face  to  those  situated  in  the  upper  valleys 
of  the  river  Nedon^  which  joins  the  sea  at  Kala- 
mata.  The  best  route  in  this  season,  and  whenever 
there  is  snow,  is  from  Kastania  to  Tzitzova,  a  dis- 
tance of  three  hours  :  the  former  is  situated  be- 
hind Kastri,  the  latter  is  among  olive  woods,  on 
the  opposite  slope  of  the  mountain,  three  hours 
distant  from  Kalamata.  Trypi,  Bordhonia,  and 
Kastritzi,  Kastri,  situated  on  the  eastern  face 
of  Korakolithi,  are  all  mentioned  by  Phran- 
za,  as  having  resisted  and  been  taken  by  Ma- 
homet the  Second,  in  1460,  after  he  had  oc- 
cupied Mistra.    He  then  proceeded  against  Lon- 

VOL.  III.  c 


dari  and  Gardhiki.  The  annexed  is  a  sketch 
of  the  position  of  the  villages  on  the  Messenian 
side,  which  I  made  last  year,  from  the  descrip- 
tion of  my  janissary  Amus. 

C'/ii-or  •r//i/'/-j(e. 


•  DoJ'd/ioriM 


o  Mistrd 

(Jivoras    ) 

JO     Geo.  3[i(es, 

March  27*  At  8.30  we  move  from  Perivolia 
through  the  midberry  grounds,  with  which  the 
village  is  surrounded  for  a  great  distance,  and 
proceed  obliquely,  to  regain  the  main  route. 
At  9.4,  a  little  beyond  a  small  kalyvia  of  Ghi- 
orghitza,  pass  a  fine  Kefalo-vrysi,  or  source  of 
water,  issuing  from  the  foot  of  the  rocks,  and 
running  rapidly  down  towards  the  Eurotas,  which 
is  here  called  Iri.  Behind  this  kalyvia  there  are 
some  remains  of  the  walls  of  a  Hellenic  city, 


probably  those  of  -^gys.  The  entire  valley  I 
conceive  to  have  formed  the  Laconic  Tripolis, 
which  bordered  on  the  Megalopolitis  %  and  of 
which  one  of  the  cities  was  Pellana".  The 
other  two  were  probably  ^gys  and  Belemina. 
We  enter  some  low  hiJls,  among  which  are  plant- 
ations of  mulberry  trees,  belonging  to  Ghior- 
ghitza.  At  9.30  cross  another  tributary  of 
the  Eurotas.  At  9.42  pass  another  copious 
Kefalo-vrysi,  where  are  some  ancient  squared 
blocks,  and  a  small  piece  of  foundation  in 
its  place,  on  the  edge  of  the  spring ;  here 
are  the  ruins  of  a  khan.  We  now  begin  to  as- 
cend some  rocky  heights,  and,  having  attained 
the  summit,  cross  a  stony  plain,  and  then  pass 
over  steep  hills  of  no  great  height,  covered  with 
shrubs.  The  Euroias  is  concealed  at  some  dis- 
tance to  the  right  in  a  deep  glen,  between  the 
two  ranges  of  hills  which  before  inclosed  a  broad 
valley,  but  are  now  separated  only  by  the  river. 
Those  on  the  eastern  side  form,  as  I  conceive,  the 
district  anciently  called  Sciritis.  Kolina,  which  is 
situated  among  them,  may  be  the  site  of  lum,  or 
the  town  of  the  latae,  mentioned  by  Xenophon". 
At  10.3.5,  on  a  summit  which  rises  from  the 
right  bank  of  the  river,  we  arrive  at  a  Derveni- 
house  in  ruins,  and  descend  into  a  narrow  val- 

a  Liv.  1.  35.  c.  27.  =  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  G,  c.  .'5. 

^  Polyb.  1.  4.  c.  «1. 

C  2 


ley,  watered  by  a  stream  from  the  mountains  on 
our  left,  where,  on  the  slope,  in  a  situation 
similar  to  that  of  Ghiorghitza  and  Kastri,  is 
Longaniko,  another  large  Greek  village.  The 
part  of  the  Taygetic  range  above  it  is  well 
wooded  with  oak  on  the  middle  slopes,  and  with 
fir  towards  the  summit.  The  lower  parts  are 
covered  with  plantations  of  the  vine  and  mul- 
berry, belonging  to  Longaniko  and  Petrina.  We 
descend  along  the  right  bank  of  the  aforesaid 
stream,  and  at  10.50  cross  it  a  little  above  its 
junction  with  the  Eurotas,  which  now  flows 
along  the  western  side  of  Mount  Khelmos,  in 
a  small  valley  grown  with  mulberries,  belonging 
to  Longaniko.  Below  its  junction  with  the  Lon- 
ganiko stream,  the  Eurotas  turns  to  the  south- 
east. In  the  gorge  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river, 
on  the  foot  of  Khelmos,  I  see  Ai  Irini  ^  a  me- 
tokhi  of  the  monastery  of  Saint  Nicholas,  behind 
which,  as  I  was  informed  at  Tripolitza  by  Kyr 
lanataki,  who  is  a  native  of  Ghiorghitza,  there 
are  some  Hellenic  ruins  ;  it  is  said  also,  that 
there  are  vestiges  of  a  Hellenic  fortress  on 
the  summit  of  Khelmos,  probably  part  of  the 
same  ancient  city.  Though  I  cannot  perceive 
any  of  these  remains  of  antiquity,  I  have  no 
doubt  of  the  correctness  of  the  information,  or 
that  the  ruins  are  those  of  Belemina ;  the  dis- 


tance  we  have  travelled  from  the  remains  of 
Pellana  agreeing  very  well  with  the  100  stades 
which  Pausanias  places  between  the  two  towns. 

Khelmos''  is  a  beautiful  round  hill,  covered 
above  with  groves  ofoak,  prinari,  wild  olive,  and  a 
variety  of  shrubs,  and  adorned  below  with  some 
open  lawns  of  pasture,  mixed  with  cultivated 

It  is  said  that  Captain  Nicetas  and  the  only 
remaining  body  of  the  Kleftes,  amounting  to 
forty,  (a  favourite  number,  and  meaning  little 
more  than  the  English  word  *'  several  **,) 
came  the  other  day  to  the  village  of  Petrina, 
and  received  bread  from  one  of  the  inhabitants, 
who,  in  course,  was  obliged  to  join  them,  or  at 
least  to  fly,  as  his  head,  by  the  Pasha's  order,  was 
by  this  action  forfeited.  The  thieves  went  after- 
wards into  the  mountain  on  the  west  of  Londari, 
where  they  were  attacked  by  their  pursuers,  and 
two  or  three  persons  were  killed  in  the  action. 
They  have  since  retired  to  Mani,  and  are  fol- 
lowed by  a  body  of  the  Pasha's  men,  and  about 
400  armed  Greeks  from  the  vilayeti  of  Londari. 

After  losing  eight  minutes,  we  pass  up  the 
valley  of  the  EurotaSy  and  cross  tliat  river  at 
11.18,  a  little  below  a  spot  where  it  receives 
two  other  streams,  one  flowing  from  the  part  of 
the  mountain  between  Longaniko  and  Petrina, 
another   from    the    northward,    from    the    hills 

22  SOURCE    OF    EUROTAS.         [CHAr.  XXIII. 

which  connect  the  mountains  Khelmos  and 
TziinbariV.  The  junction  of  these  three  streams 
I  conceive  to  have  been  the  position  of  the  Her- 
maeum,  near  Belemina,  which  marked  the  boun- 
dary of  Laconia  towards  the  Megalopolitis,  as 
the  Hermge  on  Mount  Parnon  marked  its  limits 
on  the  side  of  the  Tegeatis  and  Argeia ;  for 
Pausanias  describes  the  former  Hermgeum  as 
being  "near  Belemina"",  and  adds  that  the  Ar- 
cadians pretended  that  Belemina  had  once  be- 
longed to  them,  a  circumstance  which,  no  less 
than  the  former  expression,  tends  to  shew  that  the 
Hermaeum  was  not  far  from  that  city.  The 
principal  branch  of  the  Eurotas,  or  that  which 
we  crossed,  comes  from  the  eastward,  down  a 
valley  on  the  northern  side  of  Mount  Khelmos. 
"We  enter  this  valley,  and  soon  after,  re-crossing 
the  river,  halt  at  11.38  at  a  mill,  five  minutes 
above  which,  a  stream  of  water  issues  from  the 
foot  of  the  rocky  mountain  on  the  northern 
side  of  the  valley.  This  is  the  main  source  of 
the  Iri,  or  Eurotas.  It  is  immediately  joined 
by  a  rivulet,  from  the  head  of  the  valley  to  the 
eastward,  which  in  summer  is  very  scanty,  if 
not  entirely  dry.  Two  miles  on  this  side  of 
Londari  is  the  source  of  the  Kutufarina  stream, 
the  most  distant  south-eastern  tributary  of  the 
Alpheius  ;  in  summer  it  is  dry,  and  even  at  the 
source  water  can  only  be  had  by  sinking  jars  in 


the  ground,  which,  after  some  time,  become 
filled.  The  most  distant  south-western  tributary 
of  the  Alpheius,  as  I  have  before  stated,  rises 
at  the  village  of  Ghianeus,  or  Ianeus%  two  hours 
above  Londari,  in  the  mountain  which  lies  be- 
tween the  summits  Makryplai  and  Korakolithi. 
The  river  of  Ghianeus,  joined  by  some  smaller 
streams,  flows  through  a  valley,  included  be- 
tween Makryplai  and  the  mountain  above  Lon- 
dari, leaves  Londari  on  the  right,  and  joins  the 
other  branches  of  the  illpheius  in  the  plain  be- 
fore that  town.  I  found  a  man  of  Ghianeus  at 
the  mill  near  the  sources  of  the  Eurotas,  who 
told  me  that  the  springs  of  Ghianeus  are  very 
copious,  and  that  they  do  not  fail  in  summer. 
This  man  had  fled  from  his  village  on  account 
of  the  excesses  committed  by  the  Turks  who 
are  in  pursuit  of  the  thieves.  I  have  already 
had  occasion  to  remark,  that  the  river  of  Ghia- 
neus is  probably  the  Gatlieaies^  and  the  Kutu- 
farina  the  Theiiis. 

Quitting  the  mill  at  12.23,  we  once  more 
cross  the  Eurotas,  and,  leaving  the  great  sources 
at  the  foot  of  the  northern  mountain,  follow  the 
left  bank  of  the  torrent  or  smaller  stream  from 
the  eastward,  until,  having  again  crossed  it,  we 
leave  it  issuing  from  a  narrow  vale  on  the  right, 
and  ascend  the  hills  which  connect  Khelmos 
with  Tzimbaru.      At  the  village  of  Kutzinu ", 

24  BAHBITZA.  [chap.  XXIII. 

where,  among  many  ruins,  are  a  few  inhabited 
huts,  we  leave  the  road  to  Gardhiki  on  the  left, 
and  follow  the  summits  of  the  heights  until  we 
pass  over  a  part  of  the  rocky  ridge  of  Mount 
Tzimbaru,  and  see,  two  miles  on  the  right,  the 
large  monastery  of  Ai  Nikola  *,  not  far  from  the 
village  of  Kaltezia.  After  winding  among  the 
rocky  heights,  and  passing  over  a  small  elevated 
plain,  we  begin  to  descend  towards  the  plain 
which  extends  to  Frango-vrysi. — At  2.48  enter 
the  plain  near  the  small  hamlet  of  Kotrobutzia  : 
this  remains  a  quarter  of  a  mile  on  the  right, 
and  the  village  of  Papari,  at  the  foot  of  Mount 
Tzimbaru,  a  mile  on  the  left, — then  crossing 
the  plain  so  as  to  leave  the  marsh  which  is  at 
the  foot  of  Mount  Tzimbaru  a  mile  on  the  left, 
we  enter  some  low  hills  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
plain  towards  the  mountains  of  the  Tegeatis ; 
and  in  a  hollow  among  steeper  heights  arrive,  at 
3j,  at  the  tjiftlik  of  Barbitza,  composed  of  a 
few  miserable  huts  with  two  Turkish  pyrghi. 
In  one  of  these  I  procure  a  very  tolerable  lodg- 
ing, and  not  an  unwelcome  one,  as  the  rain  has 
fallen  at  intervals  all  day,  with  fog  and  cold,  a 
common  condition  of  the  Arcadian  climate  at 
this  season.  The  pace  of  our  agoyatic  horses 
yesterday  and  to-day  has  been  much  less  than 
the  ordinary  pace  of  my  horse. 

On  quitting  Laconia,  and  especially  on  quit- 


ting  it  by  one  of  its  northern  passes,  one  cannot 
help  reflecting  how  much  the  former  destiny  of 
this  province  of  Greece,  Hke  that  of  most  other 
countries,  depended  upon  its  geographical  struc- 
ture and  position.  Those  natural  barriers  which 
marked  the  limits  of  the  several  states  of  ancient 
Greece,  and  which  were  the  real  origin  of  the 
division  of  that  country  into  many  small  inde- 
pendent states,  from  whence  arose  all  the  good 
and  bad  effects  resulting  from  the  consequent 
spirit  of  jealousy  and  rivalship,  are  no  where 
more  remarkable  than  in  the  Laconice.  The 
rugged  sea-coast,  which  forms  three-fourths  of 
its  outline,  combined  with  the  steepness,  height, 
and  continuity  of  the  mountains  on  the  land 
side,  gave  it  that  security  from  hostile  invasion 
which  Euripides*  characterized  by  the  words 
Bva€i(T/3o\os  iroXefjbLoiSy  and  which  made  even 
Epaminondas,  after  the  battle  of  Leuctra,  hesi- 
tate to  invade  it,  although  urged  by  the  Arca- 
dians, the  men  best  able  to  shew  how  the  diffi- 
culties were  to  be  surmounted ''.  It  is  to  the 
strength  of  the  frontiers  and  the  comparatively 
large  extent  of  country  inclosed  within  them, 
that  we  must  trace  the  primary  cause  of  the 

"   Ap.  Struboil.   p.  366.  Ol  Trfp*  tov  'E7irccu.nujvda.i/  o^w^tej 

^  Oi  ©viS'a'roi  movov  ixlv  rocvTcx.,  t^"  Tii-  AaxE^at^oi-iwv  X'^^'^^  '^'^o" 

uinsXuyi^oi/TO  SI   on  o-jcrtj/.'ooXnt:-  fk(7te o^ov  ovaxv,       DlOUor.  1.  15. 

'raT»)    *)    Aa,y.!iiviy.ri    ihiyn  o    tlnc/.i.  c_   (j3. 

Xcnoph.  Hclleii.   1.  5.    c.  5. 

26  LACONIA.  [chap.  XXIII. 

Lacedosmonian  power.  These  enabled  the  peo- 
ple, when  strengthened  by  a  rigid  military  dis- 
cipline, and  put  in  motion  by  an  ambitious  and 
exclusive  spirit,  first  to  triumph  over  their 
weaker  neighbours  of  Messenia,  by  this  addi- 
tional strength  to  overawe  the  disunited  repub- 
lics of  Arcadia,  and  at  length  for  centuries  to 
hold  an  acknowledged  military  superiority  over 
every  other  state  in  Greece. 

It  is  remarkable,  that  all  the  principal  passes 
into  Laconia  lead  to  one  point.  This  point  is 
Sparta,  a  fact  which  shews  at  once  how  well  the 
position  of  that  city  was  chosen  for  the  defence 
of  the  province,  and  how  well  it  was  adapted, 
especially  as  long  as  it  continued  to  be  un- 
walled,  to  maintain  a  perpetual  vigilance  and 
readiness  for  defence,  which  are  the  surest  means 
of  offensive  success. 

The  natural  openings  into  the  plain  of  Sparta 
are  only  two :  one  by  the  upper  Eurotas,  as  the 
course  of  that  river  above  Sparta  may  be  termed, 
the  other  by  its  only  large  branch  the  Qiinus,  now 
the  Kelefina.  which,  as  I  have  already  stated, 
joins  the  Eurotas  opposite  to  the  north-eastern 
extremity  of  Sparta.  All  the  natural  approaches 
to  Sparta  from  the  northward  lead  to  the  one  or 
the  other  of  these  two  valleys.  On  the  side  of 
Messenia  the  northerly  prolongation  of  Mount 
Taygetum,  which  joins  Mount  Lycaeum  at  the 


pass  of  Andania,  now  the  pass  of  Makryplai, 
furnishes  a  continued  barrier  of  the  loftiest 
kind,  admitting  only  of  routes  easily  defensible, 
and  which,  whether  from  the  Cromitis  of  Arcadia 
to  the  south-westward  of  the  modern  Londari, 
from  the  Stenycleric  plain,  from  the  plain  of  the 
Pamisus,  or  from  Pharae,  now  Kalamata,  all  de- 
scend into  the  valley  of  the  upper  Eurotas,  and 
conduct  to  Sparta  by  Pellana.  There  was  in- 
deed a  branch  of  the  last-mentioned  route  which 
descended  into  the  Spartan  plain  at  the  modern 
Mistra ;  and  which  must  hav^e  been  a  very 
frequented  communication  between  Sparta  and 
the  lower  part  of  Messenia  ;  but,  like  the  other 
direct  passes  over  Taygetum,  it  was  much  more 
difficult  and  defensible  than  those  which  I  have 
called  the  natural  entrances  of  the  province. 
The  castle  of  Mistra  is  an  admirable  post  for 
the  protection  of  this  entrance  into  the  Lace- 
daemonian valley,  though  we  hear  nothing  of  it 
in  history,  probably  because  the  military  as- 
cendancy of  tiie  Spartans  seldom  left  them  any 
thing  to  fear  on  the  side  of  Messenia. 

From  the  south-eastern  branch  of  the  plain 
of  Megalopolis,  which  is  watered  by  the  Theius, 
as  well  as  from  the  vale  of  Asea,  the  routes 
passed  by  the  foot  of  Mount  Bclemina,  which 
thus  became  an  important  frontier  fortress 
in  that  quarter ;  after  having  passed  Belemina, 

28  SCIRTTIS.  [chap.  XXIII. 

the  road  led,  like  those  from  the  Cromitis  and 
from  Messenia,  to  the  pass  of  Pellana.  Towards 
the-Tegeatice  and  Thyreatis,  the  routes  after 
crossing,  in  the  former  direction  the  rugged  and 
barren  country  which  unites  Mount  Farnon  with 
the  hills  bordering  the  left  bank  of  the  upper 
Eurotas,  and  in  the  latter  the  steep  and  lofty 
recesses  of"  Parnon,  united  on  the  CEnus  near 
Sellasia.  Thus  Sellasia  was  an  outwork  of  Sparta 
towards  the  Tegeatis  and  Argolis,  Pellana  towards 
the  Megalopolitis  and  Messenia. 

There  was  an  important  district  in  the  north- 
ern part  of  Laconia  which  Pausanias  has  not 
noticed,  although  it  gave  name  to  one  of  the 
most  distinguished  bodies  of  the  Lacedaemonian 
army,  and  was  an  important  part  of  the  Laconic 
frontier  on  the  side  of  Arcadia ;  its  name  was 
Sciritis  *.  It  consisted  of  the  rugged  and  bar- 
ren hills  rising  in  one  point  to  a  considerable 
height,  which  occupy  the  triangular  space  con- 
tained between  the  upper  Eurotas  westward 
and  the  passes  eastward,  through  which  leads 
the  direct  road  from  Tegea  to  Sparta  by  the 
modern  Krya  Vrysi,  Stenuri,  and  Krevata  Khan, 
the  apex  of  the  triangle  being  near  Sparta  and 
the  base  towards  the  valleys  of  Asea  and 

-  Thucyd.  1.  5.  c.  33,  67-  Hellen.  1.  5.  c.  2.— 1.  6.  c.  5. 
— Xen.  Inst.   Cyr.  1.  4.  c.  2.      —1.  7-  c.  4. 


Diodorus  *,  in  describing  the  celebrated  inva- 
sion of  Laconia  by  Epaminondas,  when  Sparta 
was  insulted  for  the  first  time  by  the  presence 
of  a  foreign  enemy,  says,  that  the  invaders  di- 
vided their  army  into  four  bodies,  which  were 
ordered  to  march  by  four  different  routes  and 
to  meet  at  Sellasia ;  the  Argives  by  the  direct 
road  from  Argos  to  that  place,  that  is  to  say, 
through  the  Thyreatis  ;  the  second  by  the 
passes  leading  from  Tegea  to  Sparta,  or  the  mo- 
dern road  by  the  Krya  Vrysi  and  Stenuri  of 
Arakhova ;  the  third  by  Sciritis  ;  and  the  fourth, 
consisting  of  the  Eleians,  by  valleys  of  easy  ac- 
cess which  had  been  left  without  defence.  The 
historian  omits  to  specify  more  particularly  the 
route  of  the  Eleians ;  but  as  the  direct  road  from 
Elis  to  Sparta  ascended  the  valley  of  the  Al- 
pheius  near  Olympia  to  the  sources  of  its 
branch  the  Theius,  and  from  thence  descended 
the  Eurotas ;  as  this  was  the  only  principal  en- 
trance into  the  Laconice  remaining  to  be  named 
by  the  historian  ;  and  as  it  is  naturally  the 
easiest,  and  would  present  little  difficulty  when 
not  defended  at  Belemina  and  Pellana,  it  seems 
evidently  to  have  been  the  route  of  the  Eleians. 
The  Sciritis,  we  may  safely  conclude  therefore, 
was  the    rugged    district  which    I   have   men- 

*  Diodor.  1.  15.  c.  64. 

so  SCIRITIS.  [chap.  XXIII. 

tioned ;  a  conspicuous  hill,  its  highest  point, 
which  I  have  before  had  occasion  to  remark  as 
being  near  the  modern  village  of  Kolina,  seems 
the  most  probable  site  of  the  fortress  lum, 
which  Xenophon,  in  relating  the  same  events, 
shews  to  have  been  the  most  important  place  in 
Sciritis.  The  latter  historian  is  less  particular 
than  Diodorus  in  the  details  of  this  famous  in- 
vasion, though  the  same  inference  in  regard  to 
Sciritis  may  be  deduced  from  the  one  as  from 
the  other.  Xenophon  speaks  only  of  one  body, 
separate  from  the  army  of  the  Thebans  and  their 
allies,  namely,  that  of  the  Arcadians,  who,  he 
tells  us,  marched  into  Laconia  by  the  Sciritis  : 
he  makes  no  mention  of  the  two  routes  by 
which  the  Argives  and  the  Eleians  are  said,  by 
Diodorus,  to  have  invaded  the  country ;  but, 
having  stated  that  the  Thebans  had  arrived  at 
Mantineia  previously  to  their  movement  towards 
Sparta,  adds  that  they  entered  Laconice  by  the 
way  of  Caryge  ;  that  the  I^acedsemonians  in  Sci- 
ritis would  have  opposed  the  invaders  more  ef- 
fectually by  occupying  the  passes  leading  to 
Caryae  than  by  defending  the  Sciritis ;  and  that 
the  two  divisions  of  the  invading  army,  having 
met  at  Caryae,  proceeded  from  thence  to  take 
and  destroy  Sellasia.  In  saying  that  the  Arca- 
dians who  marched  through  the  Sciritis  joined 
the  Boeotians  from  the  Tegeatice  at  Caryae,  he 

CHAP.  XXIII.]  EUT^A.  31 

seems  to  me  not  only  to  concur  with  the  other 
authorities  as  to  the  situation  of  the  Sciritis,  but 
to  confirm  also  what  has  already  been  stated 
as  to  the  relative  positions  of  Carya;  and  Sel- 

March  28.  The  waters  in  the  valley  of  Bar- 
bitza  make  a  circuit  of  the  heights,  and  flow  into 
the  valto  or  marsh  which  occupies  the  middle  of 
the  plain,  and  extends  to  the  foot  of  Mount 
Tzimbaru.  I  ride  this  morning,  in  a  quarter  of 
an  hour,  from  Barbitza  to  Paputzi',  another 
tjiftlik  with  a  pyrgo,  belonging  to  an  aga  of 
Tripolitza,  but  smaller  than  Barbitza.  In  both 
places  I  purchase  several  good  coins  from  the 
peasants.  I  was  told  at  Paputzi  that  Barbitza  was 
the  site  of  a  large  Paleo-khora,  or  ancient  town, 
and  the  form  of  the  hills  above  it,  with  flat  rocky 
summits,  countenances  the  supposition,  though  I 
could  not  perceive  any  remains  of  buildings.  As 
to  the  coins,  it  was  stated  that  the  greater  part 
had  been  found  not  at  Barbitza,  but  in  the  fields 
near  Frango-vrysi.  The  tradition  as  to  Barbitza 
however,  is  not  to  be  overlooked,  when  coupled 
with  the  strong  probability  of  this  having  been 
the  position  of  the  town,  which  possessed  the 
south-eastern  side  of  the  basin,  of  which  the 
northern  part  belonged  to  Asea.  I  am  inclined 
to  place  the  ancient  Eutaea  at  Barbitza.     That 

SS  EUT^Av  [chap.  XXIII. 

Eutaea  could  not  have  been  at  any  great  distance 
from  this  situation,  seems  evident  from  Xeno- 
phon  *.  When  the  Mantinenses,  taking  advan- 
tage of  the  effects  of  the  defeat  of  the  Lacedae- 
monians at  Leuctra,  were  rebuilding  their  walls, 
Agesilaus,  king  of  Sparta,  having  in  vain  en- 
deavoured to  persuade  them  to  desist,  and  ir- 
ritated moreover  at  the  assistance  which  they 
were  giving  at  the  same  moment  to  the  party 
opposed  to  the  interests  of  Sparta  at  Tegea, 
marched  into  the  Mantinice,  at  the  head  of  his 
Lacedaemonians,  in  conjunction  with  some  Ar- 
cadians who  had  not  joined  the  Arcadic  league, 
formed  after  the  battle  of  Leuctra.  Agesilaus, 
marching  from  Sparta,  first  took  possession  of 
Eutaea,  a  town  on  the  frontier  ^ ;  here  he  learnt 
that  all  the  combatants  of  the  place  had  gone 
to  A  sea,  to  join  the  other  Arcadians,  who  were 
there  assembling,  for  the  purpose  of  assisting 
the  Mantinenses.  The  next  day  he  marched 
to  Tegea,  and  on  the  following,  entering  the 
Mantinice,  assumed  a  position  under  the  moun- 
tains, to  the  w^estward  of  Mantineia.  The  Ar- 
cadians from  Asea  followed  the  same  route,  and 
joined  the  Mantinenses,  Agesilaus  not  having 
thought  it  prudent  to  interrupt  them.  After 
remaining  five  days  in  the  Mantinice,  Agesilaus, 
finding  that  the  enemy  were  determined  not  to 

^  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1,  6.  c.  5.  ^  Tr^Aiy  o^o^o-). 

CHAP.    XXIII.]  EUT^A.  33 

engage,  began  early  on  the  morning  of  the  sixth, 
after  breakfast  \  to  draw  off  his  army  from  his 
position  in  the  plain  before  the  city,  to  that 
which  he  had  assumed  on  his  first  arrival ; 
when,  none  of  the  Arcadians  appearing,  he 
proceeded  with  all  speed  to  Eutaa,  where  he 
arrived  late  at  night".  It  is  clear  that  Age- 
silaus,  in  advancing  from  Sparta,  on  tliis  oc- 
casion, did  not  follow  the  direct  road  to  Te- 
gea,  by  Phylace,  none  of  the  known  places 
on  that  road  being  mentioned  by  the  historian ; 
he  must  therefore  have  passed  the  Laconic 
frontier,  either  in  the  Beleminatis  or  Sciritis, 
in  either  case  entering  the  basin  which  lies  to 
the  northward  and  eastward  of  Mount  Tzim- 
baru.  Eutasa  consequently  stood  in  this 
valley,  not  far  from  the  Laconic  frontier,  and 
not  far  also  from  Asea,  as  appears  both  from  the 
circumstance  concerning  its  combatants  men- 
tioned by  the  historian,  and  from  Eutsea  having 
been  included  with  Asea  in  the  division  of  Ar- 
cadia called  Msenalia  ".  The  position  of  Bar- 
bitza  is  exactly  conformable  to  these  premises ; 
and  its  distance  from  Mantineia,  which  is  about 
twenty-two  English  miles  by  the  road,  corre- 
sponds perfectly  with  the  circumstances  of  the 
retreat  of  Agesilaus. 

*  •rrjwi  agK7T07ro4>;<7"«p,jio?.  *^  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  27. 

VOL.   III.  D 

34  TEMPLE    OF    SOTEIRA.      [cHAP.  XXIII. 

I  leave  Paputzi  at  8,  and  proceeding  among  the 
low  heights  which  are  the  termination  of  the  moun- 
tains on  the  east,  soon  perceive  the  Paleo-kastro 
of  Frangovrysi  through  an  opening  in  these  hills. 

Leaving  the  fountain  and  khan  of  Frangovrysi 
about  a  mile  on  the  left,  and  taking  a  road  to 
the  right  of  that  by  which  I  approached  Tri- 
politza  last  year,  we  continue  to  skirt  the 
hills  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  valley,  until  we 
ascend  them,  after  having  halted  five  minutes 
in  the  plain.  At  9.7  arrive  at  the  summit  of 
the  pass  of  Mount  Kravari,  from  whence  the 
road  begins  to  descend  towards  the  plains  of 
Pallantium  and  Tegea.  The  pass  is  a  natural 
opening  in  the  rocky  heights  of  the  mountain. 
Just  in  this  spot,  by  the  road  side,  I  find  the 
ruins  of  a  temple,  of  which  the  foundations 
still  remain,  together  with  several  fragments  of 
Doric  columns,  formed  of  the  same  rock  as  the 
mountain  itself.  Some  of  the  flutings  measure 
three  inches  and  two-thirds,  some  four  inches. 
Of  the  diameter  of  the  column  I  could  not  ob- 
tain a  good  measurement.  There  cannot,  I 
think,  be  any  doubt  that  these  are  remains 
of  the  temple  said  to  have  been  dedicated 
by  Ulysses  to  Minerva  Soteira  and  Neptune, 
after  his  return  home  from  Troy ;  for  Pau- 
sanias  describes  it  as  situated  on  the  summit 
of  Mount   Boreium,    in    the    road  from   Asea 


to  the  Choma,  or  Dyke,  where  the  road  to 
Pallantium  diverged  from  that  of  Tegea.  Even 
without  the  existence  of  the  temple,  the  natural 
pass  would  be  sufficient  to  assure  us  that  the 
ancient  road  crossed  the  mountain  exactly  in 
this  spot.  The  description  of  Pausanias  seems 
to  shew,  that  the  temple  was  nearly  in  the  same 
condition  in  his  time  as  it  is  now:  the  secluded 
situation,  which  has  been  little  frequented  as  a 
road  since  Tripolitza  became  the  chief  town  in 
this  part  of  the  Morea,  has  probably  tended  to 
preserve  the  remains. 

At  9.18  descend  from  the  temple  of  Soteira^ 
through  a  ravine  of  Mount  Boreium,  into  a  part 
of  the  plain  of  Pallantium^  about  a  mile  to  the 
left  of  the  Katavothra  of  the  Taki,  and  over 
against  the  village  of  Birbati,  which  stands  on 
the  side  of  the  rocky  ridge  of  Thana.  In  the 
descent  I  left  another  ravine  on  the  right  at  9|^, 
along  which  ascends  the  road  to  Manari,  a 
small  village,  not  far  distant.  On  the  opposite 
side  of  the  Taki,  on  the  face  of  the  mountain, 
appears  the  large  village  of  Kerasia.  After 
crossing  the  plain  of  Pallantium  we  mount  the 
heights  of  Thana,  and  at  10.25,  leaving  that 
village  half  a  mile  on  the  right,  on  the  summit 
of  the  ridge,  descend  into  the  great  plain,  and 
enter  Tripolitza  by  the  Mistra  Gate.  The  plain 
was  very  muddy  and  rugged,   and  the  paved 

D  2 


road  over  it  execrable.  It  is  said  that  many- 
ancient  coins  are  found  at  Thana ;  if  this  be 
correct,  it  seems  to  indicate  that  it  was  the  site 
of  Pallanthim, 

The  head  of  Nicetas  is  brought  in  to-day,  and 
exhibited  at  the  tree  at  the  Serai,  with  another 
head,  and  an  arm.  They  belonged  to  some 
robbers  who  were  lately  killed  at  the  mills  be- 
hind  Kalamata,  when  others,  to  the  number  of 
twenty,  escaped  to  Mani ;  a  servant  of  Nicetas 
was  brought  in  alive. 

It  would  require  a  minute  examination  of  the 
locality  in  different  seasons  of  the  year,  either  to 
verify  or  to  contradict,  with  certainty,  the  de- 
scription which  Strabo  and  Pausanias  have  given 
of  the  singularities  attending  the  origin  and  in- 
cipient course  of  the  rivers  Alpheius  and  Eurotas; 
I  regret  extremely,  therefore,  that  I  have  had  no 
opportunity  of  examining  the  plains  of  Aseaand 
Tegea  in  the  middle  of  summer,  when  the  di- 
rection of  the  waters  through  the  marshes,  and 
the  structure  of  the  katavothra  might  have  been 
apparent ;  I  have  little  doubt,  however,  that  a 
part  of  the  ancient  belief  respecting  these  rivers 
was  erroneous.  Strabo  ^  says,  "  The  Alpheius 
and  Eurotas  flow  from  the  same  place  ;  it  is  a 
town  "  of  the  Megalopolitis,  called  Asea,  where 
are  two  fountains  near  each  other  :  from  these 
"  Strabo,  p.  343.  *>  KUjArt. 


issue  the  two  rivers,  which,  passing  underground 
for  a  distance  of  several  stades,  re-appear  again, 
and  flow,  the  one  to  the  Laconice,  the  other  to 
the  Pisatis.  The.  Eurotas  renews  its  stream  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Bleminatis,  passes  by  Spar- 
ta, and  then  through  a  long  narrow  valley,  to- 
wards that  Helos  of  which  the  poet  speaks  ;  it 
there  falls  into  the  sea,  between  Gythium,  which 
is  the  port  of  Sparta,  and  Acrise.  The  Alpheius, 
after  receiving  the  Ladon  and  Erymanthus,  and 
others  of  smaller  note,  passes  by  Phrixa,  and 
through  the  Pisatis  and  Triphylia,  and  by  Olym- 
pia,  and  falls  into  the  Sicilian  sea,  between  Pheia 
and  Pitane '." 

The  words  of  Pausanias  ^  are  these,  "  The 
Alpheius  is  of  a  very  different  nature  from  other 
rivers,  for  it  often  conceals  itself  in  the  earth, 
and  rises  again.  First  of  all,  flowing  from  Phy- 
lace  and  the  Symbola,  it  descends  under  ground 
to  the  Tegeatic  plain  ' ;  then,  breaking  forth 
again  in  the  Assea,  it  mixes  its  waters  with 
those  of  the  Eurotas.  After  having  been 
again  concealed  by  a  subterraneous  channel, 
it  once  more  emerges  in  the  place  which   the 

'  An  error  perhaps  for  Epi-  some  imperfection  or  omission 

talium.  ^^^"^^   ^"   t^^^    ^^''^^    ^^^    *^® 

•^  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  54.  words    do   not  correctly   de- 

•^  fj  TO  TEoi'cv  KUT-ov  TO  Tf/i-  scribe  the  reality. 

cc-TtKov.      There   is,  perhaps. 


Arcadians  call  Pegae  %  [the  Fountains]  :  from 
thence,  passing  through  the  Pisaean  land,  and 
by  Olympia,  it  joins  the  sea  towards  ^  Cyl- 
lene,  the  port  of  the  Eleii.  Nor  does  the  agi- 
tation of  the  Adriatic  impede  its  course,  but 
flowing  through  this  great  and  tempestuous 
sea,  it  reaches  the  island  Ortygia,  and  pre- 
serving its  name  Alpheius,  is  there  mixed 
with  the  fountain  Arethusa.'*  In  describing 
the  road  from  Megalopolis  to  Tegea "  the  same 
traveller  thus  again  speaks  of  the  head  of  this 
river:  "The  source  of  the  Alpheius  is  not  more 
than  five  stades  distant  from  Asea,  and  is  not 
far  from  the  road  '':  that  of  the  Eurotas  is  by 
the  road-side  ^  The  water  of  the  Eurotas  mixes 
with  that  of  the  Alpheius,  and  they  flow  together 
in  a  common  channel  for  nearly  twenty  stades, 
after  which  they  pass  through  a  subterraneous 
chasm,  and  emerge  again,  the  Eurotas  in  the 
Laconice,  the  Alpheius  at  the  fountains'^  in  the 

It  is  singular  that  Pausanias,  who  delighted 
so  much  in  Greek  superstition,  has  not  taken 
any  notice  of  a  fable,  relating  to  the  common 
origin  of  the  two  rivers,  which  is  reported  by 
Strabo ;  namely,  that  if  two  chaplets,  dedicated 

=*  n^yc/.t :  Uoiyui  niorc  pro- 

'■  Pausan.  A  read.  c.  44. 

"    0\ty0V   OiTTO  T??    ooov. 

CHAP.   XXIII.]       ALPHEIUS    AND    EUROTAS.  39 

to  the  Alpheius  and  Eurotas,  were  thrown  into 
the  stream  near  Asea,  each  would  re-appear 
at  the  sources  of  the  river  to  which  it  was 
destined  ^.  Though  Strabo  evidently  disbelieved 
this  story,  it  accords  exactly  with  the  assertion 
of  Pausanias,  as  to  the  union  of  the  waters  from 
the  two  fountains,  and  their  course  in  a  common 
channel.  It  accords  also  with  the  actual  state 
of  the  two  sources  at  Frangovrysi,  (in  truth 
there  are  three,)  which  form  a  single  stream 
below  the  ruins  of  Asea,  crossing  a  plain  of 
two  miles  in  breadth,  and  turning  some  mills, 
before  the  river  joins  the  marsh.  To  call  one  of 
the  branches  of  the  united  stream  the  Eurotas, 
and  the  other  the  Alpheius,  was  a  mere  effect  of 
the  Grecian  love  of  fiction  ;  but  the  assertion 
contained  in  the  latter  of  the  two  passages  of 
Pausanias  may  be  more  worthy  of  examination, 
namely,  that,  after  entering  a  chasm,  the  two 
streams  separated  in  the  body  of  the  mountain, 
one  making  its  appearance  in  the  Laconice, 
(near  Belemina,  according  to  Strabo,)  the  other 
at  the  Pegas  of  the  Megalopolitis.  To  me  it  ap- 
peared that  there  is  (as  Pausanias  indicates)  only 
one  chasm  or  katavothra  at  the  eastern  foot  of 

il-KoQ^^V/iOV     UaViV   0\J/£    TTOTE   10V    T£  TO    V.OiMOV   pBVy.Cl   CCtOi-^OclyiTVA  X.OtTOt 

'E.vpunav  y.ot-i  rov  AX^etov  avcto^-  tov  £7ri^»)jM,K7f<.oi/  iKccTfpa^  ty  fji 
cutTiv,  uam  xat  'Tncrrtvdrii/ui  (/.v-  olniiui  iro'ra.fji.a.  Strabo,  p.  275. 
6&)dE(  Ti,  9Tt   T<av   iTri^rifAiirbzvniJV 

40  ALPHEIUS    AND    EUROTAS.       [CHAP.    XXIII. 

Mount  Tzimbaru,  although  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  mountain  there  are  two  copious  sources, 
which  have  the  appearance  of  emissories,  one 
contributing  largely  to  the  Alpheius,  the  other 
still  more  so  to  the  Eurotas, — the  former, 
which  is  at  Marmara,  near  Rhapsomati,  is  evi- 
dently the  ancient  Pegse,  the  latter,  which  is  at 
the  mill  to  the  northward  of  Mount  Khelmos, 
may  be  not  improperly  called  the  source  of  the 
Eurotas.  It  certainly  is  possible  that  the  united 
waters  from  the  valleys  which  contain  Papari, 
Barbitza,  and  Frangovrysi,  although  they  enter 
the  katavothra  of  Tzimbaru  in  one  stream,  may 
separate  into  two  in  the  body  of  the  mountain  ; 
but  before  credence  can  be  given  to  such  a  sin- 
gularity in  the  origin  of  two  large  rivers,  flow- 
ing afterwards  in  opposite  directions,  it  would  be 
desirable  to  examine  the  foot  of  the  mountain 
near  the  katavothra,  in  the  middle  of  summer, 
when  the  lake  is  very  low,  in  order  to  be  satisfied 
that  there  are  not  two  chasms,  one  absorbing 
the  streams  from  the  hills  around  Barbitza, 
the  other  those  from  Frangovrysi.  Such  an 
examination  cannot  be,  and  never  could  have 
been,  a  very  easy  task,  nor,  if  two  zer^ethra 
exist,  could  the  fact  have  been  very  generally 
known  to  the  ancient  Greeks,  so  that  a  fable, 
as  in  so  many  other  similar  instances,  might 
have  been  easily  propagated  upon  the  subject 


by  the  liierarchy.  I  must  repeat,  however, 
that  I  could  not  discover  any  external  appear- 
ance of  two  openings,  although  such  caverns  or 
chasms  are  generally  very  conspicuous,  and 
easily  recognized  at  a  distance.  Polybius,  a 
native  writer,  and  one  who  was  not  so  likely 
to  be  led  astray  by  fable  as  Pausanias,  seems  not 
to  have  had  any  idea  of  the  Eurotas  having 
passed  through  Mount  Tzimbaru,  but  only  the 
Alpheius.  In  criticising  an  historian  of  Rhodes, 
who  had  misrepresented  the  position  of  Lycoa, 
Polybius  says  that  the  Alpheius  had  a  subterra- 
neous course  of  ten  stades,  that,  re-appearing, 
it  then  crossed  the  Megalopolitan  territory,  a  dis- 
tance of  200  stades,  and  that  after  having  re- 
ceived the  Lusius  it  flowed  by  Lycoa ^  where 
it  was  deep  and  impassable  ^. 

As  to  the  torrent  of  Gdhani,  which,  issuing 
from  the  north-western  extremity  of  the  marsh, 
passes  through  a  gorge  in  the  ridge  of  Tzimbaru, 
and  joins  the  stream  of  Pegce  in  the  JMegalo- 
politis  near  Rhapsomati,  I  was  convinced,  both 
by  inquiries  and  actual  inspection,  that  it  had 
very  little  connection  with  the  discharge  of  the 
perennial  fountains  of  Frangovrysi,  being  no- 
thing more  than  a  torrent  which  is   dry  during 

^  Not  Lycoa,  but  Lycaea,      Chapter  X\''III. 
if  I  am  right  in  mv  remarks  ^  Truvn'hu:';  a.'^  y.x\  s^^^vj 

as  to  those  two  places.     See      (^aSvi  ?)    Polyb.  1.  l(j.  c.  I'J. 


a  great  part  of  the  year,  and  carries  off  only 
the  superficial  waters  of  the  lake  when  they  are 
at  the  highest,  being  a  bountiful  provision  of  na- 
ture to  prevent  the  whole  plain  from  being  sub- 
merged in  the  winter.  Without  denying  that 
there  are  great  singularities  in  the  two  rivers, 
the  simple  fact  seems  to  be,  that  the  highest  and 
most  distant  sources,  both  of  the  Alpheius  and 
Eurotas,  are  on  the  western  face  of  the  same 
great  summit,  anciently  called  Parnon,  and  now 
Malevo  of  St.  Peter's,  not  far  from  the  villages 
of  Vervena  and  Arakhova.  The  Alpheius  rises 
from  several  rivulets  near  the  former  place,  re- 
ceives at  the  Symbola  the  source  of  Krya  Vrysi, 
(called  by  Pausanias  the  source  of  the  Al- 
pheius,) and  under  the  modern  name  of  Sa- 
randapotamo  flows  to  a  katavothra  on  the  sou- 
thern side  of  Mount  Cresium.  It  is  probable 
that  the  spring  to  the  eastward  of  Frangovrysi, 
which  was  the  reputed  source  of  the  Alpheius,  is 
the  emissory  of  the  Saranda ;  that  the  spring 
at  the  khan  of  Frangovrysi,  or  reputed  source 
of  the  Eurotas,  is  the  emissory  of  the  stream  of 
the  Taki;  and  that  the  united  river  formed  by 
these,  together  with  a  third  rivulet  from  under 
the  walls  of  Asea,  which  probably  had  a  more 
western  origin,  having  passed  through  Mount 
Tzimbaru,  reappears  at  Marmara. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Arakhova,  on  the 


face  of  the  same  great  ridge  which  gives  rise  to 
the  most  distant  south-eastern  tributary  of  the 
Alpheius,  is  formed  the  northern  feeder  of  the 
CEnus,  or  principal  branch  of  the  Eurotas,  while 
the  waters  near  the  Stenuri  of  Arakhova,  on  the 
modern  Derveni  from  Tripolitza  to  Mistra, 
taking  a  western  direction,  constitute  the  stream 
which  unites  with  the  great  source  of  the  Eu- 
rotas at  the  mill  in  the  valley  of  Khelmos.  As 
to  that  source,  I  am  not  aware  of  any  stream 
of  which  it  can  be  the  emissory,  unless,  as  I 
have  already  hinted,  it  should  be  found  to  be 
derived  from  the  waters  about  Barbitza,  en- 
tering a  separate  katavotlira  in  the  same  plain, 
or  unless  the  singularity  of  a  separation  of  the 
river  of  Asea  in  the  body  of  the  mountain,  as 
believed  by  the  ancients,  should  prove  to  be 
true.  The  interesting  inquiry  therefore  for  fu- 
ture travellers  will  be  the  origin  of  the  sources 
at  the  mill  near  Khelmos,  the  direction  of  the 
waters  around  Barbitza,  and  the  conformation  of 
the  katavothra  of  Mount  Tzimbaru. 



Military  importance  of  Mantineia. — Approaches  to  the 
Mantinice  from  the  Isthmus. — Roads  from  Argos  to 
Mantineia. — The  Inert  plain. — Course  of  tlie  waters  in 
the  Mantinice  and  Tegeatis. — Ancient  military  occur- 
rences in  the  Mantinice  ;  particularly  the  three  battles : 
namely,  1.  In  the  Peloponnesian  war,  between  the  Argives 
and  the  Lacedaemonians  under  Agis. — 2.  That  in  which  the 
Boeotians  under  Epaminondas  were  opposed  to  the  Lace- 
daemonians and  Athenians. — 3.  Between  the  forces  of 
the  Achaian  league  under  Philopoemen  and  the  Lace- 
daemonians under  Machanidas. 

There  is  no  district  in  Greece  which  more  fre- 
quently presents  itself  to  notice  in  ancient  his- 
tory than  the  plain  of  Tripolitza.  Placed  on 
the  frontier  of  Arcadia  towards  the  Isthmus  of 
Corinth,  defended  on  that  side  by  strong  passes, 
and  occupied  by  the  two  leading  cities  of  the 
province,  it  was  by  these  circumstances  the 
chief  cause  and  support  of  the  union,  independ- 
ence, and  tranquillity  which  Arcadia  continued 
to  enjoy  until  Athens,  Thebes,  and  Sparta  hav- 
ing become  so  powerful  as  to  involve  all  Greece 
in  their  quarrels,  the  rivalry  of  Tegea  and  Man- 
tineia, which  may  have  been  of  salutary  effect 


in  the  earlier  and  better  times  of  the  confede- 
racy, tended  only  to  the  admission  of  foreign  in- 
fluence and  the  ruin  of  all  the  smaller  towns  of 

The  plain  of  Tripolitza  is  by  far  the  greatest 
of  that  cluster  of  valleys  in  the  center  of  the  Pe- 
loponnesus, each  of  which  is  so  closely  shut  in 
by  the  intersecting  mountains,  that  no  outlet  is 
afforded  to  the  waters  but  through  the  moun- 
tains themselves.  Of  these  valleys,  which  com- 
prehended the  districts  of  Stymphalus,  Pheneus, 
Alea,  Asea,  Eutaea,  Pallantium,  Tegea,  Manti- 
neia,  Orchomenus,  and  Caphyae,  those  of  the 
five  cities  last  mentioned  may  be  considered  in 
a  military  sense  to  have  formed  one  and  the 
same  plain,  the  Orchomenia  being  separated 
from  the  Mantinice  only  by  a  low  narrow  ridge. 
This  great  interior  valley  is  about  twenty-five 
English  miles  in  length  from  Caphyae  north- 
ward to  Mount  Cresium  of  the  Tegeatis  south- 
ward, with  a  breadth  varying  from  one  mile  to 
eight.  In  the  middle  of  its  length,  and  in  one 
of  the  narrowest  parts  as  to  breadth,  stood  the 
city  of  Mantineia  in  the  lowest  part  of  the 
plain,  a  position  which  shews  at  once  the  im- 
portance of  the  Mantinice  and  why  this  district 
was  so  often  the  scene  of  great  military  opera- 

There  are  three  lines  of  access  from  the  Ar- 

46  MANTINICE.  [chap.  XXIV. 

golis  into  the  Mantinico-Tegeatic  plain,  which, 
although  they  all  traverse  steep  and  lofty  ridges, 
yet  presenting  less  difficulty  than  any  other 
paths  that  can  be  chosen,  have  in  all  ages  been 
the  roads  into  that  great  interior  basin.  The 
only  other  approaches  to  Mantineia  from  the 
Isthmus  were  by  Orneae  and  Orchomenus ; 
neither  of  these  was  less  difficult  than  the  roads 
from  the  Argeia,  and  the  latter  was  very  cir- 
cuitous. The  three  roads  from  Argos  are  thus 
described  by  Pausanias  \ 

"  Besides  that  entrance  into  Arcadia  from 
the  Argeia,  which  leads  from  Hysise,  over  the 
mountain  Parthenium,  into  the  Tegeatice,  there 
are  two  roads  which  conduct  to  Mantineia,  one 
by  Prinus  and  the  other  by  Climax  ".  Of  these 
two  the  latter  is  the  wider,  and  takes  its  name 
from  steps  which  were  formerly  cut  in  the  de- 
scent *".  After  having  passed  the  Climax  there 
is  a  place  called  Melangeia  "^^  from  whence  water 
for  drinking  descends  into  the  city  of  the  Man- 
tinenses.  Beyond  Melangeia,  seven  stades  dis- 
tant from  the  city,  is  the  fountain  of  the  Me- 
liastae,  who  perform  the  orgies  of  Bacchus ;  at 
the  fountain  there  is  a  temple  of  Bacchus  and 

^  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  6,  7,  8.  called   because  the  road  led 

*>  Sta.  n^/vou  Kxhovf/iVYK;  through  a  forest,  or  grove,  of 

Si»  K?k'i/xaxo5.  the  holly-leaved  ilex. 
<=  Prinus  was  probably  so  ^  MfXtx.yyua,. 


another  of  Venus,  surnamed  Melanis.  The  road 
Prinus  is  narrower  than  the  former,  and  leads 
through  Artemisium,  concerning  which  mountain 
I  have  ah'eady  remarked  *,  that  it  contains  a  tem- 
ple and  statue  of  Diana,  and  the  fountains  of  the 
Inachus  ;  the  water,  as  it  passes  along  the  road, 
is  the  boundary  between  the  Argives  and  Man- 
tinenses,  but  after  turning  away  from  the  road 
it  flows  entirely  through  the  Argeia,  whence  it 
is  called  an  Argive  river  by  ^schylus  and 
others.  Having  crossed  the  Artemisium,  a  plain 
of  the  Mantinenses  will  receive  you,  which  is 
justly  called  'Apyov  [the  Inert  plain  J,  for  the 
rain-water  which  falls  from  the  mountains  causes 
it  to  remain  uncultivated  ^  and  would  even 
make  it  a  lake,  did  not  the  water  disappear  in  a 
chasm  of  the  earth,  after  passing  through  which, 
it  comes  forth  again  at  Deine,  towards  the  place 
called  Genethlium  of  Argolis,  where  fresh  water 
rises  in  the  sea.  The  Mantinenses  have  a 
mountain  on  the  left  of  the  inert  plain,  where 
are  vestiges  of  the  village  of  Nestane  and  of 
the  camp  of  Philip,  (son  of  Amyntas,)  for  they 
say  that  Philip  encamped  at  this  Nestane,  and 
from  him  they  name  the  neighbouring  fountain 
Philippium.  Beyond  the  ruins  of  Nestane  there 
is  a  much  venerated  temple  of  Ceres,  where  the 

*    Pausan.  1.  2.  C.  25.       See  ^   apyov  thoct  to  Tre^lon  TTOtfi. 

Chapter  XX. 

48  MANTINICE.  [chap,  XXIV. 

Mantinenses  hold  a  yearly  festival ;  below  Nes- 
tane  is  the  field  of  Maera  %  which  is  a  part  of 
the  inert  plain  ;  from  thence  extends,  for  a  dis- 
tance of  ten  stades,  the  opening  which  leads  out 
of  the  inert  plain.  Proceeding  a  little  farther 
you  will  descend  into  another  plain,  where,  near 
the  road  side,  is  the  fountain  called  Arne. 
From  this  place  the  city  of  the  Mantinenses  is 
about  two  (or  twelve)  stades ''  distant." 

Besides  the  two  approaches  to  Mantineia 
from  the  Climax  and  Prinus,  Pausanias  describes 
six  other  roads  which  led  from  that  city,  name- 
ly, 1.  the  direct  road  to  Tegea.  2.  A  branch 
to  the  left  of  it,  quitting  the  former  at  the  tem- 
ple of  Neptune,  distant  seven  stades  from  the 
city.  3.  The  road  to  Pallantium.  4.  The  road 
through  the  plain  of  Alcimedon  to  Methydrium. 
— And  two  roads  to  Orchomenus.  Concerning 
the  road  to  Methydrium  I  have  already  had  oc- 
casion to  offer  some  remarks  ;  those  of  Orcho- 
menus will  be  a  subject  of  future  examination. 
As  the  three  others  concur  with  the  Prinus 
and  Climax  in  illustrating  the  topography  of 
the  Mantinic  plain,  which  was  so  often  the 
scene  of  military  operations,  I  shall  here  insert 
the  description  of  them  from   Pausanias*",   al- 

»  p/aJfo;  Mwj^a?.  more  probably  the  Correct  One. 

^  Both  numbers   occur  in  '^  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  10,  11, 

the  MSS.,  but  the  latter  is      12. 


though  the  reference  will  in  one  or  two  particu- 
lars be  a  repetition  of  a  part  of  the  third  Chapter 
of  this  work. 

"  On  the  left  hand  of  the  road  to  Tegea  **, 
says  the  Greek  traveller,  "  there  is  a  place  near 
the  walls  of  Mantineia  for  the  running  of  horses, 
and  not  far  from  thence  a  stadium  where  games 
in  honour  of  Antinous  are  celebrated.  Above 
the  stadium  rises  the  mountain  Alesium,  so 
called,  it  is  said,  from  the  wandering  of  Rhea : 
upon  the  mountain  there  is  a  grove  of  Ceres, 
and  at  the  extremity  of  the  mountain  the  temple 
of  Neptune  Hippius,  not  far  from  the  stadium 
of  Mantineia." 

This  temple  of  Neptune,  as  I  have  already 
remarked,  was,  according  to  Polybius,  seven 
stades  distant  from  the  city  *.  It  consisted,  in 
the  time  of  Pausanias,  of  a  modern  building, 
which  had  been  erected  by  the  Emperor  Hadrian 
to  inclose  and  protect  the  remains  of  an  oaken 
edifice,  said  to  have  been  the  work  of  Tropho- 
nius  and  Agamedes,  and  which  was  one  of  the 
few  specimens,  if  not  the  only  specimen  then 
existing  in  the  Peloponnesus,  of  a  temple  built 
of  that  material.  It  was  forbidden  to  all  unpri- 
vileged persons  to  enter  the  Posidium ;  and 
Hadrian,   when  he  erected  the  new  building, 

»  Polyb.  1.  11.  c.  14— See  Chapter  III. 
VOL.   III.  E 

50  PHCEZl.  [chap.  XXIV. 

maintained  its  sanctity  with  such  rigour,  that  the 
workmen  employed  were  not  allowed  to  touch 
any  part  of  the  remains  of  the  ancient  structure, 
nor  even  to  see  the  interior  of  it ;  nor  was  Pau- 
sanias  himself  allowed  to  enter  the  temple. 

"  Beyond  the  temple  of  Neptune,  on  the  road 
to  Tegea,  there  was  a  trophy  of  stone  erected  in 
honour  of  the  victory  gained  [by  the  Manti- 
nenses]  over  Agis  and  the  Lacedaemonians, 
beyond  which  the  road  entered  a  forest  of  oaks 
called  Pelagus ;  the  boundary  between  the 
Mantinenses  and  Tegeatae  was  a  round  altar 
in  the  road.  On  turning  to  the  left,  out  of  the 
road  to  Tegea,  at  the  temple  of  Neptune,  there 
occurred,  at  the  end  of  five  stades,  the  tumuli 
of  the  daughters  of  Pelias  ^,  twenty  stades  dis- 
tant from  which,  was  the  place  called  the 
Phoezi ;  the  monument  of  the  Phoezi  was  low, 
and  surrounded  with  a  basis ".  The  road  then 
became  narrow  ^   and  there  was  a  monument 

*  The  daughters  of  Pelias  of   Pelias,    the  names  Aste- 

were  induced,  by  the   arts  of  ropeia  and  Antinoe.    Pausan. 

Medeia,  to  put  their  father  to  Attic,    c.    18.  —  Apollodorus 

death  at  lolcus,  from  whence  makes    the    number   of    the 

theyhadfled  totheMantinice.  daughters    three,    and    gives 

Micon,  who  had  represented  different  names.  Apollod.  1.  1 . 

some  parts  of  the  Argonautic  c.  9,  10. 
story   in    a    painting  in    the  **  ttb^h^oi^ivov  y.^riir'i^t. 

temple    of   the    Dioscuri    at  '  This   remark   alludes  to 

Athens,   had    written  under  its  being  the  place  described 

the  figures  of  the  daughters  by    Homer,    by    the    words 

CHAP.  XXIV.]  SCOPE.  51 

said  to  be  that  of  Areithous,  who,  from  his 
club,  was  named  Coryneta." 

*'  In  tlie  way  which  led  from  Mantineia  to 
Pallantiiim,  at  the  distance  of  thirty  stades,  the 
wood  Pelagus  was  near  the  road.  Here  stood 
the  tomb  of  Epaminondas,  who  was  buried  on 
the  spot  where  he  fell.  The  place  to  which  he 
was  carried  out  of  the  action,  and  from  whence 
he  witnessed  the  victory  of  his  army  before  he 
died,  was  thenceforth  called  Scope." 

It  may  be  inferred  from  the  circumstance 
last  mentioned,  that  Scope  was  a  rising  ground, 
a  circumstance  which  I  think  identifies  it  with 
the  point  of  the  Ma^nalian  range  three  miles 
south  of  Mantineia,  as  I  have  stated  in  the 
former  journey.  After  remarking  that  the 
temple  of  Jupiter  Charmon  was  one  stade  be- 
yond the  tomb  of  Epaminondas,  Pausanias,  in 
allusion  to  the  forest  which  covered  a  part  of  the 
neighbouring  plain,  observes,  that  "  the  woods 
of  Arcadia  contain  diverse  kinds  of  oak,  namely, 
the  broad  leaved  oak,  the  phagus,  and  that  of 
which  the  bark,  called  Phellus  by  the  lonians, 
is  so  light,  that  it  serves  for  buoys  to  anchors, 
and   for   floats    to    the    nets    of  fishermen."  * 

T^Ttn-a^TrH^  h  o^Z,  in  the  speech  f*"  '^^^^^^>^>^^^^  «-^-^^y,  ra^  ^\ 
of  Nestor,  II.' H.  143.  Arei-  f'^^  --^^^'''^'^  «i  t^'^«'  ^^ 
thous  was  here  slam  by  Lv-  .'  ~*      "        ... 

CUrgUS.  .^oii  y.a)  1)1  6a^a<7(7rJ  TTcmv-jTcci  ari- 

^     A^KuSu:]/    S  h    T0~5    dptYAoVj        fji,t.7a,       uyy.vpocK;       y.a.)       ^ixxt'okc. 

E  2 

52  PRINUS,    CLIMAX.         [CHAP.  XXIV. 

Hence  it  appears  that  the  forest  Pelagus  con- 
tained cork  trees,  which  are  not  now  found  in 
a  natural  state,  I  beheve,  in  any  part  of  Euro- 
pean Greece,  nor  is  the  phagus  ^ ,  so  called  from 
its  edible  acorn,  by  any  means  so  common  as  the 
prinus  and  ilex. 

I  have  already  remarked,  that  Pausanias,  in 
the  Argolics,  speaks  of  one  road  only  leading 
from  Argos  to  Mantineia,  though  he  afterwards, 
in  the  Arcadics,  as  we  have  just  seen,  describes 
two  roads,  called  Prinus  and  Climax.  It  is  observ- 
able, however,  that  he  traces  these  two  roads  only 
from  the  frontier  of  the  Argeia  to  Mantineia,  in 
like  manner  as,  in  the  Argolics,  he  follows  the 
single  road  from  Argos  as  far  as  the  same  bound- 
ary only  ;  it  seems  probable,  therefore,  that  from 
Argos  as  far  as  the  boundary,  there  was  but  one 
road  to  Mantineia,  which,  leaving  Argos  at  the 

Til'  '\uiiuiv,  y.ccl  'Epp,i9cricii/«,|  0  to,  of  thhi.  It  is  curious  that 
iXiyticx,  TTor^cra?,  (?)=XXov  oi/op,a^ot;-        ac^tio.,    OX  u^ta,  is  the  modern 

a-iv.  Paus.  Arcad.  c.  12.   This  name  of  the  quercus  ilex,  or 

is    one    of  the    references  to  olive    leaved    evergreen  oak, 

Ionia,  which  seems  to  prove  and  not  that  of  the  cork  tree, 

that  country  to  have  been  the  which    it    may     have    been 

ordinary  residence  of  Pausa-  in    the    time    of    Pausanias. 

nias.     But  it  is  for  the  pur-  The  difference  in  appearance 

pose  of  adverting  to  the  word  between  these  two  trees  is  so 

aoaiof,  that  I  have  inserted  the  slight,  with  the  exception  of 

passage  at  length.    As  it  can-  the  bark,   that  a  transfer  of 

not  be  doubted  that   Pausa-  name   from    the    one   to  the 

nias  here   describes  the  cork  other  may  easily  have  taken 

tree,  he  must  be  supposed  to  place  in  the  declining  ages  of 

employ  the  word  apaio?  in  the  Greece, 
sense  of  spongy,  and  not  that  a  quercus  esculus. 


gate  of  Deiras,  crossed  the  Charadrus  to  Q*^noe, 
and  not  far  from  thence  divided  into  two 
branches,  one  leading  towards  the  sources  of  the 
Inachus,  and  passing  not  far  from  that  summit  of 
the  Artemisian  ridge  upon  which  stood  the 
temple  of  Diana  whicli  gave  name  to  it ;  the  other 
leaving  the  highest  summits  to  the  left,  and  de- 
scending upon  Melangeia,  a  place  from  whence 
there  was  an  aqueduct  to  the  city  of  Mantineia. 
The  sources  near  Pikernes,  and  the  situation  of 
that  village  relatively  to  the  ancient  city,  point 
it  out  as  the  site  of  Melangeia,  and  it  is  not 
impossible  that  the  modern  name  may  have  been 
derived  from  those  sources  \  The  road,  there- 
fore, from  Argos  to  Pikernes,  which  passes  by 
the  villages  of  Kato  Belishi,  Kapareli,  and  San- 
ga,  appears  to  be  the  ancient  Climax.  From 
Pikernes,  one  may  either  descend  into  the  plain 
of  Mantineia,  or  continue  along  the  side  of  the 
mountains  to  Butia  and  Kalpaki  (Oyxhomenus). 

If  the  position  of  Melangeia,  and  the  line  of 
the  road  Climax,  are  correctly  indicated  as 
above,  it  will  follow,  that  the  road  over  the  Ar- 
temisian range  by  the  modern  Turniki,  is  the 
line  of  the  ancient  Prinus ;  we  find,  in  fact,  a 
confirmation  of  this  conclusion,  as  well  as  of  all 
the  comparative  topography  of  the  Mantinice, 


in  the  circumstance,  that  the  branch  of  the  Man- 
tinic  plain,  the  opening  of  which  is  immediately 
opposite  to  the  Scope,  answers  exactly  to  the 
Argon,  or  Inert  Plain,  as  well  in  its  position  as 
in  its  marshy  nature  after  the  winter  rains,  for 
it  is  nearly  surrounded,  as  Pausanias  hints,  by 
mountains,   and   is   wider    within    than    at    the 
opening  which  unites  it  with   the  great  Man- 
tinic  plain  ;  the  breadth   of  this  opening  corre- 
sponds likewise  exactly  with  the  ten  stades  of 
Pausanias.     Nestane  appears  to  have  stood  to 
the  southward  of  the  opening  into  the  Argon, 
towards  the  projection  of  Mount  Artemisium, 
which  is  opposite  to  the  Scope.     As  the  point 
of  the    same    mountain,    which    encloses   the 
Argon    on  the  northern    side,  is  about  fifteen 
stades    from    Mantineia,    it    seems   more   pro- 
bable,   that   the    fountain     Arne    should   have 
been    twelve,    than    two,    stades    distant   from 
the  city,    and  the  more    so,    as  the  temple   of 
Neptune,  which  stood  on  the   same  side  of  the 
citv,  was  seven   stades  distant  from  the  walls. 
Moreover  there  is  another  koXttos,  or  bay,  of 
the   Mantinic    plain,    between    Mantineia   and 
the  point  on  the  northern  side  of  the  entrance 
of    the    Argon,     corresponding    to    the    other 
plain   noticed  by   Pausanias,   which   contained 
the    fountain  Arne.     Tliis   bay   terminates  to- 
wards the  mountain,  in  a  narrow  ascent  lead- 


ing  up  to  Tzipiana,  and  agreeing  with  the  nar- 
row road  which  commenced  at  the  monument 
of  Coryneta. 

In  order  to  understand  thorouglily  what  Pau- 
sanias  relates  of  the  course  of  the  waters  from 
the  Inert  Plain,  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  all  the 
great  valley  of  Tripolitza  is  nearly  of  an  uniform 
level,  and  that  many  parts  of  it  have  not  a  suf- 
ficient slope  to  prevent  the  land  from  being 
often  overflowed  by  the  torrents  from  the  sur- 
rounding mountains,  unless  trenches  are  made  to 
assist  the  course  of  tiie  waters  towards  those 
chasms  in  the  mountains  which  nature  has  pro- 
vided for  their  discharge.  Of  these  zerethrciy  or 
katavothra,  I  have  already  remarked  that  there 
are  three,  namely  those  of  the  Taki  and  of  Per- 
sova  in  the  Tegeatice,  and  the  smaller  one  not 
far  from  the  ruins  of  Mant'meia.  By  drainage 
the  inundations  might  be  always  confined  to  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  the  katavothra,  and  they 
were  probably  so  confined  anciently,  unless 
when  the  course  of  the  waters  became  a  subject 
of  dispute  between  Tegea  and  Mantineia,  as 
happened  in  a  remarkable  instance,  mentioned 
by  Thucydides".  In  the  present  state  of  Greece, 
when  art  is  seldom  applied  to  remedy  natural 
inconveniences,   and  when  the  culture  of  maize 

^  Thucyd-  1-  5.  c.  65. 


operates  as  an  encouragement  to  keep  a  part  of 
the  land  for  many  months  in  a  state  of  inunda- 
tion, there  are  several  parts  of  the  plain  of  Tri- 
politza  half  the  year  under  water. 

Pausanias  asserts  that  the  waters  of  the  Inert 
Plain  were  drained  towards  the  chasms,  of  which 
the  emissory  was  a  source  called  Deine,  rising 
in  the  sea  near  the  ArgoUc  shore ;  a  remark 
which  leaves  no  doubt  that  he  meant  the  zere- 
thra  of  the  Tegeatice,  near  the  modern  Per- 
sova.  If  it  should  be  asked  how  it  happened 
that,  assuming  the  bay  or  branch  of  the  Man- 
t'lnic  plain  below  Tzipiana  to  have  been  the 
Inert  Plain,  the  drainage  was  not  rather  carried 
to  the  zerethra  of  Mantineia,  they  being  so  much 
nearer  to  the  Argon  ;  the  answer  wouhl  be,  that 
these  were  so  small  as  to  be  hardly  sufficient  to 
carry  off  the  river  0})his  and  the  other  super- 
fluous waters  of  the  Mantinic  plain.  The  Man- 
tinenses,  in  consequence,  as  we  find  from  Thu- 
cydides,  in  the  passage  already  alluded  to,  were 
in  the  habit  of  turning  the  inundations  of  the 
plain  Argon  into  the  Tegeatice,  where  the  fall 
was  greater  and  the  zerethra  more  capacious. 
This  operation  was  probably  regulated  in  a 
friendly  manner  when  the  two  cities  were  at 
peace  ;  but  it  was  a  fruitful  cause  of  quarrel ; 
and  when  the  republics  were  at  war,  as  we  per- 


ceive  from  Thucy elides,  it  furnished  a  conve- 
nient mode  of  offence  and  injury. 

Having  made  these  prehminary  remarks  on  the 
topography,  I  shall  now  advert  to  those  military 
transactions  which  have  rendered  the  Mantinice 
so  conspicuous  in  ancient  history.    Three  of  the 
actions  fought  near  Mantineia  are  among  the 
best  illustrations  of  Greek  tactics  which  history 
has  preserved,  and  they  are  particularly  worthy  of 
consideration  from  having  been  related  by  three 
historians,  each  of  whom  was  living  at  the  time 
of  the  action  described,  and  if  not  personally 
engaged  in  it,  was  so  situated,  at  least,  as  to  be 
able    to    collect    the    most   authentic   inform- 
ation concerning  it.     The  earliest  of  the  three 
battles  is  described  by  Thucydides,  the  second 
by  Xenophon,  the  third  by  Polybius.     In  the 
interval    between  the  second  and  third,  there 
were    two    other  conflicts   in    the    same   field, 
which,  had  they  been  related  by  contemporary 
authors,  might  have  deserved  our  attention  al- 
most as  much  as  the  three  others  ;  for  the  Lace- 
daemonians, headed  by  one  of  their  kings,  were 
engaged  in  them  both ;  but  the  first  is  merely 
noticed  by  Plutarch  :  the  second  is  described 
by  Pausanias. 

The  battle  of  Mantineia,  recorded  by  Thucy- 
dides, occurred  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  the 
Peloponnesian  war,  b.  c.  418,  when   the  Lace- 


daemonians,  under  Agis,  son  of  Archidamus, 
with  some  Arcadian  allies,  were  opposed  to  the 
Argives,  and  their  auxiliaries  of  Mantineia  and 
Athens  %  The  Argives,  at  the  suggestion  of 
the  Mantinenses,  who  were  at  that  time  enemies 
of  the  Tegeatae,  had  moved  against  Tegea,  in 
which  city,  as  usually  happened  when  two  Greek 
republics  were  at  war,  there  was  a  faction  in 
favour  of  the  opponent.  The  Lacedaemonians, 
advancing  to  the  support  of  the  Tegeatae,  placed 
themselves  at  Orestium  ^,  in  Maenalia,  the  Mac- 
nalii  being  then  in  alliance  with  them,  upon 
which  the  Argives  retired,  and  took  up  a  strong 
position  on  the  hills,  near  Mantineia.  *'  The 
Lacedaemonians,"  says  Thucydides,  "accom- 
panied by  such  of  their  Arcadian  confederates 
as  were  present,  then  entered  the  territory  of 
Mantineia,  and,  placing  themselves  near  the  tem- 
ple of  Hercules,  wasted  the  country  around. 
The  Argives  and  their  associates,  on  perceiving 
the  enemy,  seized  upon  a  place  fortified  by 
nature,  and  of  difficult  access,  and  formed  them- 
selves into  an  order  of  battle.  The  Lacedae- 
monians, on  the  other  hand,  had  approached  to 
within  the  cast  of  a  stone  or  dart,  when  an  old 
soldier,  seeing  that  Agis  was  about  to  attack  a 

»  Thucyti  1.  5.  c  64.  of  the  road  from  jMcgalojJolis 

^  Otherwise    called    Ores-      to  Asea.     (Pausan.  Arcad.  c. 
ihasium  :  it  lay  on  the  right      44.)    Sec  Chapter  XV'III. 

CHAP.  XXIV.]    FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.     59 

very  strong  position,  called  out  to  him  that  he 
was  going  to  remedy  one  evil  by  another,  thus 
signifying    that    lie  was   attempting    to    make 
amends  for  his  former  retreat  from  Argos,  for 
wliich  he  had  been  blamed,  by  an  imprudent  for- 
wardness upon  the  present  occasion.     Either  in 
consequence    of  this   declaration,    or  of  some 
sudden  change  in  his  own  designs,  Agis  with- 
drew his  army  without  engaging,  and,  marching 
into  the  territory  of  Tegea,  turned  the  course 
of  the   water  into  the   Mantinice,   concerning 
which  water,   because  it  did  much   injury  in 
whatever  part  of  the  country  it  flowed,  the  Man- 
tinenses  and  Tegeatae  were  at  war.     His  design 
was  to  force  the  Argives  and  their  confederates 
to  fight  in  the  plain,   into  which   he   supposed 
that  they  would  descend,  in  order  to  prevent 
the  turning  of  the  water ;  and  remaining  that 
day  about  the  water,  he  turned  it.     The  Argives 
and   their  allies,   surprised  at  the   sudden   de4 
parture  of  the  enemy,  were  at  a  loss  to  account 
for  it;  and  when  they  found  that  their  adversaries 
were  no  longer  in  sight,  while  their  own  army 
remained    inactive,   and    did    not  follow,    they 
began  to  blame  their  commanders,  and  accused 
them  of  treachery,  as  well  for  having  suffered 
the  Lacedaemonians  to  depart,  after  having  in- 
tercepted them  at  Argos,  as  for  now  again  allow- 
ing them  to  retire  in  safety,  without  pursuing 

60     FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.    [CHAP.  XXIV. 

them.  The  commanders  were  now  much 
troubled.  Advancing  into  the  plain,  they  sta- 
tioned their  forces  as  if  about  to  advance  against 
the  enemy,  and  next  day  disposed  them  so  as  to 
be  in  readiness  for  battle,  if  they  should  fall  in 
with  their  adversaries.  When  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians, returning  from  the  water  to  their  former 
position  at  the  Heracleium,  found  the  enemy 
already  descended  from  the  mountain,  and  in 
order  of  battle,  they  were  struck  with  con- 
sternation, having  so  short  space  of  time  to 
prepare  themselves  for  battle.  They  were 
soon  arranged,  however  ;  Agis,  the  king,  com- 
manding all  according  to  law.  For  when  the 
king  leads  the  army,  every  thing  is  regulat- 
ed by  him ;  he  gives  the  orders  to  the  po- 
lemarchs,  the  polemarchs  to  the  lochagi,  and 
the  lochagi  to  the  pentecontateres,  the  latter 
to  the  enomotarchae,  and  they  to  the  enomo- 
tiae,  and  thus  the  requisite  mandates  are  for- 
warded, and  quickly  communicated  from  one  to 
another;  the  greater  part  of  the  Lacedaemonian 
army  being  the  commanders  of  commanders, 
and  the  care  of  what  is  to  be  done,  the  business 
of  many. 

"  On  the  left  were  the  Sciritae,  who,  alone  of 
the  Lacedsemonians,  have  the  right  of  occupy- 
ing this  place.  Next  to  them  were  the  Brasi- 
diani,  who  had  served  in  Thrace,  and  the  Neo- 

CHAP.  XXIV.3    FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.     6l 

damodeis,  (or  those  who  had  recently  been  made 
freemen.)  Then  came  the  lochi  (or  divisions)  of 
the  Lacedaemonians  ;  next  to  them  the  Heraeen- 
ses  of  Arcadia  ;  then  the  Maenahi ;  and  on  the 
right  the  Tegeatse,  with  a  few  of  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians at  the  extremity.  The  cavalry  were  upon 
either  wing.  Such  was  the  order  of  the  Lacedae- 
monians. Of  their  adversaries,  the  right  was  occu- 
pied by  the  Mantinenses,  because  the  affair  took 
place  in  their  territory  ;  adjacent  to  them  were 
the  other  auxiliaries  of  Arcadia;  then  the  thou- 
sand chosen  men  of  Argos,  whom  the  city  had 
long  kept  in  exercise  at  the  public  charge;  then 
the  other  Argives ;  next  to  them  their  allies  of 
Cleonae  and  Orneae  ;  and  last  of  all,  on  the  left, 
the  Athenians,  with  their  domestic  cavalry. 
Such  was  the  order  and  preparation  on  both 

"  The  Lacedaemonian  army  was  the  most  nu- 
merous in  appearance,  but  I  am  unable  to  state 
its  total  amount,  or  the  number  of  the  several 
people  who  composed  it,  that  of  the  Lace- 
daemonians being  unknown,  in  consequence  of 
the  secrecy  of  the  government,  and  that  of  the 
others  unworthy  of  belief,  from  the  usual  osten- 
tation of  mankind  in  the  enumeration  of  their 
own  people.  The  force  of  the  Lacedaemonians, 
however,  may  be  computed  thus.  Seven  lochi 
fought,  besides  the  Sciritae,  of  whom  there  were 

6^2,     FIRST    BATTLK    OF    MANTINEIA.    [CHAP.   XXIV. 

600.  In  each  loch  us  were  four  pentecostyes, 
ill  each  pentecostys  four  enomotias.  Each  eno- 
motia  consisted  of  four  men  in  front,  with  a 
depth  not  everywhere  equal,  but  arranged  as 
the  lochagus  thought  fit.  In  general,  how- 
ever, the  army  was  drawn  up  eight  deep,  and  it 
had  448  in  front,  beside  the  Sciritae." 

From  this  computation  of  Thucydides,  it  would 
appear,  that  the  total  amount  of  the  Lacedaemo- 
nian hoplitae  was  not  much  above  4000,  which, 
when  drawn  up  in  the  compact  order  described 
by  the  historian,  would  not  occupy  a  front  of  more 
than  three  or  four  hundred  yards.  The  light 
armed  were  probably  much  more  numerous. 

The  hills  upon  which  the  Argives  first  placed 
themselves,  seem  to  have  been  those  immediately 
above  Mantineia  to  the  eastward,  the  part  of 
which  near  the  southern  side  of  the  walls  of 
Mantineia,  was,  as  we  learn  from  Pausanias, 
called  Alesium.  From  this  height  nothing  could 
be  seen  which  took  place  on  the  eastern  side  of 
the  plain  of  Tripolitza,  to  the  southward  of  the 
projection  of  the  Artemisian  range,  upon  which 
Nestane  stood,  and  which  bounded  the  Inert 
Plain  on  the  south.  There  it  was,  therefore, 
that  Agis  was  engaged  in  turning  the  course  of 
the  water,  when  the  Argives  lost  sight  of  him. 
His  object  was  to  divert  the  water  from  the 
plain,  southward  of  the  point  of  Nestaiie,  into 

CHAP.  XXIV. ]    FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.     63 

the  plain  Argofi,  situated  northward  of  the  same 
projection.  And  thus  Thucydides,  though  he 
neither  mentions  the  plain  Argon  by  that  name, 
nor  describes  the  ultimate  course  or  natural 
outlet  of  the  waters,  after  they  had  been  turned 
into  the  Tegeatice,  concurs,  as  far  as  his  tes- 
timony extends,  with  the  more  particular  detail 
of  Pausanias,  which,  when  examined  on  the 
spot,  shews  that  the  only  outlet  (though  the 
course  of  the  waters  towards  it  might  require 
to  be  assisted  by  art)  was  through  the  zerethrii 
at  the  extremity  of  the  Corythic  bay  of  the 
Tegeatic  plain,  or,  in  modern  words,  by  the 
katavothra  of  Persova.  The  Heracleium  I  do 
not  find  mentioned  in  any  other  author  ;  but  it 
is  obvious,  as  well  in  the  previous  position  on 
the  hills,  as  after  their  descent  into  the  plain, 
that  the  Argives  and  their  allies  were  not  far 
from  the  city  of  Mantineia.  They  were  probably 
drawn  up  across  the  plain,  in  front  of  the  city, 
and  the  Lacedaemonians  in  a  parallel  line  to 
the  southward  of  them,  between  the  city  and 
the  opening  between  Scope  and  Nestane,  which 
formed  the  boundary  of  the  Mantinice. 

"  After  an  exhortation,"  continues  Thucy- 
dides, "  the  engagement  began,  the  Argives 
and  their  confederates  advancing  with  violence 
and  fury,  the  Lacedaemonians  slowly,  and  with 
a  march  regulated,  as  their  military  law  enacts. 

64f     FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.    [CHAP.  XXIV. 

by  the  music  of  many  flutes,  not  as  a  point  of 
religion,  but  with  the  design  that,  marching  for- 
ward evenly  and  by  measure,  their  ranks 
might  not  fall  into  disorder,  as  often  happens 
to  large  bodies  when  moving  in  presence  of  an 
enemy.  While  yet  in  motion,  a  thought  oc- 
curred to  Agis,  suggested  by  the  customary 
practice  of  armies  when  advancing  to  the  en- 
gagement. It  generally  happens,  that  either 
party  strives  to  extend  his  right  wing,  so  as  to 
outflank  his  adversary's  left,  each  soldier  endea- 
vouring, in  order  to  protect  himself,  to  cover  his 
body  with  the  shield  of  the  man  upon  his  right, 
persuaded  that  in  this  compact  order  they  are 
most  completely  covered  from  the  enemy.  The 
right  hand  man  of  the  right  wing  is  the  first 
cause  of  this  [tendency  of  each  line  to  out- 
flank the  enemy's  left],  for  while  he  strives  to 
shift  his  uncovered  side  from  the  enemy,  the 
same  fear  prompts  the  rest  to  follow  him.  In 
this  manner  the  Sciritae,  on  the  Lacedgemo- 
nian  left,  were  circumvented  by  the  right 
wing  of  their  opponents,  and  still  more  the 
Athenians  by  the  Lacedaemonians  and  Tegeat^e, 
the  army  of  the  latter  being  the  more  numerous 
of  the  two.  Agis,  therefore,  perceiving  that 
the  Mantinenses  had  extended  themselves  very 
far  upon  his  left,  and  fearing  lest  that  flank 
should  be  surrounded,  ordered  the  Sciritae  and 

CHAP.  XXIV.]    FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.     65 

Biasidiani  to  move  a  part  of  their  division  in 
such  a  manner  as  to  make  the  left  flank  co-exten- 
sive with  that  of  the  Mantinenses,  and  sent 
directions  at  the  same  time  to  the  polemarchs 
Hipponoidas  and  Aristocles  to  fill  up  the 
vacancy  with  two  lochi  from  the  right  wing, 
thinking,  that  while  the  wing  opposed  to  the 
Mantinenses  would  be  thus  reinforced,  the 
other  would  still  be  sufficiently  strong.  It 
happened,  however,  [[the  order  being  given 
in  the  very  concourse,  and  on  a  sudden,]  that 
Aristocles  and  Hipponoidas  refused  to  move, 
for  which  they  were  afterwards  banished  from 
Sparta,  being  supposed  to  have  disobeyed 
through  cowardice.  The  enemy  having  begun 
the  attack  in  the  mean  time,  and  the  lochi  not 
coming  to  fill  up  the  place  of  the  Sciritae,  the  con- 
sequence was,  that  the  Lacedaemonians  were  un- 
able to  oppose  the  enemy  in  that  part  of  the  line, 
or  to  close  the  empty  space.  However,  though 
totally  worsted  in  skill,  tliey  shewed  themselves 
by  no  means  inferior  to  their  adversaries  in  va- 
lour. When  the  engagement  became  close,  the 
Mantinenses  turned  the  left  of  tlie  Sciritas  and 
Brasidiani,  at  the  same  time  that,  assisted  by 
their  allies  of  Arcadia,  and  the  thousand  select 
men  of  Argos,  they  entered  the  space  left  vacant 
by  the  disunited  Lacedaemonians,  slew  many  of 
them,   and  having  surrounded  and  put  them 

VOL.  III.  F 

66     FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.    [CHAP.  XXIV. 

to  flight,  chased  them  to  their  waggons,  where 
some  of  the  aged  men  who  were  in  charge  of  the 
baggage  were  killed.  Here,  therefore,  the  La- 
cedaemonians were  beaten  ;  but  in  the  other 
parts  of  the  line,  particularly  in  the  centre, 
where  stood  King  Agis,  and  about  him  the 
horsemen  called  the  Three  Hundred,  the  Lace- 
daemonians falling  upon  the  Argive  veterans, 
and  those  called  the  Five  Lochi,  and  the  Cleo- 
naei,  and  the  Orneatae,  and  the  Athenians,  who 
were  next  to  them,  put  them  all  to  flight,  the 
enemy  scarcely  waiting  to  come  to  blows,  but 
giving  way  as  soon  as  the  Lacedaemonians  at- 
tacked, and  some  of  them  even  through  fear  of 
not  escaping,  [allowing  themselves  to  be,]  trod- 
den under  foot. 

"  While  the  army  of  the  Argives  and  their 
allies  were  giving  way  in  this  part,  they  were 
worsted  also  on  the  left,  where  the  right  of  the 
Lacedaemonians  and  Tegeatge  outflanked  the 
Athenians,  who  were  thus  on  one  side  sur- 
rounded, and  on  the  other  beaten  j  and  who 
would  have  suffered  more  than  any  other  part 
of  the  army,  had  not  their  cavalry  been  present 
to  assist  them.  It  happened  also  that  Agis,  at 
that  time,  finding  that  his  left  was  suffering 
from  the  Mantinenses  and  the  thousand  Argives, 
ordered  all  the  army  to  proceed  to  the  assist- 
ance of  the  defeated  wing.     So  that  the  Athe- 

CHAP.  XXIV.]    FIRST    BATTLE    OF    MANTINEIA.     67 

nians,  and  that  part  of  the  Argives  which  was 
beaten,  as  soon  as  the  enemy  incUned  from  them, 
easily  saved  themselves.     The  Mantinenses  and 
their  associates,  and  the  select  Argives,  seeing 
their  army  overcome,  and  the  Lacedaemonians 
turning  against  them,    gave   way  and  betook 
themselves  to  flight.     Most  of  the  Mantinenses 
were  slain,  but  the  greater  part  of  the  chosen 
Argives  were  saved,  for  neither  the  flight  nor 
the  disorder  was  long  continued,  it  being  the 
custom  of  the  Lacedaemonians  to   fight   with 
constancy  and   perseverance    until   they   have 
turned  the  enemy,    but  never  to   pursue  him 
long   after  they   have   forced  him  to   retreat. 
Thus,     or    very    nearly    so,    was    fought   this 
battle,  the  greatest  which  had  occurred  for  a 
long    time    between    Grecians    and    Grecians, 
and  wherein  the  greatest  cities  were  engaged. 
The  LacedjEmonians  laying  together  the  arms 
of  the    slain  enemies,    immediately  erected    a 
trophy.     They  stripped  the  dead  bodies  of  the 
enemy,   and  then  gave  them  up  under  truce ; 
their  own  slain  they  carried  away  and  buried 
at   Tegea.      Of  the    Argives,    Orneatae,    and 
Cleoneei,    700  were  killed,    of   the    Athenians 
and  ^ginetae,  200,  with  both  the  commanders. 
The  allies  on  the  side  of  the   Lacedaemonians 
suffered  nothing  worthy  of  mention  :  of  theLace- 
daemonians  themselves  it  is  difficult  to  speak  with 

F    2 


certainty,  but  it  is  said  they  lost  300  men.  The 
other  king,  Pleistoanax,  came  with  a  reinforce- 
ment, both  of  veterans  and  young  soldiers,  as 
far  as  Tegea  ;  but  having  heard  of  the  victory 
he  returned  [to  Sparta].  The  Lacedaemonians 
sent  messengers  to  the  Corinthians  and  the 
allies  from  beyond  the  isthmus,  desiring  them 
to  return  home;  then  dismissing  those  who  were 
with  them,  they  marched  to  Sparta,  and  cele- 
brated the  festival  called  Carneia,  having  by 
this  battle  removed  the  disgrace  which  they 
had  incurred  in  the  eyes  of  all  Greece,  by 
their  defeat  at  the  island  [Sphacteria].  Their 
want  of  counsel  and  energy  on  other  occasions 
was  counterbalanced  by  this  event,  their  mis- 
carriage being  imputed  to  fortune,  and  their 
minds  considered  such  as  they  had  ever  been." 
Thirty-three  years  after  this  transaction  %  in 
the  second  year  after  the  peace  of  Antalcidas, 
when  the  Lacedaemonians  were  not  less  formid- 
able than  they  had  been  at  the  end  of  the  Pelo- 
ponnesian  war,  the  Spartan  government  thought 
the  moment  favourable  for  removing  that  impe- 
diment to  the  extension  of  its  power  in  Arcadia 
which  Mantineia  had  ever  presented,  and  easily 
found  a  pretext  to  justify  the  bold  measure  which 
they  adopted,  of  ordering  the  Mantinenses  to 

»  B.  C.  385. 


destroy  the  walls  of  their  city\  Upon  their  re- 
fusal, an  army  marched  against  them,  commanded 
by  the  king,  Agesipolis,  son  of  Pausanias.  He 
first  formed  an  intrenchment "  round  the  city, 
employing  one  half  of  the  army  to  protect  the 
other  half  while  at  work  ;  and  then,  under  the 
protection  of  the  intrenchment,  he  built  a  wall 
of  circumvallation.  Having  afterwards  learnt 
that  the  blockaded  enemy  was  well  supplied 
with  provisions,  he  resorted  to  the  following 
expedient :  throwing  up  an  embankment  across 
a  river  which  flowed  through  the  city,  he 
caused  an  inundation  round  the  walls,  which  at 
length  rose  so  high  as  first  to  cover  the  found- 
ations, and  then  to  dissolve  the  lower  part  of  the 
brickwork,  so  that  the  wall  began  to  decline 
from  the  perpendicular.  The  Mantinenses  en- 
deavoured by  wooden  supports  to  prevent  it 
from  falling  ;  but  finding  the  water  too  powerful 
for  them,  and  fearing  lest  the  ruin  of  their  de- 
fences on  all  sides  should  expose  the  city  to  be 
taken  by  assault,  they  submitted  to  the  terms 
of  the  Lacedaemonians,  which  were,  that  they 
should  evacuate  the  city,  and  dwell  in  four  small 
towns,  as  in  ancient  times.  Agesipolis,  at  the 
entreaty  of  his  father,  allowed  sixty  leading- 
men  of  Mantineia,  who  favoured  the  Argives, 

'^  Xenoph.  Hellen-  1.  5.  c.  2.  ^  T(x.(p^ou. 


to  retire  in  safety.  These  defiled  through  the 
armed  Lacedaemonians,  whose  excellent  disci- 
pline not  only  made  them  abstain  from  insult- 
ing the  exiles,  but  was  the  means  of  saving 
them  from  the  vengeance  of  their  own  fellow- 
citizens  of  the  oligarchical  faction. 

There  can  hardly  be  a  question  that  the  words 
ofXenophon  cited  below  have  the  meaning  which 
I  have  just  assigned  to  them,  and,  consequently, 
that  the  foundations  of  the  walls  were  made  of 
stone,  and  the  superstructure  of  unburnt  bricks 
The  latter  fact  is  directly  stated  by  Pausanias  ^, 
and  though  he  does  not  speak  of  the  foundations 
of  stone,  it  is  evident  that  such  a  substruction 
was  indispensably  necessary  in  this  marshy 

Xenophon  terminates  his  account  ofthe  strata- 
gem of  Agesipolis  by  the  reflection,  that  man- 
kind learnt  one  lesson  of  wisdom  from  it ;  name- 
ly, not  to  conduct  a  river  through  a  city  ^  It 
would  seem,  therefore,  that  the  stream  had  been 
artificiallv  turned  into  that  direction.  He  remarks 

po':cci,   riPiTo  to  v^up  VTnp  T£  tcDi'  y-ccTU  rov  l(7^vgOy,roii  di    O^iv  tto- 

ItTO  TtX.T^    olyiiuK;   X.a,\  V'Ki^  Turn   VTTO  TOt-lJLOV     aTTOlTTf ElJ/af     a-^taiV     Ef     TO 

rai  TE»y£4  ^BiJ-BXiicv.      B^i^oiJLivuv  Ti7^0(;,      u^y)^    aKoooij.rifjt.tvov    Trii; 

5s  TJDv  yAru  -TzhU^uj,  y.oci  t^oJi-  vrxtv^ov. — Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  8. 

^ova-iv   rac  avu:,    to    ftsy    v^iirov  c   g-otpure^uiv    yevoyivwv    Tuv-rr, 

ipp^yvVTO    TO    Te.-xoc,    iTrura.    S\  ye  tuv  ^^/^fa-av,  ri^  fxii  Siv. -r^x'^'v 

xaiExXti-ETo.— Xenoph.Helleii.  :roTa^oi'   TrotEicrGa..  —  Xeiioph. 

1. 5.  c.  2.  ibid. 


also,  that  the  river  was  of  considerable  size% 
a  description  quite  unsuited  to  the  brooks  which 
now  embrace  the  circuit  of  the  ancient  walls,  and 
leading  to  the  inference  that  the  stream  from  Tzi- 
piana,  which  now  passes  to  the  south-westward  of 
the  ruins,  is  the  river  intended  by  Xenophon, 
and  is  consequently  the  Ophis  of  Pausanias.  If 
this  stream  was  diverted  from  its  course  for  the 
purpose  of  passing  through  the  city,  it  will  fol- 
low almost  of  necessity  that  above  the  city  it  was 
then  united  with  the  two  rivulets  which  now  en- 
circle the  walls,  flowing  in  their  natural  direc- 
tion. In  the  time  of  Agesipolis,  therefore,  all 
the  running  water  of  the  Mantinic  plain  passed 
in  one  body  through  the  walls,  which  illustrates 
the  observation  of  Xenophon  as  to  the  size  of 
the  river,  and  will  assist  also  in  accounting; 
for  the  successful  effect  of  the  operation  of 

The  dispersion  of  the  Mantinenses  had  lasted 
more  than  fourteen  years,  when  their  oppressors 
having  been  defeated  at  Leuctra'' ,  one  of  the 
consequences  of  it  was,  the  re-establishment  of 
Mantinenses  in  their  city,  and  the  rebuilding 
of  its  walls ''.  For  carrying  on  this  operation, 
the  Eleians  sent  assistance  in  money,  and  the 
Arcadians   in    men.     I    have  already    remark- 

^    IJ.a.\    ntTcc  iVfjiiyi^r,.  "^    XeilOpll.    Hclleil.   1.   6.  C. 

^  July,  B.  c.  371.  5. 


ed  \  that  the  existing  remains  are  probably 
for  the  most  part  the  work  of  that  period.  I 
say  for  the  most  part,  because  there  are  some 
places  where  the  polygonal  work  appears  to 
have  been  a  part  of  the  more  ancient  substruc- 
tion, while  the  remainder,  being  of  that  more 
regular  kind  which  was  employed  in  the  fortifi- 
cations of  Messene,  has  every  indication  of 
having  been  a  production  of  the  same  period  of 
time.  The  existing  ruins,  moreover,  are  suf- 
ficiently preserved  to  shew  that  no  considerable 
stream  could  have  passed  through  their  inclosure. 
The  Mantinenses,  therefore,  when  their  walls 
were  rebuilt,  seem  really  to  have  profited  by 
the  severe  lesson  of  AgesipoHs,  and  to  have 
allowed  the  Ophis  to  pursue  the  natural  course 
which  it  now  follows  through  the  plain,  while 
the  two  other  rivulets  were  made  to  serve  the 
useful  purpose  of  a  wet  ditch  to  the  new  fortifi- 

The  present  height  of  the  substruction  of 
stone  seems  to  me  to  afford  a  third  reason  for 
the  same  opinion  as  to  its  date  j  for  it  is  hardly 
possible  for  such  an  operation  as  that  of  Agesi- 
polis  to  have  been  successful  with  foundations 
so  high  as  those  which  are  still  preserved.  We 
may  conclude,  therefore,  that  the  Mantinenses 

»  See  Chapter  III. 


derived  more  than  one  useful  lesson  from  their 
misfortune :  and  that  they  were  careful  not 
only  to  exclude  the  river  from  their  city,  but 
also  to  make  the  substruction  of  their  walls  of 
such  a  height  as  could  not  possibly  be  sub- 
merged by  means  of  such  streams  as  those  which 
water  the  Mantinice. 

While  the  new  fortification  was  in  progress, 
the  work  was  disturbed  by  the  invasion  of  the 
Lacedaemonians   under   Agesilaus,   to  which  I 
have  already  adverted  in   speaking  of  Eutsea. 
Agesilaus,   on  entering  the  Mantinice,  placed 
his  army  under  the  mountains  to  the  westward 
of  Mantineia.      On   the  following  day  he  en- 
camped at  a  distance  of  only  twenty  stades  from 
the  city.    Meanwhile,  the  troops  of  the  Arcadic 
league,  which  had  collected  at  Asea,    moved 
to  Tegea,  and  thence  towards  Mantineia.     This 
body   Agesilaus  was  fearful  of  opposing,    lest 
at  the  same  time  the  Mantinenses  should  issue 
from  the  town,  and  attack  him  in  the  flank  and 
rear  ;  he  allowed  them,   therefore,  to  effect  a 
junction.     Next  morning  he  was  joined  by  the 
cavalry  of  Phlius,  by  the  peltastae  of  Orcho- 
menus,  and  by  some  other  Arcadians,  who  had 
not  joined  the   Arcadic   league ;  these  troops 
marching  in  the  night  from   Orchomenus,  had 
passed  unperceived  under  the  walls  of  Man- 
tineia.    Agesilaus,  thus  reinforced,  led  forward 


his  forces,  but  the  evening  coming  on,  he  en- 
camped in  a  valley  surrounded  by  mountains, 
not  far  from  Manthieia,  but  quite  hidden  from 

On  the  ensuing  morning,  finding  that  the 
Mantinenses  were  gathering  on  the  hills  in  his 
rear,  he  was  obliged  to  retire  in  a  very  compact 
order  until  he  arrived  in  the  plain,  where  he 
drew  forth  his  line  with  a  depth  of  nine  or  ten 
shields.  Here,  for  the  honour  of  Sparta,  he 
thought  it  necessary  to  remain  three  days, 
although  it  was  in  the  middle  of  Manter. 
He  then  began  that  rapid  retreat  to  Eutaea 
which  has  already  been  described,  being  pro- 
bably aware  of  the  danger  to  which  he  would 
be  exposed  by  remaining  in  Arcadia ;  for  the 
Mantinenses  had  been  joined  by  the  Eleians  and 
Argives  as  well  as  by  the  Arcadians,  and  waited 
only  for  the  arrival  of  the  Boeotians  and  their 
allies,  commanded  by  Epaminondas  and  Pelo- 
pidas,  to  advance  against  him.  In  fact,  it  was  not 
long  before  this  army  arrived  at  Mantineia, 
when  Epaminondas  was  persuaded  by  the  Pelo- 
ponnesians  there  assembled  to  make  that  famous 
invasion  of  Laconia  which  silenced  for  ever  the 
proud  Spartan  saying,   "  that  their  women  had 

crr^'Trchva-xi/.ivog  dg  rov  ottio--       — Xenopll.  Helleil.  1.  6.  C.  5. 


never  beheld  the  smoke  of  an  enemy's  fire,"  and 
which  reduced  the  Lacedaemonians  nearly  to  a 
level  with  the  other  Greeks.  In  describing 
these  transactions,  Xenophon  mentions  a  place 
called  Elymia,  on  the  confines  of  the  Mantinice 
and  Orchomenia,  the  name  of  which  occurs 
in  no  other  author.  A  few  days  before  Age- 
silaus  entered  the  territory  of  the  Mantinenses, 
the  latter  had  failed  in  an  attempt  upon  Or- 
chomenus.  Xenophon  adds,  that  with  some 
difficulty  they  had  made  good  their  retreat 
to  Elymia,  where  they  found  themselves  so 
hard  Dressed  as  to  be  obliged  to  turn  and 
face  their  pursuers,  whose  leader,  Polytro- 
pus,  they  killed.  Elymia,  therefore,  seems  to 
have  been  near  the  frontier  of  the  two  districts. 
As  to  the  "  valley  surrounded  with  mountains, 
near  Mantineia,  but  quite  hidden  from  it,"  in 
which  Agesilaus  encamped  one  evening,  the 
description  seems  to  answer  better  to  the  smaller 
and  more  northern  branch  of  the  Mantinic 
plain  between  Mantineia  and  the  Argon,  than 
to  the  latter  branch  of  the  same  plain.  The 
northern  bay  corresponds  better  by  its  proxi- 
mity to  Mantineia  ;  by  Mount  Alesium  it  was 
equally  hidden  from  the  city,  while  its  small 
dimensions  and  the  nearness  of  the  incumbent 
mountains  rendered  it  a  more  hazardous  posi- 
tion to  an  army  under  the  circumstances  of  that 
of  Agesilaus. 


The  new  walls  of  Mantineia  could  not  have 
been  completed  more  than  six  years  when  the 
celebrated  battle  was  fought,  in  the  summer  of 
the  years,  c.  36%  in  which  Epaminondas  closed 
his  career  of  glory,  and  of  which  the  contempo- 
rary historian  has  left  the  clear  and  interesting 
description  which  terminates  his  Hellenic  his- 
tory '.      The  people  of  Mantineia,   and  some 
other  Arcadians,    forgetful  of  the  benefits  re- 
ceived from  Epaminondas,    and  jealous  of  his 
interference  in  their  affairs,  had  called  in  the 
assistance  of  the  Lacedaemonians  and  Athenians; 
upon  which  the  Thebans,  perceiving  that  their 
authority  in  the  Peloponnesus    could    only  be 
supported  by  arms,  sent  Epaminondas  into  the 
peninsula  at  the  head  of  an  army  of  Boeotians, 
Euboeans,  and  Thessalians,  which,  when  rein- 
forced by  the  Tegeatae  and  some  other  Pelo- 
ponnesians,  amounted,  according  to  Diodorus, 
to  30,000  foot  and  3,000  horse".     While  the 
Mantinenses  and  their  friends  of  Eleia,  Achaia, 
and  Arcadia,  were  waiting  at  Mantineia  for  the 
promised    succours    from  Athens    and   Sparta, 
Epaminondas    remained    within    the   walls   of 
Tegea  with  the  hope  of  being  able  to  intercept 
the    Lacedaemonians   in   their   march    towards 
Mantineia.  As  soon  as  he  heard  that  Agesilaus" 

a  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  7-  c.  ^  Diodorus  (1.  15.  c.  82.) 

ult.  says  Agis. 

"  Diodor.  1.  15.  c.  84. 


had  moved  out  of  Sparta,  and  had  advanced  as 
far  as  Pellana,  on  the  upper  Eurotas,  he  made 
a  sudden  march  to  Sparta,  and  would  have 
taken  the  city  but  for  the  timely  return  of  Age- 
silaus  and  the  able  conduct  of  tlie  other  king, 
Archidamus%  who,  with  only  one  hundred  men, 
crossed  the  Eurotas,  boldly  attacked  the  The- 
bans  on  the  heights  of  Menelaium,  and,  although 
with  severe  loss,  completely  arrested  their  ope- 
rations. Failing  in  this  object,  Epaminondas 
returned  to  Tegea,  and  tried  the  success  of  an- 
other surprise  in  the  opposite  direction  by  send- 
ing forward  his  cavalry  to  Mantineia,  where  he 
supposed,  (as  it  was  the  time  of  harvest,)  that 
all  the  cattle  and  men  of  Mantineia  would  be 
found  in  the  fields.  Here,  however,  he  was  also 
foiled  by  a  body  of  Athenian  cavalry  •*,  who, 
although  just  arrived  and  employed  in  quarter- 
ing themselves  in  the  town,  immediately  marched 
out  to  meet  the  enemy'.    Thus  disappointed  in 

^  Diodorus  says  Agesilaus.  hills   above  it,  in  their  way 

Both  these  names   are,   un-  from  the  Isthmus,  at  the  in- 

doubtedly,  erroneous.  stant  when  Epaminondas  ar- 

*»  Diodorus  says  they  were  rived  at  the  temple  of  Nep- 

6,000  in  number,  and  under  tune.      Plutarch   relates  the 

the  command  of  Hegelochus.  occurrence  in  the  same  man- 

'  This   is  the   account   of  ner,  and  adds,  that  the  Athe- 

Xenophon ;  but,  according  to  nians,  although  fatigued  with 

Polybius,  the  Athenians  had  their  march  and  astonished  at 

not    entered   the    town,    but  the    unexpected     encounter, 

made  their  appearance  on  the  immediately     engaged     and 


both  his  attempts  to  prevent  the  junction  of  the 
alhes,  and  finding  the  time  of  his  command 
nearly  expired,  he  thought  it  necessary,  for  the 
sake  of  his  reputation,  to  come  to  a  general  ac- 
tion. The  enemy's  army,  according  to  Dio- 
dorus,  was  still  greatly  inferior  to  his  own,  consist- 
ing only  of  about  23,000  Lacedaemonians,  Athe- 
nians, Eleians,  and  others,  of  whom  2,000  were 
cavalry.  Xenophon  then  continues  his  narra- 
tive in  the  following  terms :  "  Epaminondas 
having  formed  his  army  in  order  of  battle,  moved 
forward,  not  by  the  shortest  route  towards  the 
enemy,  but  towards  the  western  mountains  of 
Tegea  %  so  as  to  make  his  opponents  suppose, 
that  he  had  no  intention  of  fighting  that  day. 
When  he  arrived  at  the  mountain  he  drew  out  his 
phalanx  in  order  of  battle,  and  made  the  men 
lodge  their  arms  under  the  heights^,  as  if  he  de- 
signed to  remain  stationary  in  that  position.  By 
these  proceedings  the  minds  of  his  adversaries  be- 
came relaxed  in  regard  to  their  readiness  for  en- 
gaging, and  even  their  ranks  were  disordered;  as 
soon,  therefore,  as  he  had  brought  some  lochi 
from  the  wings  to  the  front,  so  as  to  strengthen  the 

repulsed  Epaminondas  from  de  Glor.  Athen. 

underthe  walls  of  Mantineia.  ^  Tr/i-  f^h  av\nofj.uraTr,v  ^^i? 

The    same  circumstances   of  Tot^? '^oXh^.'o.?  oCk  lyi^  rgi^^^^E 

the  event  were  represented  in  y  ?       ,    '  .    .' 

a    picture   by   Euphranor—  b  i^i  ,,--^   -4,,;,,;,  -'9,^,  ^^ 

Polyb.  1.  9.  c.  8.  —  Plutarch.  a^Xa. 


wedge-shaped  part  of  the  line,  where  he  himself 
was  situated  %  he  ordered  the  army  to  resume 
their  arms,  and  led  them  forward.  The  enemy, 
seeing  them  thus  unexpectedly  advance,  were 
thrown  into  confusion  :  some  ran  into  their 
ranks,  others  put  their  men  into  order  ;  some 
bridled  their  horses,  others  put  on  their  breast- 
plates ;  all  had  more  the  appearance  of  being 
about  to  suffer  than  to  act.  Epaminondas, 
meanwhile,  led  forward  his  army  like  a  ship  of 
war  bearing  down  to  the  attack,  confident  that, 
if  he  could  penetrate  in  any  one  part  of  the 
hostile  force,  he  should  easily  defeat  the  re- 
mainder ;  for  he  had  so  disposed  his  forces  as 
to  make  the  attack  with  his  best  troops,  leaving 
the  weakest  at  a  distance,  conscious  that  these, 
if  defeated,  would  discourage  those  around  him 
and  give  strength  to  the  adversaries.  The  ene- 
my's horse  were  drawn  up  like  a  battalion  of 
hoplita?,  and  had  no  infantry  to  act  with  them^j 
whereas  Epaminondas  had  formed  his  cavalry 
into  a  strong  wedge,  and  had  stationed  infantry 
with  them,  thinking,  that  as  soon  as  the  horse  had 
forced  a  way  through  the  enemy,  their  whole  army 
would  be  beaten  ;  for  it  is  very  rare  to  find  any 
willing  to  stand  when  some  of  their  own  body 
are  seen  to  fly.     To  prevent  the  Athenians  on 


the  left  wing  from  assisting  those  near  them, 
Epaminondas  stationed  a  body  of  horse  and 
heavy-armed,  upon  certain  high  grounds  %  who 
threatened  fi^om  thence  the  rear  of  the  Athe- 
nians. Thus  had  he  made  his  dispositions  for 
attack :  nor  was  he  deceived  in  his  hopes ; 
for  having  been  successful  in  the  point  to  which 
his  efforts  were  directed,  he  turned  the  whole 
army  to  flight.  But  when  he  fell  there  was  none 
left  to  make  a  proper  use  of  the  victory ;  for 
although  the  enemy's  phalanx  was  in  flight,  the 
Theban  hoplitae  neither  killed  any  of  them  nor 
moved  forward  from  the  place  where  the  attack 
had  been  made ;  nor  when  the  enemy's  horse 
was  also  in  flight  did  the  cavalry  of  Epaminon- 
das pursue  or  slay  any  either  of  the  hostile  ca- 
valry or  of  the  heavy-armed,  but,  as  if  them- 
selves had  been  beaten,  they  retired  fearfully 
through  the  routed  enemies.  The  peltastjE  and 
other  infantry  who  had  accompanied  the  cavalry, 
advanced,  in  the  full  confidence  of  victory,  to  the 
left  wing  of  the  enemy,  where  the  greater  part  of 
them  were  slain  by  the  Athenians.  Thus  ter- 
minated an  action,"  adds  the  historian,  "  the  con- 
sequences of  which  were  contrary  to  the  general 
expectation.  For  it  was  thought,  that  when  all 
Greece  was  assembled  on  one  side  or  the  other. 


the  event  of  a  battle  would  be  decisive,  and 
that  the  conquered  would  remain  subject  to  the 
conquerors  J  whereas  the  Deity  ^  so  ordered  it, 
that  both  the  armies  erected  a  trophy  without 
hindrance  from  the  adversary,  each  as  if  it  had 
been  victorious,  giving  up  the  enemy's  dead 
under  truce,  while  each  received  its  own  as  if 
it  had  been  defeated.*'  ^ 

The  position  of  Epaminondas  after  having 
failed  in  the  first  affair  with  the  Athenian  cavahy, 
appears  to  have  been  in  the  plain  to  the  south- 
ward of  Mantineia,  with  his  right  towards 
Mount  Artemisium.  His  next  movement  was 
into  the  Tegeatis,  towards  the  foot  of  Mount 
McenaluSy  southward  of  the  Scope,  that  is  to  say, 
towards  Tripolitza  ;  from  thence  he  turned 
along  the  foot  of  those  mountains  northward, 
until  his  army  was  posted  along  the  hills  from 
the  Scope  to  the  plain  of  Alcmedoriy  which  was 
their  position  previously  to  the  attack.  The  hill 
ofNestane,  or  advanced  root  of  Mount  Artemi- 
sium, which  bounds  the  Inert  Plain  on  the  south, 
was,  perhaps,  the  rising  ground  on  which  he 

*  o  ®£0{.  remained  in  a  state  of  humi- 

^  Although  the  victory  was  liation  ;   Arcadia     and   Mes- 

uncertain,  and  no  such  con-  senia  independent ;  and   the 

sequences  followed  from  the  Peninsula  had  the  happiness 

battle  as  had  been  expected,  for  the  next  fifty  years  to  con- 

the   principal   object    of   the  tribute  very  little  to  history. 
Thebans  was  attained.  Sparta 

VOL.   III.  G 


stationed  a  body  of  cavalry  and  hoplitas  to  keep 
the  Athenians  in  check. 

The  honour  of  having  killed  Epaminondas  was 
given  by  the  Athenians  and  Thebans  to  Gryllus, 
son  of  Xenophon,  but  by  the  Lacedaemonians 
to  Machaerion,  concerning  whose  origin  there 
was  a  dispute  between  them  and  the  Manti- 
nenses,  each  claiming  him  as  a  citizen.  Pau- 
sanias,  who  mentions  these  circumstances,  re- 
lates also,  that  Epaminondas  had  been  warned 
by  the  oracle  of  Delphi,  to  avoid  the  IleXajos, 
which  he  naturally  interpreted  to  mean  the 
sea.  He  was  buried  and  a  monument  erected 
to  him  in  the  place  where  he  received  his  mortal 
wound,  which  was  a  little  to  the  left  of  the 
road  to  Pallantium,  at  a  distance  of  thirty  stades 
from  Mantineia.  He  was  carried  out  of  the 
battle  to  the  adjacent  rising  ground,  and  having 
there  witnessed  the  victory  of  his  army,  he 
withdrew  his  hand  from  the  wound  and  expired  *. 
The  height  was  thenceforth  called  Scope. 

During  the  fifty-six  years  which  intervened 
between  the  victories  of  Agis  and  Epaminondas 
in  the  same  field,  the  Greeks  seem  to  have  made 
considerable  advances  in  military  discipline  and 
strategy.  Both  actions  were  gained  by  the  de- 
feat of  a  part  of  the  enemy's  centre,  but  Agis 

*  Pausau.  Arcad.  c.  11. 


had  almost  lost  the  day  by  his  want  of  plan, 
by  allowing  the  enemy  to  penetrate  his  line,  and 
defeat  one  of  his  wings,  and  by  the  want  of  dis- 
cipline indicated  by  the  conduct  of  the  two  po- 
lemarchs,  and  by  the  exclamation  of  the  old 
Spartan  soldier.  Under  Epaminondas,  on  the 
contrary,  there  appears  to  have  been  both  in 
the  previous  movements  of  the  Thebans  and  in 
their  conduct  on  the  day  of  battle,  that  perfect 
order  in  the  troops  without  which  the  wisdom 
of  the  commander  is  useless.  Epaminondas 
left  no  time  for  the  armies  to  attempt  to  out- 
flank each  other  in  the  manner  described  by 
Thucydides  in  the  first  battle  of  Mantineia ; 
but  after  having  secured  every  advantage  which 
prudence  could  suggest,  he  rendered  victory 
certain  by  that  bold  manoeuvre,  which  has  so 
often  been  successful  both  by  sea  and  land, 
of  directing  all  his  efforts  upon  one  point  of 
the  enemy's  line.  He  had,  indeed,  great  ad- 
vantages in  the  superiority  of  his  numbers  and 
the  terror  of  his  name,  which  carried  an  au- 
thority and  created  an  union  in  his  army  very 
different  from  the  former  alliance  of  the  Athe- 
nians, Argives,  and  Mantinenses,  as  discordant 
in  principle  as  it  was  ill-cemented  by  the  regu- 
lation, that  the  leader  of  the  troops  in  whose 
territory  the  action  was  fought  should  have 
the  chief  command.    He  must,  according  to  this 

G  2 


rule,  have  been  a   man  of  Mantineia,  but  his 
name  is  not  even  recorded  in  history. 

Between  the  death  of  Epaminondas  and  the 
battle  of  Mantineia,  described  by  Polybius, 
there  was  an  interval  of  one  hundred  and  fifty- 
six  years,  during  which  two  actions  are  men- 
tioned as  having  been  fought  near  the  same 
place.  Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  soon  after  his 
conquest  of  Athens,  turned  his  arms  against 
Sparta,  defeated  the  King  Archidamus  at  Man- 
tineia, and  followed  him  into  the  Laconice, 
where,  having  gained  a  second  victory,  he  had 
every  prospect  of  crowning  it  by  the  capture  of 
Sparta,  when  he  was  called  away  by  sudden  in- 
telligence of  the  losses  which  his  adherents  in 
Cyprus  and  Asia  had  sustained  from  Lysima- 
chus  and  Ptolemy^.  This  happened  in  the 
year  b.  c.  296. 

Another  action  at  Mantineia  is  described  by 
Pausanias  ^  The  contending  parties  were  the 
Achaian  league  and  the  Lacedaemonians.  The 
Mantinenses,  according  to  the  Grecian  traveller, 
occupied  the  right  wing  of  the  allies,  and  were 
composed  of  men  of  every  age,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Podares,  the  great  grandson  of  another 
Podares  who  fought  against  Epaminondas.  The 
left  wing  of  the  army   was  composed  of  the 

'  Plutarch,  in  Demet.  ''  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  10. 


other  Arcadians.  Each  city  had  its  own  leader ; 
the  MegalopoHtae  had  two,  Lydiades  and  Leo- 
cydes.  In  the  centre  stood  Aratus,  who  was 
commander  of  the  Sicyonii  and  Achaians.  The 
Lacedaemonians  under  Agis,  who  was  also  in 
the  centre  of  his  Hne,  extended  their  phalanx, 
that  they  might  equal  the  front  of  the  enemy. 
Aratus,  having  previously  made  the  Arcadians 
acquainted  with  his  design,  retreated  with  his 
forces,  as  if  he  could  not  sustain  the  attack  of 
the  Spartans,  but  he  retreated  in  such  a  manner 
that  his  army  formed  itself  into  the  shape  of  a 
a  half  moon.  The  Lacedaemonians  pressed  for- 
ward on  the  enemy's  centre,  until  their  wings 
suddenly  found  themselves  attacked  in  the  rear. 
Thus  surrounded  on  all  sides,  great  numbers  of 
them  were  slain,  and  among  them  (according  to 
Pausanias)  their  king,  Agis,  son  of  Eudamidas. 
The  Mantinenses  pointed  out  to  Pausanias, 
in  their  plain  between  the  wood  Pelagus  and 
the  temple  of  Neptune,  a  tropliy  of  stone  erected 
by  them  in  memory  of  this  action,  the  exact 
scene  of  which  is  thus  known,  the  temple  of 
Neptune  being  ascertained,  from  Polybius  and 
Pausanias,  to  have  been  on  the  road  to  Tegea, 
seven  stades  from  the  city.  It  seems,  therefore, 
that  the  meeting  occurred  in  the  same  field  as 
the  first  battle  of  Mantineia ;  that  the  Manti- 
nenses and  their  allies  were  arranged  across  the 

86  AFFAIR  OF  AGIS  IV.         [cHAP.  XXIV. 

plain  immediately  in  front  of  the  city ;  and  that 
their  opponents  were  parallel  to  them,  with  the 
wood  Pelagus  in  their  rear.  It  is  remarkable 
that  Plutarch  has  not  spoken  of  this  action  in 
his  life  of  Aratus,  and  that  in  his  life  of  Agis 
he  virtually  contradicts  one  of  the  principal 
incidents  mentioned  by  Pausanias,  by  asserting 
that  Agis  was  killed  in  a  popular  commotion  at 
Sparta,  which  the  biographer  has  particularly 
described.  In  fact,  although  Pausanias  twice  '^ 
makes  the  same  assertion  as  to  the  death  of 
Agis,  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  he  was  mis- 
taken. More  than  four  centuries  had  inter- 
vened when  he  visited  Mantineia,  and  it  is  very 
possible  that  the  Mantinenses  had  learnt  in  that 
period  to  deceive  both  themselves  and  others, 
as  to  a  circumstance  tending  greatly  to  enhance 
the  glory  of  which  they  were  partakers  on  this 
occasion.  That  the  action,  however,  really  took 
place,  notwithstanding  the  silence  of  Plutarch, 
is  strongly  confirmed  by  the  trophy  which  Pau- 
sanias saw.  The  battle  was  probably  fought 
soon  after  the  liberation  of  Corinth,  by  Aratus, 
in  the  year  b.  c.  243,  Agis  being  then  opposed 
to  him ;  whereas,  before  his  death,  which  hap- 
pened about  240  b.  c,  Agis  became  allied  with 
Aratus  against  the  ^tolians  ''. 

«  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  1 0.  27-  ''  Plutarch,  in  Agid. 


In  the  celebrated  action  recorded  by  Poly- 
bius  %  which  was  fought  in  the  year  b.  c.  206, 
and  which  was  one  of  the  last  examples  of  the 
military  skill  and  tactics  of  Greece,  Philopoe- 
mcn,  at  the  head  of  the  forces  of  the  Achaian 
league,  was  opposed  to  Machanidas  and  the 
Lacedaemonians.  One  of  the  principal  officers 
under  Philopoemen  was  Polybius,  of  Megalopo- 
lis, who  was  probably  an  uncle  of  the  historian. 
The  Achaians  were  quartered  in  the  city  of  Man- 
tineia.  "Machanidas  was  approaching  from  Te- 
gea  with  the  Spartan  phalanx,  which  was  flanked 
on  either  side  by  foreign  mercenaries  advancing 
on  a  parallel  line,  and  was  followed  by  a  great 
store  of  catapeltic  machines  in  waggons.  Philo- 
poemen, upon  receiving  the  intelligence,  moved 
out  of  Mantineia.  The  light-armed,  the  thora- 
citae,  the  Illyrians,  and  the  other  foreigners, 
took  the  road  to  the  temple  of  Neptune.  The 
phalanx  marched  out  of  the  next  gate  to  the 
westward,  and  the  cavalry  of  Mantineia  by  the 
adjoining  gate  in  the  same  direction.  The  light- 
armed  took  possession  of  a  lofty  hill  near  the 
city,  [the  Mount  Alesium  of  Pausanias,]  which 
commanded  the  road  called  Xenis,  and  the 
temple  of  Neptune.  To  the  south  of  these  were 
posted  the  thoracitae,  and  then,  in  a  line  with 

aPolyb.  1.  U.  c.  U.  el  seq. 


them,  the  Illyrians  and  the  phalanx,  the  latter 
being  separated  into  divisions  ^  with  spaces  be- 
tween them,  and  protected  in  front  by  a  ditch, 
which  crossed  the  plain  from  the  temple  of 
Neptune,  and  terminated  in  the  hills  which  se- 
parated the  Mantinice  from  the  district  of  the 
Elisphasii.'*  Possibly  this  word  ought  to  be 
Helissonii,  for  the  name  Elisphasii  occurs  no 
where  else  in  ancient  history,  whereas  the  dis- 
trict of  Helisson  was  separated  only  from  the 
Mantinice  by  the  range  of  Mount  Maenalus,  the 
roots  of  which  bounded  the  Mantinic  plain  ex- 
actly in  the  position  indicated  by  the  historian. 
The  ditch  may  have  been  intended  to  drain  the 
plain  around  the  city,  and  to  draw  off  the  wa- 
ters towards  the  katavothra  at  the  foot  of  those 
hills.  The  ditch  had  one  bridge  over  it,  was 
dry,  and  neither  deep  nor  strengthened  by  any 
fence,  yet,  being  unknown  to  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians, it  was  the  ultimate  cause  of  their  defeat. 
The  Achaian  cavalry  was  posted  on  the  foot  of 
the  hills  on  the  right  of  the  line,  which  thus 
occupied  the  entire  breadth  of  the  plain  in  front 
of  Mantineia. 

Macbanidas  advanced  with  his  phalanx  in 
column,  as  if  he  intended  an  attack  upon  the 
adversary's  right,  but  when  he  drew  near,  he 
suddenly  deployed  to  the  right,  and  made  his 


front  equal  to  that  of  the  Achaians.  He  then 
advanced  his  catapeltaa  in  front  of  his  Hne. 
Philopoemen,  as  soon  as  he  perceived  that  it 
was  the  enemy's  intention,  by  throwing  projec- 
tiles against  the  ranks  of  the  phalangitse,  to 
wound  some  of  the  men  and  create  confusion 
in  the  whole  body,  did  not  give  him  time  to 
effect  his  purpose,  but,  ordering  the  Tarentines 
to  advance,  began  the  engagement  in  the  level 
ground  near  the  temple  of  Neptune,  which 
was  well  adapted  to  the  operations  of  cavalry ; 
Machanidas  was  in  consequence  obliged  to  do 
the  same,  and  to  move  forward  his  Tarentines  \ 
The  contest  was  at  first  well  supported  by  these 
troops  only ;  but  the  light-armed  soon  joining 
in  the  action,  all  the  foreigners  on  both  sides 
soon  became  engaged.  The  event  was  for 
some  time  doubtful,  but  at  length  the  superior 
numbers  and  discipline  of  the  mercenaries  of 
Machanidas,  a  kind  of  troops,  observes  Poly- 
bius,  always  better  under  a  tyrant  than  under 
a  republic ",  completely  prevailed,  and  not  only 

^  In  an  action  between  time  formed  of  various  na- 
Philopcemen  and  Nabis,  fif-  tions.  Livy,  following  Poly- 
teen  years  afterwards,  we  find,  bias,  describes  them  as  "  quos 
in  like  manner,  that  there  Tarentinos  vocabant  equites, 
were  Tarentines  on  both  sides,  binos  secum  trahentes  equos." 
They  were  a  class  of  light  Liv.  1.  35.  c.  28. 
cavalry,  derived  originally  ^  Polybius  pursues  this  re- 
from  Tarentum,  but  at  that  flection,    and    arrives  at  the 


the  mercenaries  of  the  Achaians,  but  the  Illy- 
rians  and  thoracitee  who  supported  them  in 
the  rear,  and  who  were  headed  by  Philopoemen 
himself,  were  broken,  and  pursued  quite  to  the 
city,  which  was  seven  stades  distant.  Macha- 
nidas  having  imprudently  joined  his  own  mer- 
cenaries in  pursuit  of  the  fugitives,  Philopoe- 
men lost  not  a  moment  in  taking  advantage  of 
his  error ;  moving  the  nearest  divisions  of  the 
phalangitae,  with  the  utmost  expedition,  into 
the  space  left  vacant  by  the  retreating  mercena- 
ries, he  thus  cut  off  the  pursuers  from  their  own 
army,  and  outflanked  the  adversaries'  wing.  At 
the  same  time  he  ordered  Polybius  to  collect  as 
many  of  the  scattered  lllyrians,  thoracitae,  and 
mercenaries,  as  he  could,  and  to  wait  for  the 
return  of  Machanidas  in  the  rear  of  the  left  of 
the  phalangitas.  Meanwhile  the  Lacedemonians, 
confident  in  the  success  of  their  light-armed, 
and  without  waiting  for  orders,  lowered  their 
sarissaa,  and  rushed  forward  against  their  oppo- 
nents :  when  they  had  come  to  the  edge  of  the 
ditch,  there  was  no  longer  any  possibility  of  a 
retreat,  for  they  were  already  within  arm's 
length  of  the  enemy  j  despising,  therefore,  the 
ditch,  as  being  neither  steep  nor  having  any 

conclusion,  that  despotic  mo-  ^  tuv  ^ovol^^uv  a.a-(poi.Knot,  to  7ra- 
narchs  generally  owe  their  qxirotv  h  t*)  t5v  |skui/  ilvoix  xn- 
safetyto  foreign  mercenaries:      tasj  x««  Iwai^n. 


water  in  it  or  prickly  bushes,  they  rashly  rushed 
forward  to  pass  it.  Philopoemen,  seeing  that 
the  favourable  moment  which  he  had  expected 
liad  arrived,  immediately  directed  the  phalan- 
gitae  to  lower  their  sarissas  and  attack  in  order ; 
which  the  Achaeans  obeyed  with  so  much  una- 
nimity, and  such  a  terrible  shout,  that  the  La- 
cedaemonians, whose  ranks  had  been  thrown  into 
disorder  in  descending  into  the  ditch,  were  so 
much  terrified  at  the  position  of  the  enemy 
above  them,  that  a  part  turned  their  backs 
and  fled  :  while  the  greater  part  were  killed 
in  the  ditch,  some  by  the  Achaians,  and  some 
by  their  own  people.  All  which  happened, 
continues  Polybius,  not  by  accident,  but  in 
consequence  of  the  foresight  of  the  com- 
mander, who  had  placed  his  troops  behind  the 
ditch,  not  with  a  view  to  avoid  the  fight  as 
some  supposed,  but  because,  with  this  ditch  in 
front,  Machanidas  must  either  attack  him  to  a 
disadvantage,  or  return  ingloriously  without 
engaging,  either  of  which,  in  the  actual  circum- 
stances, must  be  greatly  advantageous  to  the 
Achaians.  The  Lacedaemonian  phalanx  being 
defeated,  Philopoemen  next  thought  of  comple- 
ting the  victory  by  preventing  the  escape  of 
Machanidas,  who,  as  soon  as  he  discovered  that 
his  phalanx  was  routed,  resolved  to  force  his 


way  through  the  enemy  with  the  foreign  troops 
who  accompanied  him.  These,  however,  as 
they  approached  the  bridge  and  found  the 
Achaians  ready  in  great  force  to  oppose  them, 
gradually  fell  off  from  the  tyrant,  and  left  him 
with  only  two  companions  riding  along  the  side 
of  the  trench,  for  the  purpose  of  finding  a  con- 
venient place  to  pass  it.  Conspicuous  by  his 
purple  robes  and  splendid  horse  furniture,  he 
was  easily  discerned  by  Philopoemen,  who, 
taking  two  men  with  him,  followed  the  Spartans 
along  the  opposite  side  of  the  trench,  and  killed 
Machanidas  with  his  own  hand,  as  he  attempted 
to  cross  it.  Simias,  one  of  the  companions  of 
Philopoemen,  was  equally  successful  against 
one  of  the  attendants  of  Machanidas ;  the 
third  escaped ;  Simias  then  cut  off  the  head 
of  Machanidas,  and  hastened  to  shew  it  to  the 
Achaians,  who  were  pursuing  the  Lacedsemo- 
aians.  Its  sight  inspired  them  with  increased 
alacrity,  and  was  in  great  measure  the  cause, 
in  the  opinion  of  Polybius,  of  their  immediate 
success  in  taking  Tegea,  and  in  advancing  the 
very  next  day,  without  any  opposition,  to  the 
Eurotas.  "  And  thus  the  Achaians  ",  he  adds, 
"  after  having  long  been  unable  to  expel  the 
enemy  from  their  country,  found  themselves  all 
at   once  laying  waste   the   Laconice ;   having, 


with  the  loss  of  a  small  number  only  of  their 
own  troops,  slain  4000  Lacedaemonians,  and 
taken  prisoners  a  still  greater  number,  together 
with  all  the  baggage  and  warlike  machinery  of 
the  army.'* 



From  Tripolitza  to  Kalpaki. — Ancient  roads  from  Manti- 
NEiA  to  Orchomenus. — Orchomenus. — Ancient  roads 
from  thence  to  Caphy^,  Pheneus,  and  Stymphalus. — 
From  Kalpaki  to  Kandili. — Mount  Lykorema. — Kasta- 
nia.  —  Fonia.  —  Stymphalus.  —  CAPHYiE.  —  Battle  of 

March  31. — At  10.55  I  leave  Tripolitza  by 
the  Anapli  gate.  Here  I  find  by  the  road  side, 
where  stands  the  permanent  gallows,  a  high 
stake  with  the  body  of  a  man  impaled  upon  it. 
He  suffered  three  or  four  days  ago,  for  having 
shot  his  wife  in  a  fit  of  jealousy ;  he  lived 
twenty  hours  after  being  impaled.  It  is  be- 
lieved, that  after  a  certain  time,  a  draught  of 
water  has  the  effect  of  putting  the  culprit  out 
of  his  misery,  and  the  coup-de-grace  is  said  to 
be  generally  given  in  this  manner.  I  take  the 
Kalavryta  road,  and,  at  11.45,  arrive  at  the  Scope^ 
or  low  ridge  of  rocks,  which,  advancing  into  the 
plain  from  a  projecting  part  of  the  Mcunaliumy 
formed  a  natural  division  between  the  districts 
of  Tegea  and  Mantineia.  At  12.14  we  are  op- 
posite the  middle  o{  the  Inert  Plain.     The  con- 

CHAP.  XXV.]       TO  KALPAKI.  95 

vent  and  village  of  Tzipiana  are  opposite  to  us, 
just  under  the  highest  summit  of  Mount  ^r/^- 
misium.  At  12.43  the  centre  of  the  ruins  of 
Mantineia  is  two-thirds  of  a  mile  on  the  riffht : 
12.55  Kapsa  is  a  mile  and  three  quarters  on  the 
left,  in  the  branch  of  the  plain  leading  to 
Levidhi.  This  branch,  the  Alcimedon  of  Pau- 
sanias,  presents  a  gradual  and  gentle  rise  to 
the  very  foot  of  the  steep  rocks  of  the  Mcs- 
nalian  range,  just  between  tw^o  of  the  great 
summits,  between  which  passes  the  road  to 
Roino,  Alonistena,  Davia,  &c.  The  summit 
of  the  hill  of  Gurtzuli  is,  at  the  same  time,  a 
mile  on  our  right. 

A  mile,  or  something  less,  beyond  the  hill  of 
Gurtzuli,  in  the  direction  of  the  Khan  of  Be- 
lali,  another  insulated  height,  much  smaller  and 
lower,  rises  from  the  plain.  At  1.28,  Simi- 
adhes  ^  is  a  mile  and  a  half  on  the  left,  in  a  si- 
tuation similar  to  that  of  Kapsa,  in  a  branch  of 
the  plain  ascending  by  a  gentle  slope  to  join 
the  elevated  valley,  along  which  we  came  from 
Levidhi  on  the  4th  of  March,  and  from  its 
southern  end  descended  upon  Kapsa.  1.45 
arrive  at  the  Khan  of  Belali,  situated  at  the 
extremity  of  the  plain  of  Ma7itineia,  at  the  foot 
of  the  heights  which  separate  it  from  that  of 


Orchomenus.  Kakuri  is  a  small  village  on  the 
foot  of  Mount  Armenia^;  a  mile  and  a  half 
on  the  right  a  road  passes  through  it  from  Pi- 
kerni  to  Butia^  and  so  into  tlie  plain  of  Orcho- 

This  may  have  been  one  of  the  roads  from 
Mantineia  to  Orchomenus,  mentioned  by  Pau- 
sanias,  and  that  which  we  pass,  the  other.  He 
thus  describes  the  two  routes " :  "  There  are 
two  roads  from  Mantineia  to  Orchomenus.  In 
one  is  the  place  called  the  Stadium  of  Ladas, 
because  Ladas  is  said  to  have  there  exercised 
himself  in  running.  Close  to  it  is  a  temple  of 
Diana,  and  on  the  right  of  the  road  a  lofty 
mound  of  earth,  said  to  be  the  tomb  of  Pene- 
lope. Adjacent  to  this  monument  there  is  a 
small  plain  containing  a  hill,  upon  which  are 
some  ruins  of  the  ancient  Mantineia.  The 
place  is  still  called  Ptolis.  At  a  small  distance 
farther  to  the  north,  occurs  the  fountain  Alal- 
comenia,  and,  at  a  distance  of  thirty  stades  from 
Mantineia,  the  ruins  of  a  town  ^,  named  Maera. 
The  other  road  [from  Mantineia]  to  Orchome- 
nus, passes  by  the  mountain  Anchisia,  at  the 
foot  of  which  is  the  sepulchre  of  Anchises,  fa- 
ther of  ^neias,  who  is  said  to  have  died  here  ; 
near  it  are  ruins  of  a  temple  of  Venus.     The 

■  'A^/:/i£na?.       ^  M-jTovTia,.       <=  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  12,       ^  xw/u.!). 

CHAP.    XXV. 3    MOUNT    ANCHISIA,    ETC.  97 

boundaries  of  the  Mantinice  are  in  the  mountain 
Anchisia.  On  proceeding  from  thence,  there 
is  a  temple  of  Diana  Hymnia  at  the  foot  of  the 
mountain,  the  administration  of  which  is  in  the 
hands  of  the  Mantinenses.  It  stands  to  the 
left  of  the  road,  within  tlie  borders  of  the  Or- 

As  the  hill  of  Gurtzuli  lies  exactly  in  the  di- 
rection of  Orchomenus  from  Mantineia^  it  may 
be  presumed  that  one  of  the  two  roads  led  on 
the  eastern  side  of  that  hill,  and  the  other  on 
the  western.  The  former  must  have  passed 
near  the  foot  of  Mount  Armenia,  from  which 
branches  the  low  ridge  forming  the  natural 
separation  between  the  Mantinice  and  Orcho- 
7nenia.  Mount  Armenia,  therefore,  corresponds 
perfectly  with  Anchisia  ;  and  Khan  Belali  being 
just  an  hour's  distance,  equivalent  to  thirty 
stades,  from  Alantineia,  corresponds  not  less 
accurately  with  the  site  of  Mcera ;  the  lower 
insulated  hill  to  the  northward  of  that  of  Gurt- 
zuli, I  take  to  be  the  position  of  PtoliSy  or  old 

I  have  before  remarked  %  that  there  were  ten 
gates  in  the  walls  of  Mantineia.  The  follow- 
ing w^as  probably  the  direction  of  the  roads 
leading  from  them  ;  the  principal  places  to 
which  they  led  may,  perhaps,  have  given  name 
^  See  Chapter  III. 

VOL.  III.  H 

98  GATES    OF    MANTINEIA.      [CHAP.  XXV. 

to  the  gates.  It  may  be  presumed  that  the  road 
to  Argos,  called  Prinus,  proceeded  from  the 
eastern  gate,  or  that  standing  very  near  the  junc- 
tion of  the  two  brooks,  which  descending  from 
the  mountains  to  the  eastward,  unite  and  form 
the  wet  ditch  of  the  fortification.  The  next  road, 
southward,  seems  to  have  been  that  which  led  to 
Tegea  through  the  forest  of  various  kinds  of  oak, 
called  Pelagus  ;  beyond  the  point  of  Nestane,  it 
had  probably  a  branch  to  Hysiae  by  Mount  Par- 
thenium.  The  3d  led  to  Pallantium.  Tlie4th  to 
Maenalus.  The  5th  to  Helisson.  The  6th  to  Me- 
thydrium.  The  7th  to  Nasi  and  the  Ladon,  being 
the  road  to  Cleitor,  Psophis,  &c.  The  8th  to  Or- 
chomenus  by  Maera.  The  9th  to  Orchomenus 
by  Anchisia.  The  10th  to  Argos  by  the  road 
Climax,  probably  with  a  branch  to  the  left  from 
Melangeia  to  Orneae  and  Phlius. 

At  Q,35  we  quit  the  Khan  of  Belali,  and  as- 
cend the  hills  behind  it.  The  summit  com- 
mands a  fine  view  of  the  great  plain  of  Tripo- 
litza,  with  the  country  beyond  it  as  far  as  Dhu- 
liana  inclusive.  Mount  Armenia,  with  which 
this  low  ridge  is  connected  eastward,  is  a  high 
rocky  peak  rising  from  the  north-western  corner 
of  the  Mantinic  plain,  and  blending  itself  with 
the  northern  end  of  Artemisiiim.  Westward, 
the  ridge  of  Belali  is  separated  only  from  the 
mountain  behind  Levidhi  by  the  narrow  valley 


which  I  passed  through  on  March  the  4th.  At 
3,  descend  into  the  plain  of  Or cho menus.  Here 
a  small  stream  runs  in  a  direction  contrary  to 
that  we  pursue,  and  cannot  therefore  be  a 
tributary  of  the  lake  of  Orchomenus  ;  it  de- 
scends probably  into  a  katavothra,  and  flows  to 
the  Helisson.  Two  large  roots  of  Mount  Ar- 
menia slope  to  the  westward,  and  inclose  two 
branches  of  the  Orcliomenian  plain ;  in  the  se- 
cond of  these  two  koXttoi,  or  bays,  at  3.20,  we 
have  Butia  one  mile  on  the  right,  at  the  same 
time  that  Levidhi  is  two  miles  on  the  left.  Be- 
yond the  vale  of  Butia,  we  follow  the  foot  of  a 
rocky  precipitous  mountain ;  and  at  3.40,  having 
arrived  opposite  to  the  village  of  Kalpaki,  which 
is  half  a  mile  distant  on  the  left,  cross  a  canal 
apparently  of  ancient  date :  it  conducts  the 
waters  of  the  plain  we  have  passed  into  a  nar- 
row ravine  between  the  hill  of  Kalpaki  and 
the  precipices  above  mentioned ;  the  stream 
descends  through  the  ravine  into  the  lake, 
which  occupies  a  large  part  of  the  lower  Orcho- 
menian  plain.  Having  crossed  the  canal,  we 
ride  up  to  Kalpaki,  which  stands  on  the  side  of 
the  hill  rising  from  the  left  bank  of  the  torrent. 
All  that  Pausanias  says  of  Orchomenus*  is, 
that  "  The  old  city  was  on  the  summit  of  the 
mountain,  where  still  remained  some  ruins  of 
•"  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  13. 

H  2 


the  Agora,  as  well  as  vestiges  of  the  town  walls; 
below  which  stood  the  inhabited  town  of  his 
time.  The  most  remarkable  objects  in  it  were 
a  source  of  water,  and  temples  of  Neptune  and 
Venus,  with  statues  of  stone.  In  the  suburb  * 
there  was  a  wooden  statue  of  Diana,  inclosed 
in  a  great  cedar  tree,  and  hence  called  Cedreatis. 
Below  the  town  were  several  heaps  of  stones 
said  to  have  been  erected  to  some  persons 
slain  in  battle,  whose  history  was  not  recorded. 
Opposite  to  the  city  was  the  mountain  Trachy, 
between  which  and  the  city  the  rain  waters 
flowed  through  a  glen  ^  into  another  Orcho- 
menian  plain  '',  which  was  extensive,  but  was, 
for  the  most  part,  occupied  by  a  lake." 

In  approaching  the  site  of  Orchomenus,  I 
observed,  to  our  left,  the  tumuli  which  are  cor- 
rectly described  by  Pausanias,  as  being  chiefly 
composed  of  a  collection  of  stones.  The  pre- 
cipitous hill,  which  rises  from  the  right  bank  of 
the  charadra,  or  torrent,  answers  exactly  to  the 
name  of  Irachy. 

Just  above  Kalpaki,  on  a  small  level  on  the 
side  of  the  mountain,  I  find  several  pieces 
of  white  marble  columns,  the  remains  of  a 
temple  which  stood  here.  One  of  them  has  the 
plinth,  capital,  and  the  upper  part  of  the  flutings 

CHAP.  XXV.]       ORCHOMENUS.  101 

of  the  shaft,  all  in  one  stone  ;  the  diameter  of 
the  column  is  two  feet  one  inch.  It  is  Doric, 
but  of  an  unusual  profile,  the  upper  extremity 
of  the  capital  meeting  the  plinth 
nearly  in  a  right  angle,  thus:  In 
the  same  place  there  is  a  piece 
of  a  smaller  column,  one  foot  seven  inches  in 
diameter,  with  the  elegant  acute, 
or  flattened  capital  of  the  more 
ancient  Doric.  I  find  also  two 
shafts,  each  formed  of  a  single  stone,  and  having 
flutings  of  three  inches  and  two  fifths  at  the 
bottom  of  the  shaft,  which  is  very  tapering,  like 
that  in  the  mosk  at  Tripolitza.  The  latter  re- 
mains are  at  a  ruined  church  below  the  village, 
between  the  canal  and  a  copious  fountain,  which 
is  evidently  that  described  by  Pausanias  ;  the 
remains  of  the  two  temples  seem  to  be  those  of 
Neptune  and  Venus.  The  summit  of  the  hill, 
which  is  spacious,  is  surrounded  by  remains  of 
the  walls  of  the  more  ancient  Orchomenus  ;  the 
masonry  in  some  parts  has  all  the  appearances 
of  a  remote  antiquity.  Orchomenus  resembled 
most  of  the  other  Arcadian  cities  in  having 
occupied,  in  early  times,  the  summit  of  a 
strong  hill ;  it  was  probably  not  so  important 
in  those  ages  as  it  became  when  the  towns 
aroimd  Megalopolis  were  deserted.  It  then 
spread  over   the   slope,  towards  the  charadra; 

102  OIICHOMENUS.  [chap.  XXV. 

the  old  site  probably  serving  as  an  Acro- 
polis to  the  new  town,  until  its  walls  fell  to  ruin, 
in  which  state  Pausanias  found  them.  I  per- 
ceive some  remains  of  terraces  on  the  slope  of 
the  mountain,  looking  towards  Kandila,  and 
others  on  the  back  of  the  ridge  towards  the 
ravine  of  Mount  Trachy.  At  the  foot  of  the 
hill  on  the  north-western  side,  I  was  informed 
of  another  fountain,  standing  near  a  ruined 
church,  in  which  are  some  ancient  marbles. 
All  the  slope  of  the  hill  facing  the  Trachy,  and 
below  the  village,  is  covered  with  broken  stones 
and  pottery;  there  are  traces  also  of  walls  below 
Kalpaki,  which  shew  that  the  later  Orchomenus 
reached  nearly  to  the  plain. 

I  leave  Kalpaki  at  4.12,  descend  into  the 
ravine  of  Mount  Trachy  at  4.23,  and  in  five 
minutes,  having  passed  through  it,  enter  the  oKKo 
^Opyoixlviov  Tvehlov  of  Pausanias,  or  the  northern 
plain  of  OrcJiomenus.  The  difference  of  level 
between  tiie  two  plains  appears  to  me  to  be  not 
less  than  two  hundred  feet.  The  stream  from 
the  upper  plain  runs  rapidly  through  the  gorge 
between  Trachy  and  the  city,  falhng  over  the 
rocks,  and  turning  a  mill.  It  then  crosses  a 
part  of  the  plain  into  the  lake  which  extends 
westward  to  the  foot  of  the  heights  of  Bazeniko, 
along  the  summit  of  which  I  passed  on  March 
3d,  in  the  road  from  Tara  to  Levidhi.     Baze- 


iiiko,  as  1  then  remarked,  stands  on  the  edge 
of  an  elevated  valley,  in  the  middle  region 
of  the  ]\I(pnaUan  chain ;  its  level  is  about  as  high 
as  that  of  Levldhi,  and  it  is  consequently  above 
the  level  of  the  upper  plain  of  Orchomcmis,  in 
which  the  water-courses  from  Levidhi  and  the 
other  surrounding  heights  collect,  and  flow  along 
the  artificial  trench  to  the  charadra  between 
Orchomenus  and  the  Trachy,  The  north-west- 
ern side  of  the  lake  is  bordered  by  a  small  plain, 
in  which  stands  the  village  of  Khotussa,  not  far 
from  the  foot  of  a  mountain,  called  Kastania, 
which  separates  this  plain  from  the  vale  of  Tara. 
Half  an  hour  from  Khotusa,  on  the  side  of  the 
mountain  which  takes  an  eastern  direction  from 
Kastania  towards  Kandila,  stands  the  village  of 
Bedeni.  The  lake  of  Orchomenus^  like  all  the 
Pelopo7inesian  lakes,  has  its  zerelhra^  or  katavo- 
thra.  The  place  is  called  Pliasa,  and  is  situated 
at  the  north-western  extremity  of  the  lake, 
under  Bazeniko ;  the  waters  issue  again  under 
Koma,  on  the  northern  side  of  Mount  Kastania, 
and  flow  from  thence  to  the  river  of  Vitina, 
which,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  they  join 
near  the  Khan  of  Tara.  At  Khotussa,  which 
stands  near  the  edge  of  the  lake,  there  is  a  small 
insulated  height,  upon  which  are  some  remains 
of  the  walls  of  Caphijci'.     As  the  topography  of 

104  TENEIiE.  [chap.  XXV. 

the  battle  of  Caphyae  is  much  connected  with 
that  of  the  country  I  am  about  to  visit  to  the 
northward  and  eastward,  I  shall  defer  for  the 
present  any  remarks  on  that  celebrated  oc- 
currence in  the  military  history  of  Greece. 

The  plain  of  Caphi/w^  of  which  I  had  a  good 
view  on  March  3d,  and  which  is  well  seen  also 
from  the  summit  of  the  hill  of  Orchomenus,  is 
not  visible  from  our  present  road,  which  pursues 
the  foot  of  the  rocky  range  of  TracJiy,  leaving 
all  the  lower  Orchomenian  plain  on  the  left.  At 
4.50  several  streams  issue  from  under  the  rocks 
on  the  right,  and  immediately  enter  a  deep 
marsh,  in  which  there  are  probably  other  springs. 
These,  with  the  charadra  from  the  glen  of  Tra- 
chy,  and  the  torrent  of  Kandili,  are  the  waters 
which  constitute  the  lake  of  Orcho7nenus.  It 
appears,  from  the  following  passage  of  Pausanias, 
that  the  fountains  just  mentioned  are  the  ancient 
Teneiae^.  "After  proceeding"  he  says,  *'three 
stades  out  of  Orchomenus,  occurs  the  road  to  Ca- 
phyae, which  leads  at  first  along  the  ravine,  and 
then  turns  to  the  left  along  the  side  of  the  lake  ". 
Another  road  crosses  the  torrent,  and  passes  un- 
der Mount  Trachy,  to  the  tomb  of  Aristocrates,  be- 

*    Pausan.  Arcad.  C.  13.  ko.)  fxi-roc  ra.VTriv  iv  up^TTi^cc  Tiagcc 

CHAP.  XXV.]]  KANDILI.  105 

yond  which  are  the  fountains  called  Teneifie.  Seven 
stades  farther  is  the  village'  Amilus,  which  they 
say  was  once  a  city.  Here  again  the  road  divides 
into  two,  one  leading  to  Stymphalus,  the  other 
to  Pheneus.  That  to  Pheneus  crosses  a  moun- 
tain, in  which  the  confines "  of  the  Orchomenii, 
Pheneatae,  and  Caphyatse  meet  in  the  same  point. 
Above  the  boundaries  rises  a  precipitous  rock, 
called  the  Caphyatic  rock ; — the  road  then  passes 
through  a  ravine  ",  in  which  there  is  a  stream 
rising  from  a  fountain.  At  the  extremity  of  the 
glen  stands  Caryag,  below  which  lies  the  plain  of 
the  Pheneatae." 

Our  road,  after  reaching  the  end  of  the  plain, 
passes  under  the  monastery  of  Kandili,  which 
is  situated  half  a  mile  on  the  right,  in  the  front 
of  a  cavern,  on  the  face  of  a  precipitous  moun- 
tain, which  is  connected  with  Trachy  and  An- 
chisia.  We  then  pursue  a  small  branch  of 
the  same  plain,  along  the  middle  of  which 
flows  the  torrent  of  Kandili,  descending  towards 
the  lake.  After  following  up  this  branch 
of  the  plain  about  twenty  minutes  from  below 
the  monastery,  we  arrive,  at  5.40,  at  the  village 
of  Kandili'*.  It  consists  of  100  houses,  dis- 
persed upon  the  wide  bed  of  the  torrent,  and 

106  TO    FONIA.  [chap.  XXV. 

closely  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  high  rocky 
mountains,  the  sides  of  which  are  covered  with 
firs,  and  the  summits  now  tipt  with  snow.  No- 
thing can  well  be  clearer  than  the  description 
which  Pausanias  has  given  of  the  roads  from 
Orchomenus  to  Caphyae,  Pheneus,  and  Stym- 
phalus.  The  first  made  a  half  circuit  of  the 
lake  to  Caphyag.  The  road  to  Pheneus  crossed 
the  plain  a  little  after  passing  the  fountains 
Tejieice,  ascended  the  mountains  not  far  on 
the  right  of  a  zevgalati  of  the  monastery  of 
Kandili,  passed  between  the  mountains  Saeta 
and  Lykorema,  and  entered  the  plain  of  Flieneus 
at  Gioza  ^,  which  appears  to  be  the  site  o^  Caryce. 
The  third  route  passed  by  KandiU ;  I  follow  it 
April  1,  this  morning. — Sending  my  baggage 
by  the  direct  road  to  Fonia,  which,  from  the 
village  of  Kandili,  immediately  ascends  the 
mountain  and  soon  joins  the  road  from  Kalpaki 
to  Fonia,  which  was  the  ancient  route  from  Or- 
chomenus to  Pheneus,  I  ascend  the  pass  at  the 
back  of  Kandili  which  separates  the  high  summit 
known  by  the  name  of  Skipezi,  or  Lykorema, 
from  that  to  the  south-east  of  Kandih,  which  is 
connected  with  Mount  Armenia,  and  is  com- 
monly called  Aio  Konstantin.  Leaving  the 
village  at  8.8,  I  arrive,   at  9,  on  the   dhiasylo 

CHAP.  XXV.]  SKOTINI.  107 

(ScdavXov,)  a  word  signifying  a  connecting 
ridge  or  natural  pass,  and  more  commonly  used 
in  Arcadia,  than  the  ordinary  word  ^vyos.  The 
mountain  on  the  left  has  a  remarkable  cavern, 
or  shady  hollow,  which  contains  snow  all  the 
summer,  an  unlucky  circumstance  for  the  poor 
Kandiliotes,  who  are  obliged  to  supply  the  Serai 
at  TripoHtza  from  it,  and  carry  the  snow  there 
at  their  own  expense.  From  the  pass  we  look 
down  to  the  right  upon  a  narrow  valley  wliich 
has  an  eastern  direction,  and  is  watered  by  a 
small  stream  running  westward,  and  ending  in 
a  katavothra,  of  which  the  2'eneia^  are  pro- 
bably the  emissory.  Near  the  western  extremity 
of  the  valley  just  below  us,  I  perceive  the  village 
of  Skotini.  Beyond  the  valley  is  seen  a  part  of 
the  plain  of  St.  George,  (the  Phliasia ;)  the 
valley  itself  was  probably  the  district  of  the  an- 
cient Alea,  of  which  some  remains  might,  per- 
haps, be  found  in  it.  On  the  side  of  the  moun- 
tain which  rises  from  the  southern  side  of  the 
valley  of  Skotini,  is  situated  the  village  Bu- 
yati,  but  not  in  sight.  Beyond  the  plain  of 
Phlius  appear  the  mountains  between  Argos 
and  Corinth ;  in  the  opposite  direction  is  a 
view  of  Orchomeniis  and  its  two  plains. 

From  the  dhiasylo  we  turn  to  the  left  of  our 
former  direction,  and  begin  to  descend  into 
the  Sti/mphalia— leave  the  summit  of  the  Col  at 


9.9,  and,  after  skirting  the  side  of  the  mountain 
for  a  short  distance,  descend  the  Lykorema  *  ;  it 
is  a  ravine  between  two  lofty  summits,  covered 
with  firs  mixed  with  a  few  ilex  and  other  trees, 
among  which   I   see  some  yews.     On  the  de- 
scent, we  arrive  at  a  fine  source  of  water.    Here 
the    inhabitants    of  the    neighbouring  villages 
often  wait  in  summer  to  shoot  the  deer  ^  w  hen 
they  come  here  to  drink,  the  other  springs  and 
waters  of  the  mountain  being  then  dry.     My 
guides  describe  the  deer  as  being  sometimes  as 
large  as  an  ox,  and  as  having  long  branching 
antlers,  which  are  renew^ed  every  year.    Wolves 
are   said    to    be    common,   as    might    be    pre- 
sumed from  the   name    of  the   glen.      Hares 
also  are  numerous.     I  see  some  bushes  of  wild 
gooseberry  in  the  mountain  with  the  fruit  just 
formed ;  it  is  called  XovXovariBa :  the  children, 
they  say,  come  in   the  season  and  gather  the 
fruit.     We  descend  along  a  rivulet  which  flows 
from  the   spring,  and  at   10.45   arrive    at    the 
edge  of  the  plain  of  Stymphahis  :  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  descent,  our  direction  bore  obliquely 
to  the  left,  leaving  on  the  right  the  lake  of 
Zaraka,  or  Stymphalus,  the  katavothra  of  which 
were  in  sight,  and  distant  from   us  about  two 
miles.     Like  most  of  these  subterraneous  en- 

**  AvyJj^iil^a.,  wolf's  torrent.  ^  \h%(pix. 


trances,  it  is  a  cavern  at  the  foot  of  a  limestone 
precipice,  terminating  the  slope  of  a  steep 
rocky  mountain.  Opposite  to  the  katavothra, 
on  the  northern  side  of  the  lake,  and  distant 
from  it  a  mile  and  a  half,  there  is  a  remarkable 
rocky  projection  of  Mount  Zyria,  the  steep 
termination  of  which  forms  the  northern  side  of 
the  valley  of  Stijmphalus.  Between  this  pro- 
montory and  another  advancing  ridge  of  Mount 
Zyria,  to  the  eastward,  there  is  a  hollow,  or 
valley,  in  which  are  three  or  four  small  villages, 
containing  from  four  to  ten  houses  each,  and 
all  known  by  the  name  of  Kionia.  The  first 
mentioned  cape  advances  nearly  to  the  margin 
of  the  lake,  and  in  winter  there  is  no  road 
but  along  the  heights  upon  which  stood  the 
city  of  Stymphalus.  The  natives  do  not  con- 
firm the  assertion  of  Pausanias,  that  in  summer 
there  is  no  lake,  though  it  is  confined  to  a  small 
circuit  around  the  katavothra.  At  the  eastern 
end  of  the  vale  of  Kionia  there  is  a  copious  kefa- 
lovrysi,  which  is  the  source  of  the  river  Stjjmplia- 
lus.  In  summer  the  river  flows  obliquely  for  two 
miles  across  the  plain  ;  at  this  season  it  becomes 
enveloped  in  the  waters  of  the  lake,  at  a  short  dis- 
tance from  the  sources.  Its  course,  however,  is 
traceable  through  the  shallower  water  to  the  kata- 
vothra, so  that  it  seems  not  to  contribute  much  to 
the  lake,  which  is  formed  by  the  rain  water  falling 


on  the  two  lofty  mountains  to  the  north  and 
south,  added  to  the  contributions  of  two  small 
rivers  which  join  the  lake  at  the  two  extremi- 
ties; that  to  the  westward  rises  in  the  hills 
near  Kastania ;  the  eastern  flows  from  a  low 
woody  ridge,  which  terminates  the  prospect  in 
that  direction.  On  this  ridge  stands  the  village 
of  Tusia,  and  between  it  and  the  eastern  end  of 
the  site  of  Stymphalus  is  the  vale  of  Zaraka, 
which  village  is  about  a  mile  from  the  eastern 
extremity  of  the  lake.  The  plain  of  Stympha- 
liis  is  about  six  miles  in  length,  of  which,  at 
present,  the  lake  occupies  a  third  in  the  middle. 
The  ancient  town  surrounded  the  projecting 
cape,  and  extended  from  thence  to  the  source 
of  the  river  inclusive.  The  principal  remains 
are  upon  or  near  the  promontory,  and  consist 
of  ruins  of  polygonal  walls,  the  vestiges  of  a 
temple  on  the  summit  of  the  projection,  and,  to 
the  eastward  of  it,  the  scattered  remains  of  another 
temple  near  a  large  ruined  church,  w^iich  seems 
to  shew  that  Stj/mphalus  WHS  the  site  of  a  consider- 
able place  under  the  Byzantine  empire  \     The 

^  Its  name  I    cannot  dis-  in  the  Phliasia.    There  is  still 

cover.     According  to  Chalco-  a     village     named       Tharso 

condylas^   (I.    9.)  when   Ma-  (ea^c-i;-)    to    the    north-east- 

homet  the  Second,  in  the  year  ward    of    Fonia,   whence    it 

1458,  marched  through  this  seems  possible    that   Kionia, 

part  of  the  country,  he  took  lying  between  that  situation 

Tccpa-oq  and  'Ay.f^Q^  and  'PotV.o.)-,  and  the  Phliasia,  may  be  the 


temple  was  probably  that  of  Diana,  mentioned 
by  Paiisanias.  On  the  cape,  perhaps,  stood  a 
temple  of  Neptune,  for  he  was  a  favourite 
deity  among  the  Arcadians,  and  his  temples 
often  occupied  such  projecting  heights  ^.  The 
situation  of  Stymphalus  was  very  important  in 
a  military  point  of  view,  as  it  commanded  one 
of  the  most  frequented  routes  in  the  Pelopon- 
nesus, that  leading  to  the  westward  from  the 
Corinthia  and  the  Argolis.  It  is  evident  that  in 
the  winter  the  only  convenient  route  was  through 
the  city  itself.  The  name  Stymphelus,  or,  accord- 
ing to  the  local  pronunciation,  which  was  also  that 
of  the  greater  part  of  the  Peloponnesus,  Stym- 
phalus, was  applied  not  only  to  the  town,  but 
to  the  great  mountain  connected  with  and  lying 
southward  of  Mount  Cyllene,  which  rose  above 
the  town  ;  to  the  source  of  water  which  issued 
from  the  foot  of  the  mountain ;  to  the  river  formed 
by  the  source;  and,  in  the  adjective  form,  to  the 
lake  through  which  the  river  flowed. 

The  mountain  which  rises  from  the  southern 
side  of  the  valley  opposite  to  Stymplialus,  and 
at  the  foot  of  which  is  the  katavothra,  was  an- 

situation  of  Acribe.     But   I  or  in  the  modern  catalogues, 

cannot  learn  that  either  this  except  that  of  Polyphengus, 

name    or   Rhupele   are   now  which  was  on  the  site  of  the 

in  existence  ;  nor    do  I   find  ancient  Phlius. 

any    bishopric    in    this    part  ^  Uoa-ilcux.  l-rr)   ra';'?   a/crai?. 

of    the    country,     either    in  Strabo,  p.  343. 

the   Notitise    Episcopatuum, 


ciently  called  Apelauriim,  as  we  learn  from  Po- 
lybius,  who  has  described  Apelaurum  as  rising 
in  face  of  Stymphalus,  at  a  distance  of  ten 
stades  \  There  was  probably  a  small  town 
also  of  Apelaurus,  for  Livy  mentions  it  as  a 
place  in  the  Stymphalia,  where  the  Achaean 
forces  under  Nicostratus  were  assembled  pre- 
viously to  their  march  to  Cleonae  and  Corinth, 
near  which  latter  place  they  gained  a  complete 
victory  over  the  Macedonians  under  Andro- 
sthenes  ^. 

Pausanias  speaks  of  Stymphalus  in  the  fol- 
lowing terms  *" :  "  The  Stymphalii  are  not  now 
numbered'^  among  the  Arcadians,  but  belong  to 
the  Argoliccommunity%  having  voluntarily  trans- 
ferred themselves  to  it ;  but  that  they  are  of  Ar- 
cadian race,  the  words  of  Homer  testify,  as  well 
as  Stymphalus,  the  founder,  who  was  the  third 
in  descent  from  Areas,  the  son  of  Callisto.  It 
is  said  that  the  place  was  originally  founded 
in  another  situation,  and  not  where  the  city 
now  stands.  In  the  present  city  there  is 
a  source,  from  which  the  Emperor  Hadrian 
conducted  water  to  Corinth.  In  the  winter 
season  this  fountain  forms  a  small  lake,  in  sum- 
mer there  is  no  lake  ;  but  only  a  river  flowing 

^  TO  'A7r=?iaupov  Tr^oKstTai  t)5?      battle  of  Cyiioscephalae,  b.  c. 

rioil   J^TVjjI.^CcXiUI/  'TTOXiUi;   TTS^t    SlKCC  197- 

^TK^ia.  Polyb.  ].  4.  c.  69.  c  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  22. 

^  Liv.  1.  33.  c.  14.  It  hap-  d  ^ira.yiA.ivot. 

pened  in  the  same  year  as  the  ^  U  to  'Apyo'Kiy.ov  a-wreXova-i. 


from  the  fountain  ;  this  river  descends  into  a 
chasm  of  the  earth,  and,  appearing  again  in 
the  ArgoHs,  is  there  called  Erasinus  instead 
of  Stymphalus.  It  is  reported  that  the  lake 
of  Stymphalus  formerly  produced  birds  which 
devoured  men,  and  that  they  were  destroyed 
by  the  arrows  of  Hercules.  These  Stym- 
phalides  are  as  large  as  cranes,  but  their  form 
resembles  that  of  the  Ibis  ;  their  beaks,  how- 
ever, are  stronger,  and  not  crooked  like  the 
beak  of  the  Ibis  %  In  Stymphalus  there  is  an 
ancient  temple  of  Diana  Stymphalia,  with  a 
wooden  statue,  of  which  the  greater  part  is 
gilded  ;  under  the  roof  of  the  temple  are  figures 
of  the  birds  Stymphahdes  :  it  is  difficult  to  dis- 
tinguish whether  they  are  made  of  wood  or 
plaster ;  to  me  they  appeared  to  be  of  wood. 
Behind  the  same  temple  stand  statues  of  white 
marble,  representing  young  women  with  the 
legs  and  thighs  of  birds." 

The  present  natives  concur  in  the  ancient 
belief,  that  the  river  which  enters  the  zerethra 
of  Mount  Apelaurum  issues  again  at  the  mills 
of  Argos.  The  fact  of  their  belief  is  the  more 
curious,  as  the  distance  between  the  two  points 
is  much  greater  than  the  length  of  any  of  the 
other  subterraneous  rivers  of  the  Peloponnesus, 

^  Some    of   the    coins    of      head  of  the  birds  exactly  as 
Stymphahis     represent     the      Pausanias  here  describes  it. 
VOL.  III.  I 


and  several  high  mountains  and  intersecting 
ridges  intervene.  It  is  probably  a  tradition, 
the  truth  of  which  had  in  ancient  times  been 
ascertained  by  experiment ;  this  would  not 
be  difficult  by  the  means  of  any  light  sub- 
stance thrown  in  considerable  quantity  into  the 

We  descend  into  the  western  end  of  the 
Stjjmphalian  valley  at  a  small  advanced  height 
of  Mount  Skipezi,  which  here  projects  into  the 
plain,  and  on  the  crest  of  which  I  perceive  in 
several  parts  the  foundations  of  a  Hellenic  wall 
formed  of  large  quadrangular  stones.  They 
are  remains,  I  suspect,  of  the  castle  of  Oli- 
gyrtus.  A  mile  farther,  in  a  corner  of  the 
plain  just  under  the  summit  of  Mount  Skipezi, 
stands  Laf  ka ;  on  the  opposite  slope  of  Mount 
Zyria  is  Bash,  a  zevgalati  belonging  to  Nuri 
Bey.  All  this  plain  is  in  the  vilayeti  of  Corinth, 
which  includes  also  Fonia  and  Gioza.  Quitting 
the  ancient  fortress  at  10.55,  and  passing- 
through  the  vineyards  which  occupy  all  this  end 
of  the  Stymphalian  plain,  we  leave  Laf  ka  three 
quarters  of  a  mile  on  the  left,  and,  at  11.10, 
cross  a  brisk  stream  flowing  towards  the  lake 
from  the  little  valley  of  Kastania,  which 
branches  out  of  this  end  of  the  plain.  Soon  after- 
wards we  recross  the  stream,  and  passing  up  the 
valley  begin,  at  11^,  to  mount  the  dhiasylo,  or 

CHAP.   XXV.]  KASTANIA.  115 

lower  ridge,  which  connects  the  Cyllenian  sum- 
mits with  those  of  Mount  Skipezi,  and  which 
thus  forms  a  natural  separation  between  the 
^tymphalia  and  Pheneotice.  This  connecting 
ridge  was  anciently  called  Gerontcium.  Here 
is  a  khan,  which  has  been  built  by  the  people 
of  Kastania  to  keep  travellers  out  of  their  vil- 
lage ;  for  the  pass  is  upon  a  road  of  considerable 
traffic,  leading  from  Anapli,  Argos,  and  Co- 
rinth, to  Fonia,  Kalavryta,  and  Patra.  The 
two  roads  from  Argos  and  from  Corinth  unite 
in  the  plain  of  Phlius,  and  lead  from  thence 
through  the  site  o^  Stymphalus  to  Kastania.  At 
11.45,  at  three-fourths  of  the  ascent,  we  turn 
out  of  the  road  to  the  right,  and,  at  11.55,  ar- 
rive at  Kastania.  There  are  two  makhaladhes, 
or  separate  quarters,  with  tw-enty  or  twenty-five 
houses  in  each.  The  place  possesses  large  flocks 
of  sheep  and  goats  which  are  fed  in  the  neigh- 
bouring pastures  of  Mount  Zyria,  and  produce 
a  considerable  quantity  of  cheese,  which  is 
usually  sold  to  Adriatic  ships  at  Vostitza  or 
Corinth.  The  first  question  which  the  proestos 
asks  me  is,  why  the  Sclavonians  do  not  come  as 
usual  to  take  away  their  cheese,  and  he  com- 
plains of  their  misery  in  consequence. 

I  quit  Kastania  at  Ij,  return  into  the  main 
road,  and,  at  1.48,  reach  the  summit  of  the 
pass,  which  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  plain 

I  2 


of  Fonia.  Moving  forward  at  2.15,  we  descend 
the  western  face  of  Mount  Geronteium  ob- 
liquely, in  the  direction  of  the  town  of  Fonia. 
Tricrena  seems  to  have  been  on  the  summit  of 
the  ridge  fartlier  north ;  for,  according  to  Pau- 
sanias,  it  was  situated  to  the  left  of  the  summit  of 
Geronteium  in  travelHng  from  Pheneus  to  Stym- 
phalus,  and  on  the  boundary  line  of  the  Phenea- 
tice  and  Stymphalia,  which  followed  the  crest  of 
Geronteium^.  Tricrena  was  so  called  from  three 
fountains,  and  was  famed  for  being  the  place  in 
which  the  nymphs  of  the  mountain  bathed  Mer- 
cury when  he  was  born.  A  neighbouring  moun- 
tain, called  Sepia,  above  which  rose  Cyllene, 
contained  the  tomb  of  j^pytus,  son  of  Elatus, 
who  was  said  to  have  there  perished  by  the 
bite  of  a  serpent  and  to  have  been  buried 
on  the  spot.  The  tomb  was  situated  under 
Mount  Cyllene '',  and  was  a  small  heap  of 
earth  surrounded  by  a  basis'^.  Hence  Sepia 
appears  to  have  been  the  lofty  summit  or  part 
of  Cyllene  which  rises  abruptly  from  the  plain 
of  Fonia,  east  from  that  town  and  north  from 

We  halt  five  minutes  on  the  descent  of  the 

a  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  16,  17-  22. 

Almriov  ircc^ot  rvfjiQoy, — II.  B.  604. 

Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  16. 

CHAP.  XXV.]  FONIA.  117 

mountain,  and,  at  3.15,  avrive  at  a  tjiftlik,  be- 
longing to  Nuri  Bey  of  Corinth,  consisting  of 
twenty  or  thirty  houses,  with  a  large  white 
pyrgo.  There  is  another  of  the  same  descrip- 
tion a  mile  and  a  half  farther  north,  on  the  side 
of  the  mountain,  and  two  others,  smaller,  still 
farther  in  the  same  direction.  At  3.20  enter 
the  plain  five  minutes  below  the  first-mentioned 
village,  and,  crossing  it  in  the  direction  of  Fo- 
nia,  pass  the  river  anciently  called  Olbius  or  Aroa- 
niusat3.40 — at  3.50  arrive  at  the  insulated  height 
upon  which  stood  the  ancient  Pheneus,  and 
where  still  remain,  on  the  side  towards  the  mo- 
dern Fonia,  some  pieces  of  the  walls  with  square 
and  round  towers.  Quitting  the  hill  of  ancient 
Pheneus  at  4^,  I  arrive,  at  4.45,  at  my  konak, 
in  the  middle  of  the  kalyvia  of  Fonia,  which  is 
much  larger  than  Fonia  itself. 

Before  I  proceed  to  describe  the  Pheneatice, 
I  shall  here  insert,  as  being  the  most  convenient 
place,  a  few  remarks  on  the  topography  of  Ca- 
phyae,  particularly  as  relating  to  the  battle. 
Pausanias  has  accurately  defined  the  boundaries 
of  the  Caphyatse  on  every  side  but  the  north. 
They  possessed  all  the  northern  and  western  side 
of  the  lower  Orchomenian  valley,  the  eastern 
extremity  of  which  belonged  to  the  Orchomenii. 
To  the  south-westward,  the  common  boundary 
of  Caph?/cey  MelhT/drhmii  and  Orc/wmenus,  ap- 

118  NYMPHASIA.  [chap.  XXV. 

pears  to  have  been  in  the  dhiasylo  of  Bazeniko, 
through  which  I  passed,  March  3,  in  the  way 
from  Tara  to  Levidhi ;  probably  it  was  not  far  from 
the  village  Bazeniko,  for  Pausanias''  remarks, 
that  there  was  a  distance  of  thirty  stades  from  Me- 
thydrium  to  the  fountain  Nymphasia^  and  as 
much  more  to  the  common  boundaries  of  the  Or- 
chomenii,  Caphyatae,  and  Megalopolitee,  by  the 
last  of  whom  he  here  means  the  Methydrienses ; 
and  I  find  that  a  distance  of  sixty  stades  from 
Methydrium  reaches  exactly  to  Bazeniko,  and 
naturally  forms  the  point  of  contact  of  the  three 
little  states.  At  Granitza,  a  village  above  the 
right  bank  of  the  Vitina  river,  about  half  way 
between  the  site  of  Methydrium  and  Bazeniko, 
there  is  a  remarkable  fountain,  corresponding 
to  the  Nymphasia  of  Pausanias.  The  boundary 
of  the  CaphyatcE  eastward  was  the  Caphyatic 
rock,  in  the  pass  of  Gioza,  which  was  na- 
turally the  road  to  Pheneus  both  from  Or- 
chomenus  and  from  Caphyag :  the  rock  was 
in  the  Caphyatic  territory  adjacent  to  the  triple 
boundary  of  Orchomenus,  Caphyse,  and  Phe- 

Of  Caphyae  Pausanias  thus  speaks*^ :  "  I  have 
already  related,  in  speaking  of  Orchomenus, 
that  the  direct  road  to  Caphyaj  leads  along  the 

*  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  36.  "^  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  23. 

CHAP.  XXV.]  CAPHY.E.  119 

-torrent,  and  from  thence  ti)  the  left  of  the 
lake  ^.  In  the  plain  of  the  Caphyenses  there  is 
a  mound  of  earth  '',  by  means  of  which  the 
water  from  the  Orchomenia  is  prevented  from 
injuring  the  cultivated  fields  of  the  Caphy- 
enses.  Within  the  embankment  there  flows 
another  water,  equal  in  size  to  a  river  *",  which, 
descending  into  a  chasm  of  the  earth,  issues 
again  at  the  place  called  Nasi :  the  village '' 
where  it  emerges  is  named  Rheunus ;  it  forms 
the  perennial  river  Tragus.  The  name  of 
Caphyaa  is  evidently  derived  from  Cepheus, 
the  son  of  Aleus,  but  the  Arcadic  form  of  Ca- 
phyai  has  prevailed.  The  Caphyenses  affirm, 
that  they  derive  their  origin  from  Attica,  and 
that  their  ancestors,  having  been  expelled  by 
^geus  from  Athens,  fled  to  this  place,  where, 
becoming  the  suppliants  of  Cepheus,  they  were 
allowed  by  him  to  remain.  The  city  is  small  and 
stands  at  the  extremity  of  a  plain,  at  the  foot  of 
some  mountains  not  very  lofty.  The  Caphyatae 
have  temples  of  Neptune,  and  of  Diana  who  re- 
ceives the  surname  of  Cnacalesia  from  a  mountain, 
called  Cnacalus,  where  they  celebrate  a  yearly 
festival  to  Diana.     At  a  fountain  a  little  above 

■   wgWTa  fAv  X'uecc   Trill  ya,qcc-  ^   y>j?  ^Ufxct. 

O^OCV    ECTTfl/    Ivdi'lCC,   TO    XTTO     TOVTOV  '^     E^£»(7(l/      vSul^      OiXXo,       TrXljOf* 

dc    ly    «gt(7Ttfa    TW    voa,TO<;    luv  p,£v  ojov  71  Eivon  ttotck.jj.ov. 

MfJ.VOt.Cpi'TOi.  ''     ^UfiOil. 

120  CAPHY/E.  [chap.   XXV. 

the  city  there  is  ajarge  and  beautiful  plane  tree, 
called  Menelais,  which  Menelaus  is  said  to  have 
planted  when  he  was  collecting  his  army  for  the 
expedition  to  Troy".  Both  the  fountain  and 
plane  tree  are  now  called  Menelais.  About 
one  stade  distant  from  Caphyag  there  is  a  place 
called  Condylea,  and  a  grove  of  Diana,  an- 
ciently called  Condyleatis  ;  from  thence,  after 
an  ascent  of  seven  stades  from  Caphya?,  the 
road  descends  to  the  place  called  Nasi,  fifty 
stades  beyond  which  is  the  river  Ladon." 

It  has  already  been  remarked,  that  the  cha- 
7'adra^  or  ravine  between  Mount  Trachy  and 
the  hill  of  Orchomemis,  is  the  discharge  of  the 
waters  of  the  upper  Orchomenian  plain  into  the 
lower,  and  that  a  large  portion  of  the  latter  is 
occupied  by  the  lake,  which  extends  to  Kho- 
tussa  ^,  or  Cafhyoe,  and  to  the  katavothra  below 
Bazeniko.  It  has  been  seen  also  that  Pau- 
sanias  twice  speaks  of  the  evdela,  or  ordinary 
route  to  Caphyae,  as  turning  to  the  left,  upon 
emerging  from  the  charadra ;  in  the  latter  of  the 
two  passages  he  explains  himself  more  clearly 
than    in    the    other   by    saying  that    the    road 

*  Pausanias   adds,  that  it  Acropolis  of  Athens  and  tliat 

was  the  oldest  tree  he  knew,  at    Delus,  and  the  bay  tree 

next    to     the     agnus-castus  [iJatpro]    of  the  Syrians,  (at 

[]xt'yoO  "^  ^^"^ -^^^^""^  "^^  ^^"  l^aphne,  near  Antioch.) 
nius,  the  oak  [^'5'^i^?]  of  Dodo-  ^  X(o-rov<7a-a,. 

jm,  the  olive  [f^aia]  in  the 

CHAP.  XXV.]  CAVUYJE.  121 

led  to  the  left  of  the  lake.  It^seems  therefore, 
that  from  the  lower  end  of  the  charadra  the  road 
followed  the  southern  bank  of  the  lake  under 
the  hill  of  Orchomenus,  and  then  passed  along 
the  high  ground  above  the  katavothra,  by  which 
means  it  avoided  the  marshy  lands  at  the  east- 
ern end  of  the  lake  in  the  lower  plain,  which 
was,  moreover,  the  more  circuitous  way.  The 
former  therefore,  though  by  no  means  direct, 
was  the  shortest  road  between  Orchomenus  and 
Caphyge,  and  in  that  sense  might  be  called  the 


As  Pausanias  remarks  moreover,  that  the 
greater  part  of  the  lower  plain  was  a  lake,  he 
shews,  that  towards  Orchomenus  at  least  the 
valley  was  in  its  present  state.  On  the  other 
hand,  his  description  of  Caphyge,  as  situated  on 
the  edge  of  a  plain  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain, 
as  well  as  that  of  the  embankment  which  pro- 
tected the  low  lands  of  the  Caphyatis  firom  in- 
undation, and  mthin  which  a  river  flowed  to 
the  katavothra,  indicates  a  state  of  the  locality 
different  from  the  present,  when  the  site  of  Ca- 
phycc  might  be  more  correctly  described  as 
being  on  the  edge  of  a  lake,  which  is  formed  by 
all  the  rivers  and  torrents  of  the  surrounding 
mountains,  added  to  the  contributions  of  several 
subterraneous  sources.  It  seems  probable,  there- 
fore, that  in  the  time  of  Pausanias  there  was  an 

122  'CAPHY^.  [chap.  XXV. 

embankment  extending  through  the  present  lake 
in  an  eastern  and  western  direction,  not  far  from 
the  left  bank  of  the  river  of  Kandili.  The  effect 
of  this  dyke  was  to  leave  a  cultivated  plain  in 
front  o^  CaphycBy  through  which  the  river  flowed 
to  the  chasms,  and  it  confined  the  lake  to  the 
part  of  the  plain  towards  Orchomenus,  where 
its  principal  contributions  were  from  the  cha- 
radra  of  Trachy  and  the  Teneiee. 

The  mountain  above  Khotussa,  now  called 
Kastania,  seems  to  be  the  ancient  Cnacalus. 
Immediately  at  the  foot  of  that  ridge,  on  the 
western  side,  are  the  sources  of  the  river  Tara, 
which  word,  as  I  have  already  remarked,  is  per- 
haps a  corruption  of  the  ancient  name  Tragus. 
Here,  therefore,  is  the  place  formerly  called  Nasi, 
and  the  site  of  Rheunus  ;  and  its  distance  from 
the  nearest  point  of  the  Ladon  agrees  very  well 
with  the  fifty  stades  of  Pausanias. 

The  following  are  the  leading  particulars  of 
the  battle  of  Caphyae,  as  related  by  Polybius  ^. 
In  the  second  spring  after  the  Cleomenic  war  had 
been  concluded  by  the  capture  of  Sparta  and  the 
flight  of  Cleomenes  into  Egypt,  the  ^tolians, 
accustomed  to  plunder,  and  therefore  impatient 
of  peace,  who  had  been  kept  quiet  by  their 
fears  during  the  life  of  Antigonus,  but  who  felt 

^  Polvb.  1.  4.  c.  6. 

CHAP.  XXV.]      BATTLE    OF    CAPHY^.  123 

no  such  respect  for  his  young  successor  Philip, 
resolved  upon  finding  some  pretext  for  sending 
an  army  into  the  Peloponnesus,  that  country 
having  been  the  usual  scene  of  their  violence 
and  rapine,  and  where,  under  the  cloak  of  an 
alliance,  they  made  use  of  Phigaleia  as  a  con- 
venient place  of  retreat  and  of  deposit  for  their 
plunder.  Suddenly  crossing  the  straits  of  Rhi- 
um,  they  ravaged  the  districts  of  Patrae,  Tritaea, 
and  Pharse,  and  then  proceeded  to  Phigaleia, 
passing  amicably  through  the  Eleia,  with  which 
state  they  had  always  been  in  close  alliance. 
Soon  after  their  arrival  at  Phigaleia  they  pro- 
ceeded to  overrun  Messenia,  the  plunder  of 
which  was  the  chief  object  of  the  expedition,  as 
well  from  private  motives  of  resentment  on  the 
part  of  Dorimachus  their  leader,  as  from  the 
superior  riches  of  Messenia,  which  had  escaped 
pillage  during  the  Cleomenic  war.  The  Achai- 
ans,  on  their  part,  after  having  received  in  coun- 
cil at  ^gium  the  complaints  of  the  Arcadians 
and  Messenians,  assembled  in  arms  at  Megalo- 
polis, from  whence  they  despatched  a  message 
to  the  ^tolian  commanders  requiring  them  to 
quit  Messenia,  threatening  at  the  same  time  to 
treat  them  as  enemies  if  they  entered  Achaia  in 
their  retreat.  The  ^tolians  thought  it  pru- 
dent to  make  a  shew  of  obedience  ;  accordingly 

124  BATTLE    OF    CAPHY-E.      [CHAP.  XXV. 

they  sent   forward   their  plunder  through  tlie 
Eleia  towards  Rhium,  while  the  army  followed 
at  a  short  distance,  and  they  assembled  trans- 
ports at  the  island  Pheias  ^,  for  the  purpose  of 
securing  the  embarkation  of  the  baggage  at  the 
port  of  Pheia  in  case  they  should  be  unable  to 
convey  it  across  the  strait  of  Rhium.     Aratus, 
deceived   by  these  appearances,   dismissed  the 
Lacedaemonians  and  a  great  part  of  the  allies, 
and    preserved    only    3000    Achaian    infantry, 
300  cavahy,  and  a  body  of  Macedonians  under 
Taurion,  who  had  been  left  by  Antigonus  in  pos- 
session of  Corinth  and  Orchomenus.    With  these 
Aratus  moved  from  Megalopolis  towards  Patrae 
to  observe  the  movements  ofthe-^tolians.   Do- 
rimachus  ordered  his  march  towards  Rhium,  and 
sent  forward  his  baggage  to  the  same  place ;  but 
fearing  that  he  should  be  attacked  there  to  a  dis- 
advantage when  embarking,  and  thinking  that  it 
was  better  to  meet  the  enemy,  he  suddenly  turned 
ofFto01ympia,from  whence,  on  hearing  that  Ara- 
tus was  in  the  Cleitoria,  he  marched  to  Methy- 
drium.     Aratus  then  moved  to  Caphyae.     The 
route  of  Dorimachus  we  may  conceive  to  have 
been  by  Heroea,  Buphagus,  and  Tlieisoat  leaving 

^  A  small   island   on   the      kolo,  below  the  castle  of  Pon- 
.  northern  side  of  Cape  Kata-      dik6-kastro,theancientP/ieifl. 

CHAP.  XXV.]     BATTLE    OF    CAPHYiE.  l<25 

the  modern  Dhimitzana  on  the  right ;  that  of 
Aratus,  from  Cleitor,  led  down  the  narrow  valley 
of  the  Aroanius  to  Tara,  thence  to  the  sources 
of  the  Tragus,  and  over  Mount  Kastania  to 
Khotussa  (Caphyce). 

When  the  ^tolians  had  marched  from  Me- 
thydrium  into  the  plain  of  Orchomenus  and 
were  passing  the  city,  Aratus  drew  out  his 
forces  in  the  plain  of  Caphyae,  with  the  river 
in  front,  before  which  there  were  some  deep 
trenches,  which  afforded  additional  protection. 
The  ^tolians,  perceiving  the  strength  of  the  po- 
sition of  the  Achaians  and  their  readiness  for 
action,  declined  to  attack,  and  continued  their 
route  as  intending  to  cross  the  mountains  to 
Oligyrtus*.  When  the  head  of  the  ^tolian 
column  of  infantry  had  attained  the  pass,  and 
the.  cavalry  which  covered  their  rear  in  the 
plain,  had  arrived  at  the  advanced  height 
called  Propus  ^y  Aratus  sent,  at  that  moment, 
his  light  armed  to  harass  the  enemy*s  rear*^, 
which  induced  the  cavalry  to  hasten  forward 
and   join    the    infantry.       Aratus,    mistaking 

T«?  iiTrt^QoXccc;   ettj    rov  'OX'iyv^-       yovintij)/  Sici  to?  -tti^Iov,  xul  crvt- 
Toy.  iyyi^^ovruiv     ru    •7rpoirccyofivofji.ini} 

^  T??  TTso'TO'TropEt'a?   tUv       n^oTTOdi  T>5?  ITapo/jEiaf. — 

126  BATTLE    OF    CAPHYJ..     [CHAP.  XXV. 

this  movement  for  a  flight,  supported  his  hght 
armed  with  some  thoracita?  from  the  wings, 
and  then  advanced  his  whole  army  hy  one  of 
the  wings  *  towards  the  enemy.  The  ^tohan 
cavahy  having  gained  the  heights,  and  called 
back  the  infantry,  the  whole  formed  on  the  foot 
of  the  hill :  an  engagement  began  with  the 
Achaian  horse  and  light  armed,  which  at  length 
became  general,  when  the  ^tolians,  having  the 
advantage  both  in  number  and  position,  gained 
a  complete  victory,  and  would  have  entirely  de- 
stroyed their  enemy,  had  not  the  neighbouring 
fortresses  of  Orchomenus  and  Caphyae  supplied 
a  safe  retreat. 

The  Megalopolitans  who,  on  hearing  of  the 
arrival  of  the  ^tolians  at  Methydrium,  had  as- 
sembled their  forces,  arrived  on  the  field  of  ac- 
tion the  day  after  the  battle,  in  time  only  to  as- 
sist in  burying  the  dead.  The  ^tolians  con- 
tinued their  route  through  the  Peloponnesus '', 
and  after  having  attempted  to  take  the  city  of 
Pellene,  and  plundered  theSicyonia,  they  retired 
through  the  Isthmus. 

Polybius,  who  admits  the  talents  of  Aratus  as 
a  statesman,  and  admires  his  enterprizing  spirit 
and  energy  on  some  particular  occasions,  ad- 


duces  the  battle  of  Caphyae  as  a  proof  of  his  in- 
competency to  command  an  army  in  the  field. 
By  dismissing  the  allies  too  quickly,  and  by  at- 
tacking the  enemy  at  the  moment  of  their  quit- 
ting the  plain  of  Orchomenus,  instead  of  when 
they  entered  it,  by  which  he  gave  them  the  ad- 
vantage of  position,  he  not  only  lost  an  oppor- 
tunity of  chastising  the  ^tolians,  but  encouraged 
them  in  their  insolence  and  injustice. 

In  this  narrative  it  is  remarkable  that  the  his- 
torian refers  to  a  plain  in  front  of  Caphyae,  tra- 
versed by  a  river  beyond  which  were  trenches 
(^Td(f)pot),  a  description  of  the  place  which  does 
not  correspond  with  present  appearances.  The 
Td(f)poc  were  evidently  ditches  for  the  purpose  of 
draining  the  marshy  plain,  by  conducting  the 
water  towards  the  katavothra,  around  which 
there  was  probably  a  small  lake.  In  the  time  of 
Pausanias  we  find  that  the  lake  covered  the 
greater  part  of  the  plain,  and  that  exactly  in  the 
situation  in  whicii  Polybius  describes  the  ditches, 
there  was  a  mound  of  earth,  a  work  apparently 
of  the  same  kind  as  those  embankments  of 
which  there  are  still  some  remains  in  the  plains 
of  Stymphalus  and  Pheneus.  Nothing  is  more 
probable,  than  that  during  the  four  centuries 
so  fatal  to  the  prosperity  of  Greece,  which 
elapsed  between  the  battle  of  Caphyae  and  the 


visit  of  Pausanias,  a  diminution  of  population 
should  have  caused  a  neglect  of  the  drainage 
which  had  formerly  ensured  the  cultivation  of  the 
whole  plain,  and  that  in  the  time  of  the  Roman 
empire  an  embankment  of  earth  had  been 
thrown  up  to  preserve  the  part  nearest  to  Ca- 
phya?,  leaving  the  rest  uncultivated  and  marshy. 
At  present,  if  there  are  any  remains  of  the  em- 
bankment, which  I  did  not  perceive,  it  does 
not  prevent  any  of  the  land  from  being  sub- 
merged during  several  months,  for  the  water 
now  extends  very  nearly  to  the  site  of  Caphyse, 
although  the  season  is  within  seven  weeks  of 
the  anniversary  of  the  battle  \ 

As  the  ^tolians  were  passing  the  town 
of  Orchomenus "  when  Aratus  drew  out  his 
forces  behind  the  river  of  Caphyae,  and  as 
the  ^tolians,  after  observing  the  position 
of  the  Achaians,  continued  their  march  towards 
Oligyrtus,  it  seems  evident  that  Propus,  where 

^  This   appears   from  two  the   Pleiades^    or   about    the 

remarks  of  Polybius  [J..  4.  c.  middle  of  IMay.     The  battle 

7. 37-]  :  !•  that  Aratus,  when  was  fought  in  the  fourth  year 

he  took  the  field  not  many  of  the  139th  Olympiad,  b.  c. 

days  before  the  battle  of  Ca-  220. 

phyae,  had  anticipated  by  five  ^  tuv  aItuxHjv  'rroiw^'ivuv  riv 

days  the  regular  commence-  "Tro^tiocv     uirl     Mi^v^^lov    7ra.^» 

ment  of  the  Achaian  crr^arrt-  J''"      '''^'     'O^X'^y.snw,.     ttoMv, 
yi»: — 2.  that  the  ofticial  year 
commenced  at  the  rising  of 


the  action  took  place,  was,  as  the  name  in- 
dicates, at  the  foot  of  the  mountain,  probably 
near  the  entrance  of  the  valley  in  which  Kan- 
dili  stands,  and  from  the  upper  extremity 
of  which  begins  the  pass  of  Lykorema  lead- 
ing into  the  Stymphalia ;  for  that  Oligyrtus 
was  the  ancient  name  of  this  mountain  and 
pass,  as  well  as  that  of  the  castle  which 
stood  at  the  northern  extremity  of  it  on  the 
edge  of  the  Stymphalian  plain,  is  confirmed, 
I  think,  by  other  evidence,  especially  in  the  se- 
quel of  the  military  transactions  in  the  Pelopon- 
nesus, of  which  I  shall  now  add  a  summary,  as 
containing  a  general  confirmation  of  several  an- 
cient positions  in  Arcadia  and  the  Eleia. 

The  next  act  of  hostility  on  the  part  of  the 
^tolians  was  a  plundering  expedition  under 
Scopas  and  Dorimachus  against  Cynaetha  (now 
Kalavryta)  ;  it  was  undertaken  in  union  with 
the  lUyrians,  whose  fleet  was  at  Naupactus. 
Cynaetha  was  noted  for  its  intestine  dissensions, 
and  the  people  were  so  much  disliked,  that  al- 
though they  were  of  Arcadian  race,  the  other 
Arcadians  would  scarcely  hold  any  intercourse 
with  them%     An  exiled  party,  which  had  just 

*    Polybius  attributes  the  included  singing  and  dancing, 

cruelty  and  wickedness  {jjij.o-  He  adds,  that  it  was  by  the 

Tn?  y-ou  vct^a.vofjt.ioi.)  of  the  peo-  assiduous      cultivation      and 

pie  of  Cynaetha  to  their  ne-  practice  of  musicj    that  the 

gleet  of  music,  an  art  which  other  Arcatlians  had  not  only 

VOL.    III.  K 


been  restored  to  their  city  by  the  mediation  of 
the  Achaians,  immediately  betrayed  the  place 
to  the  ^tolians,  who,  with  an  equal  prompti- 
tude of  treachery,  murdered  them  and  plundered 
their  houses.  Leaving  a  garrison  in  the  place, 
the  -^tolians  then  marched  to  the  temple  of 
Diana  (Hemeresia)  in  the  way  from  Cynsetha 
to  Cleitor,  which  belonged  to  the  Lusiatae,  and 
did  not  desist  from  pillage  until  the  Lusiatae 
had  agreed  to  deliver  to  them  a  part  of  the  sa- 
cred furniture  of  the  goddess.  From  the  temple 
they  continued  their  route  to  Cleitor,  where 
their  attempts  upon  the  walls  of  the  town  and 
the  loyalty  of  the  inhabitants  having  been 
equally  unsuccessful,  they  returned  by  the  same 
route  to  Cynsetha,  carrying  off  the  sacred  cattle 
of  the  Lusiatae  in  violation  of  their  former 
agreement.  Upon  receiving  intelligence  soon 
afterwards  of  a  movement  against  them,  devised 
by  Taurion,  the  Macedonian  who  commanded 
at  Corinth,  they  set  fire  to  Cynsetha  and  re- 
treated to  Rhium  through  passes,  ^lovov  aa\- 
TTtyKTov  Beo/juevcov,  or  SO  narrow,  that  there  want- 
ed only  a  trumpeter  to  throw  them  into  confu- 
sion. This  last  remark  was  aimed  by  the  histo- 
rian at  Aratus,  as  a  reproach  for  his  negligence. 
In  every  part  of  Achaia,  the  rugged  moun- 

counteracted  tlie  effect  of  but  had  become  noted  among 
their  rude  climate,  laborious  the  Greeks  for  piety  and  be- 
habits,  and  austere  manners,      nevolence  :  [}.  4.  c.  20.] 


tains  which  overhang  the  maritime  plains,  and 
the  narrow  gorges  through  which  the  rivers 
force  their  way  to  that  coast,  render  all  the  ap- 
proaches to  Arcadia  on  that  side  extremely 
strong  ;  by  whatever  route,  therefore,  the 
^tolians  reached  Cyneetha,  or  retired  from  that 
place,  they  must  have  been  exposed  to  attack 
in  the  manner  which  Polybius  hints.  The  road 
by  Megaspilio  along  the  river  of  Kalavryta, 
which  was  the  nearest  way  from  CynaHha  to 
the  Achaian  coast,  is  of  the  same  character,  and 
there  is  in  particular,  at  the  exit  of  the  river  in 
the  plain  of  Bura,  a  narrow  pass  between  per- 
pendicular rocks,  to  which  the  strong  expression 
of  the  historian  evidently  refers,  in  speaking  of 
the  line  of  retreat  of  Scopas  and  Dorimachus. 
The  ^tolians  returned  home  about  the  same 
time  that  Philip  arrived  at  Corinth  to  assist  the 
Achaians,  soon  after  which,  in  the  autumn  of 
the  year  b.c.  220,  the  decree  of  alliance  against 
the  -^tolians  was  passed,  from  which  Polybius 
dates  the  commencement  of  the  Social  War  % 

In  the  ensuing  summer,  the  only  military 
occurrences  in  the  Peloponnesus,  were  an  at- 
tempt upon  the  Achaian  city  of  ^Egeira,  and 
some  incursions  of  the  Eleians,  under  the  -^^to- 
lian  Euripidas,  upon  the  adjacent  parts  of 
Achaia.      The   ^tolians,    under    Dorimachus, 

*    TvfjLua.yjy.Oi;  nCMfji-O^.       Polyl).  1.  4.  C  26. 

K  2 


embarking  at  QEantheia  in  Phocis,  crossed 
the  Corinthiac  gulf,  and  surprised  .^geira 
by  the  assistance  of  a  deserter,  but  having 
dispersed  themselves  through  the  town  for 
the  sake  of  plunder,  they  were  successfully 
attacked  by  the  ^geiratas,  and  obliged  to  seek 
their  safety  in  flight :  some  were  killed,  others 
were  hurried  down  the  precipices,  and  a  few 
only  escaped  to  the  ships.  Euripidas  soon 
afterwards  made  incursions  upon  the  lands  of 
Dyme,  Pharae,  and  Trita^a,  and  took  Teichus 
in  the  Dymaea,  and  Gorgus  in  the  Thelpusia*. 

But  the  peninsula  was  an  inferior  scene  of 
action  during  the  campaigning  season  of  this 
year.  In  northern  Greece,  the  JEtoVians  sur- 
prised and  destroyed  Dium  in  Macedonia,  and 
Dodona  in  Epirus,  and  Philip,  in  return,  wrested 
several  places  from  the  enemy,  of  which  the 
principal  was  CEniadse  in  Acarnania.  In  the 
very  depth  of  the  ensuing  winter,  the  young 
Macedonian  king  moved  suddenly  from  La- 
rissa  to  Corinth  with  about  6000  men,  and 
encamped  at  Dioscurium,  in  the  PhHasia,  in 
his  route  to  Caphyae,  where  the  Achaian 
forces  were  ordered  to  assemble.  It  hap- 
pened exactly  at  the  same  time,  that  Euri- 
pidas, little  expecting  such  a  movement,  had 

*  Polyb.  1.  4.  c.  57.  et  seq. 


marched  with  a  body  of  5000  Eleians  and  mer- 
cenaries from  Psophis,  by  Pheneus,  to  Stym- 
phaliis,  and  was  approaching  Sicyon  with  the 
design  of  laying  waste  the  country.  On  the 
very  night  that  PhiHp  encamped  at  Dioscu- 
rium,  Euripidas  passed  the  king,  and  halted, 
ready  to  enter  the  Sicyonia  on  the  following  day. 
As  soon  as  he  discovered  his  danger  by  means  of 
some  stragglers,  he  turned  suddenly  about,  and 
made  for  the  passes  leading  out  of  the  Stym- 
phalia,  (the  dhiasyla  of  Lykorema  and  Kasta- 
nia.)  In  the  morning  the  advanced  guards  of 
the  two  opponent  armies  found  themselves  at 
the  same  moment  ascending  Mount  Apelaurum, 
which  was  ten  stades  from  Stymphalus.  Euri- 
pidas, without  attempting  to  make  any  resist- 
ance, fled  with  a  few  horsemen  to  Psophis,  and 
the  Eleians  retreated  to  the  neighbouring  hills, 
where,  with  the  exception  of  about  100,  they 
were  all  either  slain  or  taken,  and  sent  pri- 
soners to  Corinth.  Philip  continued  his  route 
through  the  Stymphalia,  and,  after  meeting  with 
great  impediment  from  the  snow  on  Mount 
Oligyrtus,  arrived  on  the  third  day  at  Caphyse. 
Here  he  was  joined  by  the  younger  Aratus  with 
the  Achaians,  when,  after  a  delay  of  two  days, 
he  marched,  at  the  head  of  10,000  men,  through 
the  Cleitoria,  to  Psophis,  his  route  being,  it  is 
probable,  precisely  in  the  reverse  direction  of 


that  by  which  I  came  from  Tripotamo  to  the 
site  of  Cleitor,  and  from  thence  down  the  valley 
of  the  Aroanius,  and  up  that  of  the  Tragus^  to 
Tara.  I  have  before  had  occasion  to  speak  of 
the  capture  of  Fsophis  by  Philip,  as  well  as  to 
trace  his  subsequent  operations  in  the  Eleia  and 
Triphylia,  from  whence  he  succeeded  in  expel- 
lino-  the  ^tolians  in  the  course  of  a  few  winter 
days.  It  is  clear,  from  these  transactions,  that 
the  mountain  on  the  southern  side  of  the  lake 
of  Zaraka  was  Apelaurum,  and  the  pass  of 
Lykorema  that  of  Oligyrtus.  It  is  from  Plu- 
tarch we  learn,  that  there  was  a  fortress  as  well 
as  a  mountain  of  Oligyrtus,  for  he  relates  that 
Cleomenes,  king  of  Sparta,  drove  out  the  garri- 
son of  Oligyrtus  on  his  way  from  Phlius  to  Or- 
chomenus  *.  I  have  already  remarked  that  its 
position  is  probably  indicated  by  the  Hellenic 
remains  near  Lafka,  in  the  Stijmphalian  valley. 

*  Plutarch,  in  Cleomcn. 



PheneUs. — The  Pheneatice. — Fonia,  its  plain,  rivers, 
and  mountains. — The  Arcadian  zerethra. — From  Fonia  to 
Klukines — The  mountain  and  river  Crathis. — Styx. — 
To  Megaspilio. — Lusi,  CynjETha. — To  Vostitza. — Cery- 
NEiA,  TEgium. — To  Patra. 

The  following  are  the  observations  of  Pausanias* 
on  the  Pheneatice. — "  On  the  road  ",  he  says, 
''  from  Stymphalus  to  Pheneiis  a  mountain  pre- 
sents itself,  where  the  boundaries  of  the  Orch- 
menii,  Pheneatse,  and  Caphyat^e,  meet  in  the 
same  point,  above  which  rises  a  steep  precipice, 
called  the  Caphyatic  rock.  Below  this  common 
boundary  there  is  a  narrow  passage ",  through 
which  lies  the  way  to  Pheneus.  About  the 
middle  of  it  there  is  a  fountain  of  water,  and 
at  the  further  extremity  the  village  of  Caryae. 
The  plain  of  the  Pheneatae  lies  under  Caryae. 
It  is  said  that  the  ancient  Pheneus  was  once 
destroyed  by  an  inundation  of  water  in  this 

*  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  13,  14,  ^  (^ix^xy^, 

15,  16,  17.  20. 


plain,  and,  as  a  proof  of  it,  the  marks  of  the 
height  to  which  tlie  water  is  said  to  have  as- 
cended, are  still  to  be  seen  upon  the  mountains. 
Five  stades  distant  from  Caryaa  is  Orexis ;  in 
this  mountain,  as  well  as  in  another,  called  Sci- 
athis,  there  is  an  opening*  which  receives  the 
water  from  the  plain.  The  Pheneatae  say  that 
these  chasms  are  artificial,  and  that  Hercules 
made  them  when  he  dwelt  in  Pheneus  with 
Laonome,  the  mother  of  Amphitryon.  Her- 
cules also  dug  a  trench  through  the  middle  of 
the  plain  of  the  Pheneatae  for  the  river  Olbius, 
which  some  of  the  Arcadians  call  Aroanius ; 
the  length  of  the  canal  is  fifty  stades,  and  the 
depth,  where  it  is  still  entire  ^,  is  thirty  feet : 
but  the  river  does  not  now  flow  through  the 
work  of  Hercules,  having  diverged  again  into 
its  ancient  channel.  The  city  of  Pheneus  is 
fifty  stades  distant  from  the  aforesaid  chasms  in 
the  mountains.  The  Acropolis  of  Pheneus  is 
precipitous  on  every  side ;  and  only  a  small 
part  of  it  is  artificially  fortified.  "  ' 

The  Acropolis  contained  the  ruins  of  a 
temple  of  Minerva  Tritonia,  with  a  brazen 
statue  of  Neptune  Hippius,  which  was  reported 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  rilENEUS.  137 

to  have  been  dedicated  by  Ulysses  *,  as  well 
as  a  temple  of  Diana  Eurippe,  no  longer  ex- 
isting in  the  time  of  Pausanias.  On  the  de- 
scent from  tlie  citadel  was  the  Stadium,  and  on 
-a  height  the  sepulchre  of  Iphicles,  brother  of 
Hercules,  whom  the  Pheneatae  honoured  as  a 
hero.  But  their  principal  deity  was  Hermes, 
in  whose  honour  they  celebrate  games  called 
Hermaea.  His  temple  contained  a  statue  of 
stone  by  Eucheir  the  Athenian  ;  behind  the 
temple  stood  the  sepulchre  of  Myrtilus,  said  to 
have  been  the  son  of  Hermes.  There  was  also 
a  temple  of  Ceres  Eleusinia,  where  ceremonies 
were  performed  similar  to  those  of  Eleusis. 

Fifteen  stades  from  the  city,  at  the  foot  of 
Cyllene,  stood  a  temple  of  Ceres  Thesmia,  and 
at  a  like  distance  on  the  road  leading  to  ^geira 
and  Pellene  that  of  Apollo  Pythius,  said  to  have 
been  dedicated  by  Hercules,  after  the  capture 

*  Pausanias  did   not  give  Hypatus^  in  the  Acropolis  of 

credit  to  this  story,  because  Sparta,  said  to  have  been  the 

in    the  time  of   Ulysses,  he  work   of  Learchus    of   Rhe- 

says,  the  art  of  making  brazen  gium,    who   was    a    disciple 

statues,  such  as  that  of  Nep-  eitherof  Dipoenusand  ScylHs, 

tune   Hippius,  was   not  yet  or  of  Daedalus  himself.     This 

known.     He   adds   that  the  statue    was    hammered    and 

first  who  cast  figures  of  brass  formed  in  several  pieces,  which 

were  Theodorus  and  Rhoecus  \\'ere    fastened    together    by 

of  Samus;    and  that  before  nails.     Pausan.  Lacon.  c.  17. 

their    time,    brazen    statues  Arcad.  c.  14. 
were  made  like  that  of  J  upiter 


of  Elis  *.  Its  ruins  only  remained,  together  with 
a  great  altar  of  white  marble,  at  which  the  Phe- 
neat^e  still  sacrificed  to  Apollo  and  Diana.  Not 
far  from  the  temple  of  Apollo,  on  the  bank  of 
the  Aroanius,  was  the  heroum  of  Telamon,  and 
near  the  fountain  Qilnoe  that  of  Chalcodon. 
The  borders  of  the  Pheneatae,  on  the  side  of 
Achaia,  were  the  river  Porinas,  towards  Cyl- 
lene,  and  a  sanctuary  (or  statue)  of  Diana  to- 
wards the  ^giratis ".  A  little  beyond  the 
temple  of  Apollo  Pythius  was  the  road  to 
Mount  Crathis ;  in  this  mountain  were  the 
sources  of  the  river  Crathis,  which  joined 
the  sea  near  ^gae,  a  deserted  place  in  the 
time  of  Pausanias,  but  once  an  Achaian  city. 
In  Mount  Crathis  there  was  a  temple  of  Diana 
Pyronia,  whence  anciently  the  Argives  car- 
ried fire  to  the  Lerngea.  In  proceeding  east- 
ward from  Pheneus,  the  road  led  over  Ge- 
ronteium,  the  summit  of  which  mountain  was 
the  boundary  between  the  Pheneatae  and  Stym- 
phalii.  The  place  called  Tricrena,  or  the 
Three    Sources,    was  on  the   boundary  to  the 

»  Pausanias  does  not  notice  Demonesus,   an   island    near 

any   statue    in    the   temple  ;  Carthage,  and  that  they  were 

but  in  the  time  of  Aristotle  incribed  as  follows :  'H^a.y.\^g 

there  appear  to  have    been  o'A|U.(ptTf^w>os^HX*vl^wi'«vE6)5>cEi'. 

more  than  one.     He  says  that  Aristot.  de  Mirab.  Ausc. 

they  were  called  ol  o^ii^aXnot,  ^  tt^oj  ^l  ihi/  Alynetx-rvv  to  l^r' 

as  having  been  made  of  brass,  '  A^te/aiv. 
which  had  been  brought  from 


left  of  the  road  from  Plieneus  to  Stymphalus  \ 
Not  far  from  Tricrena  there  was  another  moun- 
tain, called  Sepia,  which  was  covered  with  snow 
great  part  of  the  year.  It  contained  the  sepul- 
chre of  iEpytus,  beyond  which  was  Cyllene, 
the  highest  of  all  the  mountains  of  Arcadia ;  on 
the  summit  there  was  a  temple  of  Mercury  Cyl- 
lenius  in  ruins,  with  a  statue  of  the  god,  eight 
feet  high,  made  of  the  wood  of  the  citron  tree". 
Connected  with  Cyllene,  there  was  another 
mountain,  called  Chelydorea,  so  called,  because 
Mercury  here  found  a  tortoise,  of  which  he 
made  a  lyre.  It  was  the  boundary  of  the  Phe- 
iieatse  and  Pellenenses  ;  but  the  Achaians  (i.  e. 
the  Pellenenses)  possessed  the  greater  part  of 
it.  There  were  two  roads,  leading  westward 
from  Pheneus  ;  that  to  the  left  led  to  Cleitor, 
— that  to  the  right  led  to  Nonacris,  and  the 
water  of  the  Styx.  The  former  followed  that 
work  of  Hercules  which  he  made  for  a  channel 
to  the  river  Aroanius.  Beyond  this  the  road 
descended  to  Ly curia,  which  was  on  the  borders 
of  the  Pheneatae  and  Cleitorii;  and  fifty  stades 
beyond  which  were  the  fountains  of  the  Ladon. 
The  summit  of  the  insulated  hill,  upon  which 
the  remains  of  Pheneus  are  found,  is  a  conical 

*  ogot/j    Itrrm    a->i^x    Tt^ovrnov  artJc^j  odtvovn  o^oi  ^iViccTuv  Itrn 

nut  netTOc  ruvtYiv   hdoq'    <J)£VfaTai?  TpiKgyivcc  x.a,hovf^ivu,  Koci  eZctH'  a.v- 

^E  o^ot  v^oi;  TrVjx(P(x.7^iovi  tvx;  yyiq  to9»  y.^voci  t^eV?.       PaUSail.  Ar- 

T0V10  iaiito  YigovTudv'  t:ov  Ti^ov-  cau.  C.  lb. 
THOU  0    £v  u^icni^ct  dia  tv;?  <1>£K£-  ''   -/.li'^u. 

140  PHENEUS.  [chap.  XXVI. 

peak,  too  small  apparently  for  the  acropolis  of 
such  an  important  city,  for  which  the  entire  in- 
sulated hill  is  not  too  large  ;  nor  does  the  peak 
answer  very  well  to  the  description  "precipitous 
on  all  sides,  and  for  the  most  part  fortified  by 
nature,"  for  it  has  a  regular  slope,  though  a 
very  rugged  surface,  and  is  more  accessible 
from  the  rest  of  the  insulated  height,  than  the 
height  itself  is  from  the  plain  which  surrounds 
it.  The  entire  hill  is  in  fact  defended  in  many 
parts  of  its  circumference  by  precipices,  though 
not  sufficiently  so  to  have  been  safe,  without  an 
artificial  inclosure,  as  the  height  of  the  preci- 
pices above  the  plain  is  not  very  great.  I  con- 
ceive, therefore,  that  this  hill  was  the  Acropolis 
only  of  the  ancient  Pheneus,  that  the  lower 
town  was  in  a  part  of  the  subjacent  plain,  that 
in  the  time  of  Pausanias  Pheneus  was  in  a  very 
ruinous  condition,  as  indeed  his  account  of  some 
of  the  public  buildings  indicates ;  and  that 
neglect  and  desolation  had  been  the  causes  of 
tlie  Acropolis  having  been  chiefly  left  to  its 
natural  defences. 

A  modern  village  stood  on  the  peak  which 
crowned  the  hill  of  Pheneus,  until  within  a  few 
years.  The  lower  part  of  the  height  is  now 
grown  with  vineyards,  which  extend  into  the 
plain  below  it  as  far  as  the  river ;  they  cover  also 
a  narrow  level,  which  separates  the  height  from 
the  foot  of  the  mountain  on  the  north.     On  the 


lower  slope  of  this  mountain  stands  Fonia,  a 
town  of  two  or  three  hundred  houses,  and  di- 
vided into  two  parts,  called  Fonia  and  the  ka- 

The  greatest  extent  of  the  plain  of  Fonia  is 
in  one  direction  from  Gioza  to  Fonia,  and  in 
the  other  from  the  place  where  I  descended 
into  it,  coming  from  the  Stymphalia  to  the  hill 
of  Lykuria  :  each  of  these  distances  is  about 
seven  miles  by  the  road.  From  the  north-east- 
ern end  of  the  plain,  a  valley  branches  north- 
ward, towards  the  sources  of  the  Aroanius,  now 
called  the  Foniatiko,  or  river  of  Fonia.  This 
valley  narrows,  and  terminates  about  ten  miles 
from  Fonia,  at  Karya,  or  Karyes,  near  the 
sources  of  the  river.  These  are  the  most  nor- 
therly tributaries  of  the  Alpheius;  and  thus  it  ap- 
pears that  this  celebrated  river  has  its  threemost 
distant  sources  in  the  northern,  in  the  eastern, 
and  in  the  southern  great  summits  of  the  Pelopon- 
nesus ;  the  first  in  Achaiay  the  second  on  tlie 
borders  of  ArgoUs,  the  third  on  those  o^ Laconia, 
At  Karyes  the  road  bifurcates,  leading  on  the 
right  to  Trikkala,  over  a  ridge  which  protrudes 
northward  from  Cyllene^  answering  to  the  Mount 
Chelydorea  of  Pausanias,  on  the  eastern  side  of 
which  was  Vellene;  to  the  left  hand  conducting 
to  Zakuli,  Vlogoka,  and  the  shore  of  the  Corin- 
thian Gulf,  near  the  site  of  the  ancient  Mgeira, 


The  Por'mas  seems  to  have  been  a  small  branch 
of  the  upper  Foniatiko,  which  descended  into 
it  from  Mount  Cyllene, 

In  the  plain  of  Pheneus  the  river  Foniatiko  is 
joined,  a  little  to  the  southward   of  the  hill  of 
PheneuSy  by  another  stream,  which  passes   be- 
tween that  river  and  the  eastern  end  of  the  hill. 
This  stream  descends  from  a  narrow  valley  be- 
tween the  back  of  the  mountain  of  Fonia  and 
the  mountain  of  Zarukla.     Pausanias  speaks  of 
the  Olbius  and  Aroanius  as  the  same  river;  but, 
as  he  applies  the  identity  to  the  united  stream, 
where  it  was  conducted  in  the  Herculean  canal, 
it  may  be  suspected,  that  above  the  junction 
one  of  the  branches  was  named  Olbius,  and  the 
other  Aroanius.     That  the  larger,  or  river  from 
Karyes,  was  the  Aroanius,  appears  from  Pausa- 
nias having  named  it,  in  the  way  from  Pheneus 
to  Pellene  and  ^^geira ;  in  that  case,  the  west- 
ern branch  was  the  Olbius. 

Gioza  seems  to  occupy  exactly  the  site  of 
Caryw^  and  the  mountains  on  either  side  of  it 
are  evidently  the  Orexis  and  Sciathis  of  Pausa- 
nias. Saeta  is  perhaps  a  corruption  of  the 
latter  name.  At  least,  it  is  by  means  of  this 
conjecture  only,  that  we  can  respectively  assign 
the  two  ancient  names;  for  at  the  foot  of  either 
mountain  there  is  a  chasm,  or  katavothra,  as 
Pausanias  has   remarked.     That   of  Skipezi  I 


observed  at  about  half-way  between  Gioza  and 
that  part  of  Mount  Geronteium  which  I  descend- 
ed coming  from  the  Stymphalia :  the  other  is  at 
the  foot  of  a  projecting  point  of  Mount  Saeta,  op- 
posite to  Fonia.     There  are  many  canals  in  the 
plain,  cut  towards  the  former  chasm,  which  re- 
ceives the  river  of  Gioza,  and  the  waters  of  the 
south-eastern  part  of  the  plain,  so  that  in  seasons 
of  rain   there  is  a  considerable    discharge   of 
water  towards  that  katavothra,  while  the  Foni- 
atiko,  or  Aroanhis,  composed  of  the  two  united 
rivers  from  the  mountains  northward  of  Pheneus, 
flows  in  a    single  body  to   the  katavothra  of 
Mount  Saeta,  and  forms  an  inundation  around 
it,  which  in  summer  is  never  entirely  absorbed. 
The  river  itself  passes  under  the  mountain,  and 
its  emissory  could  have  been  no  other  than  the 
sources   of  the  Ladon,  between  Lykuria  and 
Pangrati,  as  Pausanias  had  been  informed,  but 
which  he  had  not  verified,  as  he  tells  us,  by  per- 
sonal observation.    The  village  of  Lykuria,  being 
situated  near  the  summit  of  the  ridge  which  falls 
north-eastward  to  the  lake  of  PheneuSy  and  on 
the   opposite    face  to  the   Cleitorian  Aroanius, 
stands  near  the  natural   boundary  of  the  Phe- 
neatice  and  Cleitoria  ;  and  thus  corresponds,  as 
well  in  position  as  it  does  in  name,  to  the  Ly- 
curia  of  Pausanias.     Its  distance,  however,  as  I 
have  already  remarked,  from  the  fountains  of 


the  Ladon,  is  much  less  than  the  fifty  stades  of 
Pausanias,  as,  on  the  other  hand,  the  sixty 
stades  which  he  assigns  for  the  interval  be- 
tween the  sources  and  Cleitor,  is  rather  less 
than  tlie  reality  *.  I  am  ignorant  where  the 
other  stream  re-appears  which  enters  the  eastern 
Pheneatic  zerethra  in  Mount  Orexis,  or,  in 
modern  words,  the  katavothra  of  Skepezi ;  its 
direction  appears  to  be  towards  the  lake  of 
Stymphalus,  in  which  case  a  part  of  the  waters 
of  the  Pheneatic  plain  flows  to  the  Argolic  Gulf, 
and  a  part  to  the  western  coast  of  the  Pelo- 

Strabo''  is  more  particular  than  Pausanias 
on  the  subject  of  the  principal  river  of  the 
Pheneatice  and  its  peculiarities.  As  he  speaks 
in  the  same  passage  of  the  similar  phseno- 
mena  of  the  Stymphalia,  I  shall  here  insert 
the  whole  of  it.  "  The  extraordinary  circum- 
stances," says  the  geographer,  "  attending  the 
Alpheius  and  Eurotas  have  already  been  stated, 
as  well  as  those  relating  to  the  Erasinus,  which 
now  flows  from  the  lake  Stymphalis  into  the 
Argeia,  but  which  formerly  had  no  outlet, 
because  its  subterraneous  channels  (ra  ^epeOpa), 
which  the  Arcadians  call  ^epedpa,  then  afford- 
ed no  passage  to  the  waters  j  so  that  the 
city    of  the    Stymphalii,    which    is   now    fifty 

»  See  Chapter  XVII.  ^  Strabo,  p.  389. 


stades  distant  from  the  lake,  was  then  si- 
tuated upon  its  margin.  The  contrary  hap- 
pened to  the  Ladon,  the  current  of  which  for- 
merly ceased,  in  consequence  of  the  obstruction 
of  its  sources,  an  earthquake  having  caused 
the  subterraneous  channel  in  the  Pheneatice 
to  collapse  *. 

"  This  is  one  account,"  adds  the  geographer; 
"  but,  according  to  Eratosthenes,  the  river 
Anias  [Aroanius  ?]  forms  a  lake  before  the  city 
of  Pheneus,  where  it  is  received  into  certain 
narrow  channels  [lad/xovs]  called  ^epeOpa  :  these 
having  become  obstructed,  the  water  inundated 
the  plain  ;  when  they  were  again  opened,  the 
water,  falling  into  the  Ladon  and  Alpheius, 
overflowed  their  banks  so  as  to  submerge  the 
sacred  land  at  Olympia,  while  the  lake  of  Phe- 
neus was  drained.  Eratosthenes  relates  also, 
that  the  Erasinus,  flowing  near  Stymphalus, 
there  passes  under  a  mountain,  and  appears 
again  in  the  Argeia  ;  whence  it  happened,  that 
when  Iphicrates  was  besieging  Stymphalus  with- 
out success,  he  attempted  to  obstruct  the  sub- 
terraneous drain  by  filling  it  with  a  great  num- 
ber of  sponges,  but  was  diverted  from  proceeding 
with  his  intention  by  a  signal  from  heaven.'*'' 

It  seems  evident  that  the  word  irevrriKovTa, 

VOL.  III.  L 


"fifty",  in  the  preceding  passage,  is  an  error  of 
the  text  forvreWe,  "five'*, the  latter  being  about 
the  real  number  of  stades  between  the  site  of 
Stymphalus  and  the  margin  of  the  lake,  on 
an  average  of  the  seasons. 

The  chasms  of  the  Pheneatice  and  the  sub- 
terraneous course  of  the  river  of  Pheneus  are 
alluded  to  by  some  other  authors  \  Pliny, 
although  he  was  informed  of  the  origin  of  the 
Ladon  in  the  lake  of  Pheneus ",  seems  to  have 
totally  mistaken  the  nature  of  the  accident  which 
happened  to  the  plain  ;  for  he  adduces  Phe- 
neus as  an  example,  that  waters  are  sometimes 
absorbed  by  earthquakes,  and  adds,  that  this 
phenomenon  occurred  five  times  at  Pheneus  ^ 
It  would  appear  from  Plutarch,  that  the  inunda- 
tion of  the  Pheneatice  was  not  of  very  ancient 
date  ;  for  he  ridicules  the  idea,  that  Apollo 
should  have  obstructed  the  channel  of  the  river 
of  Pheneus  because  Hercules,  a  thousand  years 
before,  had  stolen  the  prophetic  tripod  from 
Delphi  and  carried  it  to  Pheneus  "*, —  a  remark 
which  seems  to  render  the  story  of  the  submer- 

^  Theophrast.  Hist.  Plant.  "^  Terrae  motus  profundunt 

1.  3.  c.  l.~Diodor.  1.  15.  c.  49.  sorbentque  aquas^,  sicut  circa 

^  Ladon  e  paliidibus  Phe-  Pheneum  Arcadiae  quinquies 

nei,    Erymanthus    e    monte  accidisse  constat. — Plin.Hist. 

ejusdem  nominis  in  Alpheum  Nat.  1.  31.  c.  5. 

defiuentes.— Plin.  Hist.  Nat.  '^  Plutarch,  de   Sera   Nu- 

1.  4.  c  6.  minum  Vindicta. 


sion  of  the  plain,  to  any  great  extent  at  least, 
extremely  doubtful,  since  the  exact  date  of  such 
a  calamity  ought  to  have  been  known  if  it  was 
so  recent  as  the  words  of  Plutarch  indicate. 

The  great  mountain  on  the  west  of  Fonia, 
which  trends  westward  to  join  the  southern  end 
of  Mount  Khelmos,  is  called  here,  as  on  its 
opposite  side,  Turtovana.  A  pointed  summit 
connected  with  it,  which  rises  above  the  western 
end  of  the  plain  of  Fonia,  is  named  Triandafylia. 
Mount  Turtovana  descends  into  the  plain  of 
Fonia  in  a  projecting  ridge,  which  is  opposed 
to  that  of  Mount  Saeta,  and  hides  all  the  west- 
ern end  of  the  plain  from  the  village  of  Fonia. 
Each  of  these  two  projections  terminates  be- 
low in  precipitous  rocks  or  steep  rocky  slopes, 
along  which,  at  a  height  of  about  fifty  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  plain,  there  is  a  line 
seeming  to  mark  the  depth  of  water  when  all 
this  plain  was  a  lake,  all  below  the  mark  being 
of  a  lighter  colour  than  the  rest  of  the  moun- 
tain* Pausanias,  who  observed  this  line  on  the 
rocks,  considered  it  as  a  proof  of  the  inun- 
dation having  once  reached  to  that  height,  and 
the  tradition  is  still  preserved  :  such  a  popular 
opinion,  indeed,  is  a  natural  consequence  of  the 
appearances  on  the  rocks,  whatever  may  have 
been  the  real  cause  of  that  phenomenon.     Nor 

L  2 


can  it  be  doubted,  that  the  obstruction  of  the  ka- 
tavothra  would  at  any  time  be  followed  by  a  great 
inundation.  We  know  that  a  similar  calamity 
afflicted  the  country  adjacent  to  the  lake  Copais, 
in  Bteotiay  where  still  exist  remains  of  the  great 
works  which  were  undertaken  to  remedy  the 
evil, — works,  however,  which  would  have  been 
impracticable  at  the  Pheneatic  zerethra,  on  ac- 
count of  the  greater  height  of  the  mountain 
above  the  subterraneous  channel.  So  striking 
is  the  line  of  discolouration  on  the  rocks  of  the 
two  mountains  Triandafylia  and  Saeta,  espe- 
cially as  viewed  from  the  ridge  of  Kastania, 
(Geronteium,')  that  my  janissary,  as  we  de- 
scended yesterday  from  Kastania,  immediately 
accounted  for  the  appearance  of  the  rocks  ex- 
actly in  the  same  manner  as  Pausanias  and  the 
modern  Foniates,  although  he  had  never  seen 
the  place  before  or  heard  the  story ;  he  sup- 
posed that  the  lake  had  been  drained  off  not 
long  ago.  The  natives  relate  the  following  tale 
concerning  this  occurrence  :  they  say,  that  two 
devils  possessed  the  lake,  one  of  whom  resided 
near  Gioza,  the  other  towards  Lykuria.  These 
demons,  as  was  to  be  expected  of  such  charac- 
ters, often  quarrelled,  and  at  length  a  terrible 
conflict  occurred  between  them  at  a  place  near 
the  top  of  Mount  Saeta.     The  one  who  lived 


on  the  western  side  of  the  lake,  and  was  the 
more  cunning  devil  of  the  two,  devised  a  plan 
of  pelting  his  adversary  with  balls  made  of  the 
fat  of  oxen,  which,  when  they  came  in  contact 
with  the  devil's  skin,  caught  fire  and  annoyed 
him  so  terribly,  that  he  was  seized  with  a  panic, 
and  could  find  no  way  of  escape  but  through 
the  mountain,  leaving  a  passage  by  which  the 
waters  flowed  off  and  left  the  plain  dry.  It  is 
curious,  that  according  to  an  ancient  Greek 
mythologist*,  Pluto  himself  was  the  demon  who 
made  his  exit  in  this  manner  j  not,  however, 
under  the  disgraceful  circumstances  of  the  mo- 
dern fable,  but  in  company  with  his  fair  prize 
Proserpine,  whom  he  carried  through  the  chasms 
as  the  shortest  road  to  his  infernal  kingdom. 

Although  it  is  highly  probable,  that,  in  a  coun-     L  /^ 
try  so   subject  to  earthquakes  as  Greece,    the    ^^^-^'^^^ 
accident  mentioned  by  Eratosthenes  really  took     ^    *^ 
place,    and   may  have  occurred  perhaps  more 
than  once,  and  although  nothing  can  be  more 
natural  than   that  the  shaded  line  on  the  rocks 
above  the  lake  should  have  given  rise  to  the  vul- 
gar belief  of  its  having  once  covered  the  whole 
Pheneatic  plain,  it  is  impossible  to  agree  with 
Pausanias  in   adducing  those  marks  as  a  proof 
of  such  a  submersion  ;  since  it  is  certain,  that  if 
*  Couon.  Nurrat.  15. 


we  take  into  account  the  power  of  evaporation, 
all  the  waters  which  flow  into  the  Pheneatic 
basin  would  be  insufficient  to  raise  the  water  to 
half  the  height  of  the  discoloured  line.  More- 
over, if  the  line  be  assumed  as  a  proof  of  the 
ancient  depth  of  water,  we  must  also  conceive 
that  depth  to  have  lasted  so  long,  that  an  ex- 
posure to  the  air  for  two  or  three  thousand  years 
has  not  been  able  to  obliterate  the  marks  of  the 
antecedent  submersion.  But,  in  fact,  such  a 
regular  line  of  partial  discolouration  may  be  re- 
marked on  the  borders  of  many  lakes  which  are 
surrounded  by  precipitous  rocks  ;  and  I  have 
generally  observed,  that  it  is  at  a  greater  height 
than  one  can  believe  the  waters  ever  to  have 
attained.  I  conceive,  therefore,  that  the  ap- 
pearance is  caused  entirely  by  evaporation,  and 
that  the  lower  parts  of  the  rocks  being  con- 
stantly moistened,  while  the  upper  are  in  a  state 
of  comparative  dryness,  a  difference  of  colour 
is,  in  process  of  time,  the  consequence. 

The  mountain  of  Zarukhla,  so  called  from  a 
village  on  the  northern  side  of  it,  rises  behind 
the  mountain  of  Fonia,  with  a  double  peak,  to  a 
great  height.  I  have  little  doubt,  that  it  is  the 
ancient  Mount  Crathis.  It  is  separated  from, 
or  rather  connected  with.  Mount  Turtovana  by 
a  dhiasylo,  through  which  there  is  a  road  by 


Kynigu  to  PJaditeri,  and  thence  to  Kalavryta. 
Another  dhiasylo,  which  connects  Turtovana 
with  Saeta,  has  on  its  southern  face  Lykuria, 
and  an  hour  below  it,  as  I  have  before  stated, 
the  emissory  of  the  lake  of  Fonia,  anciently 
called  the  sources  of  the  Ladon.  The  latter 
dhiasylo  forms  the  natural  communication  from 
the  Pheneatice  into  the  Cleitoria,  as  Mount 
Geronteium  does  into  the  Stymphalia,  and  the 
pass  of  Caryae  into  the  Orchomenia.  The  north- 
eastern side  of  the  plain  of  Pheneus  is  bounded 
by  Mount  Zyria,  the  ancient  Cyllene,  which, 
farther  north,  is  separated  only  by  the  valley  of 
the  Aroanius  from  Mount  Crathis.  Cyllene  is 
connected  southward  by  means  of  the  lower 
ridge  of  Geronteium,  now  the  dhiasylo  of  Kas- 
tania,  with  Mount  Orexis,  now  called  Skipezi. 
Between  Geronteium  and  the  highest  part  of 
Cyllene  is  the  summit  which  was  anciently 
named  Sepia. 

The  Fheneatic  plain  is,  at  the  present  sea- 
son, still  very  marshy.  With  the  exception  of 
the  vineyards  around  Fonia,  it  is  covered  en- 
tirely with  fields  of  wheat  or  barley  just  spring- 
ing up,  so  tardy  is  vegetation  in  this  elevated 
valley.  On  the  left  bank  of  the  AroaniuSy  for 
a  considerable  distance  along  the  middle  of  the 
plain,  are  still  traced  the  remains  of  the  work 
of  Hercules  described  by  Pausanias,  but  which 


has  now  more  the  appearance  of  having  been  a 
mound  erected  to  prevent  the  Aroanius  from 
inundating  the  southern  and  eastern  side  of  the 
plain,  than  an  artificial  channel  for  the  river, 
as  Pausanias  shews  it  to  have  been  originally. 
It  is  very  possible  that  when  the  canal  be- 
came damaged  and  useless,  as  it  already  was 
in  the  time  of  the  Greek  traveller,  it  may 
have  been  converted  to  the  purpose  of  an 
embankment  similar  to  those  of  which  there 
are  remains  in  several  of  the  valleys  and 
plains  of  Greece  which  were  subject  to  inund- 
ation. I  saw  some  traces  of  one  at  the  western 
end  of  the  lake  of  Stymphalus,  but  that  of 
the  plain  of  Pheneus  appears  to  have  been 
a  much  greater  work,  and  corresponds  to  the 
magnitude  indicated  in  the  description  of 
Pausanias.  That  it  was  extremely  ancient,  is 
proved  by  the  tradition  which  ascribed  it  to 
Hercules.  In  truth,  perhaps,  it  was  an  under- 
taking of  one  of  the  kings  of  Arcadia,  some  of 
whom  resided  at  Pheneus,  as  we  learn  from  the 
abstract  of  the  history  of  Arcadia  in  Pausanias, 
as  well  as  from  Virgil  %  who  supposed  Pheneus 
to  have  been  the  dwelling  place  of  Evander, 
and  represents  Anchises  as  visiting  him  there. 
It  is  very  natural   that  Pheneus  should   have 

a  .En.  1.  8.  V.  165. 


been  the  seat  of  government  in  times  of"  inse- 
curity and  violence,  or  when  the  whole  of  Ar- 
cadia was  under  a  royal  head.  Its  valley  is  the 
natural  citadel  of  that  province,  being  either 
surrounded  by  other  valleys  similarly  encircled 
with  mountains,  to  such  a  degree  as  to  dis- 
charge their  waters  through  zerethra,  or  by  dis- 
tricts of  equal  strength  and  defensibility,  such 
as  those  of  Nonacris,  Cynaetha,  and  Cleitor  in 
Arcadia,  and  those  of  ^geira  and  Pellene  in 

Although  the  Alpheius  and  the  rivers  of 
Pheneus  and  Stymphalus  furnish  the  most  re- 
markable instances  of  Arcadian  zerethra,  and 
have  therefore  been  noticed  by  the  ancient  au- 
thors, I  am  rather  surprised,  after  having  seen 
so  many  other  examples  of  them  in  the  interior 
of  the  Peloponnesus,  that  they  have  not  been 
more  frequently  adverted  to  in  ancient  history. 
Subterraneous  rivers  in  limestone  ridges  are 
found  in  many  other  countries,  but  in  none,  that 
I  ever  heard  of,  are  they  so  frequently  met  with 
as  in  this  peninsula.  Aristotle  and  Diodorus  are 
the  only  authors  who  prepare  us  for  finding  the 
Peloponnesus  thus  singularly  constructed  by  na- 
ture. The  information  of  the  former  seems  to 
have  been  correct  as  to  the  facts,  though  some 
of  his  expressions  are  not  very  philosophical. 
He  adduces  in   proof  of  the  supposition    that 


fountains  are  supplied  from  deposits  of  water  in 
the  bosom  of  the  earth,  the  example  of  those 
subterraneous  rivers  which  are  found  in  many 
parts  of  the  world,  but  particularly  in  Arcadia, 
where  they  are  caused  (he  adds)  by  the  moun- 
tains, which,  leaving  no  issue  for  the  waters  to 
flow  towards  the  sea  above  ground,  force  them 
to  find  a  passage  below  ^.  Diodorus  remarks, 
that  the  destruction  of  Helice  and  Bura  by  an 
earthquake,  was  ascribed  to  the  anger  of  Nep- 
tune, and  that  in  proof  of  this  belief,  it  was 
alleged  that  Neptune  has  power  over  earth- 
quakes and  inundations  ;  that  the  Peloponnesus 
was  his  ancient  dwelling  place,  and  that  all  its 
cities  venerated  him  beyond  any  of  the  other 
gods  ;  moreover,  that  in  Peloponnesus  there  are 
vast  hollows  in  the  depths  of  the  earth,  and 
great  collections  of  flowing  waters  in  them ''. 

■^  iV.  ^'dal    roicSrcii   (p^^ay-  "'V-'^^^   ^^^'   ^^^^    t^"    ^^-vyLo^crov 

Xoi/aiv  ol  KUTCtTTivoiJAvoiTciv 'WOTCi-  ^^'    Aristot.    IMetGOr.    1.    1.    C. 

/xii-"  a-viy.<Sa,iyn  y.oci   rovro   ttoX-  13.     The  subterraneous  out- 

?ta%oD  T??  yv<;-  oiov  T??  ij.\v  IIeXo-  lets  of  the  rivers   of  Greece 

'uovr^,^ov    roc    'rr-Kuara.    ro^uvra,  ^ygj-e  trifling,  lie   says,   com- 

1%  r\  'Ar-^^'^^  ^^^"':  ^J-'^'"  pared  to  those  of  the  Caspian 

\     '       ~        >',    '    OS  "Sea,   which   he    supposed  to 

aocv  irXr.^ovi^ivo^  yap  ol  totto;  y.ou  l^^^e  a  discharge  under  ground 

oiy.  \-yovriq    iy.pvcriv,    avroi  ivpla-  tO  Uoraxi  in  Jr^ontUS. 

«o»Ta*  T>!v  diOiuM    E*s   Qd^Qc,  ocrro-  ^  tjjj'  YliXonrovvrtaov   Ka,roi   So,- 

laaroi'  tte^*  (iaev  wv  t>iv    EXXaooi,  avcrrkanc  v^ktuv  va.u.xrux.iitj'n  ut- 

jjimpci  T01UV7CC  xccvriXuii;  eVt»  yiy~  ya,Xa(;.    Diodor.  1.  15.  C.  49. 


The  historian  then  specifies  the  instances  of  the 
rivers  of  Pheneus  and  Stymphalus,  as  manifestly 
flowing  under  ground  \ 

Though  I  have  ah'eady  noticed  all  the  Pelo- 
ponnesian  zerethra  with  which  I  am  acquainted, 
I  shall  here  recapitulate  them.  The  valleys  of 
Arcadia  which  have  no  other  discharge  for  the 
running  waters,  are  those  of  Tegea,  Mantineia, 
Asea  or  Eutaea,  Orchomenus  or  Caphya?,  Alea, 
Stymphalus,  and  Pheneus.  In  the  Tegeatice, 
there  are  three  zerethra  ;  two  of  the  streams 
emerge  in  the  vale  of  Asea,  the  third  in  the  sea 
on  the  coast  of  the  Argeia.  In  the  Asasa  there 
is  one,  or  possibly  two  zerethra,  the  emissory  of 
one  of  them  is  at  Pegae  in  the  Megalopolitan 
valley ;  that  of  the  other  (but  this  is  doubtful) 
is  at  the  source  of  the  Eurotas,  near  Belemina. 
In  the  Mantinice  there  is  one,  of  which  the 
emissory  is  uncertain, — perhaps  at  Hehsson. 
The  river  of  Orchomenus,  which  enters  the 
zerethra  of  Caphya?,  reappears  at  Rheunus,  near 
the  modern  Tara,  and  joins  the  Ladon.  Of  the 
zerethra  in  the  vale  of  Alea,  near  the  modern 
Skotini,  the  emissory  is  probably  the  fountain 
near  Orchomenus,  anciently  called  Teneiae.  The 
river  which  enters  the  zerethra  of  Stymphalus'', 
reappears  near  Argos.     In  the  Pheneatice  there 

"   <Pa.)/s^ovq     pirvrai     VTi-o    yriv.        tluit    thc    foUlltilill    of   Styui- 

^>  It  will  liorcafter  appear      plialus  is  probably  itself  only 

156  TO    KLUKINES.  [CHAP.  XXVI. 

are  two  zerethra,  one  conducts  the  Aroanius  to 
the  sources  of  the  Ladon  below  Lycuria,  the 
emissory  of  the  other  is  unknown  to  me.  I  liave 
little  doubt  that  several  other  smaller  zerethra* 
would  be  found  upon  a  more  minute  examin- 
ation of  the  country,  and  that  by  attending  to 
the  osteology  of  the  peninsula,  or  the  course 
and  construction  of  the  ridges,  the  subterra- 
neous courses  and  exits  of  those  wliicli  are  now 
uncertain  might  be  ascertained. 

April  9,.- — Plutarch  twice  mentions  a  forti- 
fied place  called  Penteleium  in  conjunction 
with  Pheneus''.  I  am  informed  of  the  existence 
of  some  remains  at  Romeiko  Tharso ",  in  the 
vale  of  the  FJieneatic  Aroanius  in  the  way  to 
Karyes :  this  possibly  may  have  been  the  posi- 
tion of  Penteleium.  Tharso,  written  Tapaos,  is 
mentioned  by  Chalcocondylas  as  one  of  the 
places  taken  by  Mahomet  the  Second  in  the 
campaign  of  1458. 

This  morning,  at  8.20,  I  quit  Ponia  in 
search  of  Nonacris  and  the  Stya: :  hoping  to 
be  able  to  cross  from  thence  to  Trikkala.  I 
send  my  baggage  to  Karya,  which  is  described 
to    me    as    lying    nearly    midway   in    a    line 

an  emissory  of  the  katavothra  plain,  on  the  31st  of  IMarch. 

of  the  valley  of  Kesari.  ''  In  Arat.  et  in  Clcomen. 

^  I  alluded  to  one  of  these,  '^  'VuiA.<x,iiKOi  Qx^ao; 
in    the    upper    Orchouienian 


between  the  position  of  Nonacris  and  Trik- 
kala.  Having  descended  into  the  plain  in 
the  direction  of  Mount  Zyria,  we  cross,  at 
8.38j  the  branch  of  the  Foniatiko  which  origi- 
nates in  the  mountain  behind  Fonia.  At  9, 
liaving  halted  a  quarter  of  an  hour  and  sent 
the  baggage  to  Karya,  I  follow  up  the  val- 
ley of  the  stream  just  mentioned,  leaving  the 
monastery  of  Dhoxa  on  the  mountain  to  our 
left ;  again  cross  and  recross  the  river,  and  then 
begin  to  ascend  the  mountain  of  Zarukhla, 
which  is  connected  westward  with  Khelmos. 
The  whole  ascent  is  clothed  with  trees,  consist- 
ing in  the  lower  part  of  large  firs,  and  in  the 
upper  of  pines,  mixed  with  firs.  The  highest 
points  of  the  mountain  remain  to  our  left.  To- 
wards the  dhiasylo,  or  summit,  at  which  we  ar- 
rive at  10.37,  there  is  some  snow  on  the  ground, 
which  is  continued  for  a  much  greater  distance 
down  the  northern  slope.  Here  are  several  tor- 
rents, which  unite  at  the  bottom  and  form  a 
river  called  Klukiniatiko,  or  Akrata ;  the  former 
name  is  derived  from  the  district  of  Klukines 
on  its  banks  ;  the  latter,  which  is  more  com- 
monly applied  to  the  part  of  the  river  below 
Klukines,  furnishes  a  presumption  that  the  river 
is  the  ancient  Crathis,  and  consequently  that 
the  mountain  we  are  crossing  is  Mount  Crathis  ; 
for  Pausanias  informs  us,  that  the  sources  of 


the  Crathis  were  in  a  mountain  of  the  same 
name.  I  have  thus  a  good  clue  to  the  Styx, 
which  was  a  branch  of  the  river  Crathis.  After 
having  descended  by  a  steep  dechvity  and  very 
difficult  road,  we  arrive  at  the  river  at  11,  and 
then  winding  along  the  bed  of  it  or  over  a  part 
of  its  lofty  banks,  we  arrive,  at  11.35,  at  Za- 
rukhla  *,  which  is  dispersed  on  the  lowest  slopes 
of  the  mountain  on  either  side  of  the  stream, 
and  contains  about  ^00  families.  Our  route 
continues  to  follow  the  bed  of  the  river  for  an- 
other half  hour,  when  we  arrive  under  the  large 
village  of  Aia  Varvara^  situated  on  the  side  of 
the  mountain  above  the  right  bank  of  the  river. 
From  either  side  of  the  ravine  a  high  mountain 
now  rises  of  the  most  steep  and  barren  descrip- 
tion, covered  towards  the  summit  with  snow : 
these  are  some  of  the  counterforts  of  the  great 
northern  chain  of  the  Peloponnesus,  which  ex- 
tends from  west  to  east,  and  of  which  Voidhia, 
'Olonos,  Khelmos,  and  Zyria,  are  the  principal 
summits.  Its  roots  extend  to  the  Achaian  coast. 
Opposite  Santa  Barbara  we  ascend  the  moun- 
tain on  the  left  bank  of  the  Crathis  by  a  very 
difficult  road,  in  many  parts  cut  up  by  the  tor- 
rents, and  at  1  arrive  at  Solos,  situated  on  the 
right  side  of  the  ravine  of  a  stream  coming  di- 
rectly from  the  great  summit  of  Khelmos,  and 


joining  the  Crathis  a  little  below  the  village. 
On  a  height,  in  the  bottom  of  the  ravine  below 
Solos,  is  Mesorughi^,  and  on  the  side  of  the  op- 
posite mountain  Persteia,  all  three  of  them  dis- 
persed over  a  large  space  of  ground.  These 
villages  are  the  Klukines  ^,  more  particularly  so 
called,  though  the  name  is  often  applied  also  to 
those  on  the  upper  part  of  the  Crathis,  viz.  Za- 
rukhla,  Aia  Varvara,  Vunaki,  and  another  smaller 
between  Vunaki  and  Solos.  The  inhabitants 
of  Solos,  Mesorughi,  and  Perstera,  are  all  ma- 
sons, and  are  absent  from  November  to  Easter 
at  their  work  in  the  large  towns  of  the  Morea 
or  Rumeli.  So  completely  is  this  exemplified  at 
present,  that  the  only  person  I  can  find  to  send 
to  Karya  for  my  baggage  (having  found  my  in- 
tended route  too  difficult)  is  a  gipsy  blacksmith, 
he  being  the  only  man  in  the  town,  except  two 
or  three  priests  and  the  schoolmaster.  Never- 
theless I  am  very  civilly  received  and  lodged  at 
the  house  of  the  Proestos  Khristodhulos,  whose 
wife  does  the  honours,  the  president  himself 
being  absent  on  his  affairs  at  Kalavryta,  to 
which  vilayeti  the  Klukines  belong.  It  rarely 
happens  that  a  Turk  ever  enters  these  retired 
valleys,  or  rather  ravines,  for  the  hills  rise 
so  steeply  on   either  side  of  the  river  and  its 

'  Miao^ovyt,  middle  street.  ^  KMvKtifun;. 

160  RIVER    STYX.  [chap.  XXVI. 

branches,  that  the  only  cultivation  is  in  terraces 
on  the  slopes.  The  primates,  whenever  it  is 
necessary,  go  to  Kalavryta  to  transact  their  bu- 
siness with  the  Turkish  authorities.  Some  of 
the  inhabitants  of  Ala  Varvara  and  Zarukhla 
find  agricultural  employment  in  the  maritime 
plain  of  Akrata,  or  in  that  of  Fonia.  In  the 
former,  Aia  Varvara  possesses  some  vineyards 
in  the  plain.  All  the  other  inhabitants  of  the 
banks  of  the  Crathis  are  shopkeepers  or  artisans 
in  the  towns  of  Greece.  One  of  the  villages 
consists  almost  entirely  of  coopers. 

Above  and  around  Solos  there  is  a  wood  of 
chestnuts.  The  climate  is  colder  than  that  of 
Fonia,  and  not  the  smallest  appearance  of  spring 
is  yet  to  be  seen.  The  mountains  exhibit  a 
sublime  but  dismal  scene.  Their  barren  sides 
are  furrowed  by  numberless  torrents,  contribut- 
ing to  form  the  rapid  muddy  stream  which 
roars  over  the  rocks  below  Solos.  Above  the 
Klukines  this  torrent  descends  rapidly  through  a 
deep  rocky  glen,  at  the  upper  extremity  of 
which  the  eastern  part  of  the  great  summit 
of  Khelmos  terminates  in  an  immense  preci- 
pice. Two  slender  cascades  of  water  fall  per- 
pendicularly over  the  precipice,  and,  after  wind- 
ing for  some  distance  among  a  labyrinth  of 
rocks,  unite  to  form  the  torrent,  which,  after 
passing  the  Klukines,  joins  the  river  Akrata.  The 

CHAP.   XXVI.]  RIVER    STYX.  l6l 

people  of  Solos  say,  that  it  is  impossible  to  arrive 
at  the  water  at  the  foot  of  the  precipice,  which 
is  true  at  present  on  account  of  the  snow,  and 
may  possibly  be  equally  so  in  summer  by  rea- 
son of  the  nature  of  the  ground.  I  have  no 
doubt  that  the  cascade  is  the  Karei^dfievov  Hrvyos 
vBoyp  %  or  doxtm-distiUing  water  of  Styx, — the 
Xrvyos  vSaros  alira  peedpa  ^,  or  /o/h/  torrents  of 
Styx,  which  Homer  has  by  these  epithets  more 
correctly  described  than  any  subsequent  author, 
probably  because  no  other,  except  Pausanias, 
had  ever  seen  the  place.  Hesiod,  neverthe- 
less, in  the  midst  of  his  poetical  allusions 
to  Styx,  whom  he  personifies  as  an  infernal 
deity,  has  given  a  correct  idea  of  the  reality 
in  describing  the  water  upon  which  the  oath 
of  the  gods  was  taken.  He  represents  it  as  a 
cold  perennial  stream  falling  from  a  lofty  rock 
and  passing  through  a  very  rugged  place : 


"Etrvyoq  a<p9iT0t  vdu^ 

The  description  of  Herodotus^  does  not  appear 
to  be  that  of  an  autoptes.     When  Cleomenes, 

^  II.  O.  V.  37.  ^  Ibid.  V.  805. 

"  II.  0.  V.  369.  •  Herodot.  1.  G.  c.  74. 

<=  Hesiod.  Theog.  v.  785. 

VOL.  III.  M 

1 62  RIVER    STYX.  [chap.  XXVI. 

king  of  Sparta,  wished  to  unite  the  Arcadians 
in  his  cause,  he  endeavoured  to  persuade  the 
chief  men  of  Arcadia  *  to  assemble  at  Nonacris, 
and  swear  by  the  Styx  that  they  would  follow 
and  assist  him.  The  historian  then  tells  us,  that 
Nonacris  was  a  city  of  Arcadia  near  Pheneus, 
and  the  Styx  a  source''  in  that  city*^;  that  not 
much  water  was  apparent,  and  that  it  dropt  upon 
a  rugged  place  which  was  surrounded  by  a 
wall  ^ 

Pausanias  is  the  only  one  of  the  later 
writers  who  had  a  correct  idea  of  the  Styx. 
Theophrastus,  as  quoted  by  Antigonus  Carys- 
tius^,  describes  it  as  dropping  from  a  small 
rock  ^  in  Pheneus  °.  He  adds,  that  those  who 
wished  to  take  the  water  made  use  of  sponges, 
because  it  destroyed  all  kinds  of  vessels  except 
those  of  horn" ;  and  that  all  persons  who  tasted 
of  the  water  died. 

The  reputed  poisonous  quality  of  the  Stygian 
water,  as  well  as  the  other  fables  told  of  it  by 
the  later  Greeks,  arose  very  naturally,  among  a 
superstitious  people,  from  its  inaccessible  posi- 
tion and  the  veneration  in  which,  during  so  many 

TUi.  ^  Antig.  Caryst.  c.  174. 

b    „. 

iy.  rmo;  imrpidiov. 

■fiyft'  iy-   TiJ/OJ    ■TTETfi 

^     Iv   TUVTr)    Tn    "TVOXi.  S     Ell    ^OiViU. 

^   v^up    67\iyov    (pccivoj/,ivov    at  "   7r^>5v  twv  KiPccrUuv. 
•TTnpyii;  a-Td^H  ec  ccyy.o^,  to  di  ay- 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  RIVER    STYX.  l63 

centuries,  it  had  been  held.  Whether  Homer, 
in  applying  the  adjective  ddarov^  to  the  Styx, 
referred  to  its  sanctity  or  its  destructive  powers, 
there  is  some  difficulty  in  deciding;  though  Stra- 
bo,  by  describing  it  as  a  slender  stream  of  perni- 
cious water'',  may  be  supposed  to  have  interpret- 
ed Homer's  epithet  in  the  latter  sense,  for  he 
generally  had  in  view  the  Homeric  topography. 
However  this  may  be,  it  is  certain,  that  be- 
fore the  age  of  Alexander  the  Great,  the  re- 
putation of  the  deleterious  effects  of  the  water 
was  well  established  ;  for  after  his  death  a  re- 
port prevailed,  that  he  had  been  poisoned  by 
the  water  of  the  Styx  *" ;  and  though  Plutarch 
only  mentions  the  story  to  contradict  it,  he 
seems  to  have  afforded  ample  credence  to  the 
fables  related  of  the  water,  of  which  he  attri- 
butes the  poisonous  and  destructive  effects  to 
its  coldness  and  penetrating  quality  ^  describing 
it  as  a  slender  thread  of  water  of  extreme  cold- 
ness, or  (in  another  passage)  as  a  fine   dew  of 

^    Aypa  ivv  jxot  'ojji.ocr(Tov  axxroti  llrvyoq  vdu^. — 11.  E.  V.  2/1. 

^  Xi'auoiov  iX'.9p'.ov  vSxTo;. —  administered  in  the  hoof  of  a 

Strabo,  p.  .389.  mule,  he  shews,  that  the  ru- 

"  Plutarch,  in  Alexand.  —  mour  to  which  he  alludes  was 

Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  18. —Ar-  the  same  as  that  mentioned 

rian.  1.  7.  c.  27-     Arrian  does  by  Plutarch  and  Pausanias. 
not  name  the  Styx ;  but,  in  'i  Ctto  -^vx^^rnTOi  y.x)  ^Pifji.V' 

saying   tliat   the  poison  was  tv/toj. 

M  2 

164  RIVER    STYX.  [chap.  XXVI. 

an  icy  temperature,  distilling  from  a  rock  at 
Nonacris,  where  it  was  collected  in  the  hoof  of 
an  ass*, — the  only  kind  of  vessel,  he  adds,  which 
it  did  not  either  dissolve  or  break.  An  epi- 
gram, still  extant,  which  was  affixed  to  a  vessel 
of  horn  dedicated  by  Alexander  in  the  temple 
of  Delphi,  signifies  that  the  cup  had  been  found 
to  resist  the  water  of  the  Styx ''.  It  was  said  to 
have  been  a  present  from  Sopatrus,  or  Antipater, 
to  Alexander,  and  was,  perhaps,  the  origin  of 
the  rumour  of  Alexander  having  been  poisoned 
by  the  water  of  Styx. 

It  was  natural  enough  that  some  difference  of 
opinion  should  prevail  as  to  the  substance  which 
had  the  virtue  of  resisting  this  terrible  fluid, 
seeing  that  most  certainly  the  experiment  had 
never  been  fairly  made.  Plutarch,  as  we  have 
just  stated,  gives  his  testimony  in  favour  of  the 
hoof  of  the  ass.     According  to  Pliny ",  it  was 

*   TO    ^£    (pdofj-ocKoi/    vduj^    fiva;        "Lrvyoi;    vSup    xaXctj-m  In  Trtrpaj? 

Sfioaov     ?^E7rT^J^    ociic',7'.uf/McciiQur£g,       j/.Qvny  oi   IxKriv  oiuv  ariynv'  t«  o 
slj    ovov    yy.Xrv    oiTTOTi^streci- —        a.^>^£t  diaxoTTTct   x«i    p-iyiivcnv. — 

Plutarch,  in  Alexand.      o  (Jij      Plutarch,  de  Primo  Frigido. 

'^  Loi  To^'  'AXi^uvapot;  MccKeouv  yjpcci;  kpQuro  Ylu'.uv 
KavGoivOi-  ShiiGjhoi'  ypyjixa.  n  oot.ijj.uinov 
'^O  Sruyoj  uyfolvToi  Aovayi'iaoi;  ovy.  tden^cia^y) 

'Psvf/.ot.ri,  Sa-o-rdii  d'  tlJaroj  r,iiopsr>ii. — ^Hail.  de  Nat. 

Anim.  1.  10.  c  40.  —  Porphyr.  ap.   I.  Stob.  Eel.  1.  1.  c.  52. 


-  Plin.  Hist.  Nat.  1.  30.  c.  16. 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  KIVER    STYX.  ]  65 

the  hoof  of  a  female  mule.  Vitruvius  *  seems 
to  admit  that  of  a  mule  of  either  render.  Bv 
Theophrastus  the  virtue  v^^as  confined  to  vessels 
of  horn,  in  which  he  is  supported  by  another 
ancient  author  ^  It  would  appear,  however, 
from  Philo  of  Heracleia,  iElian,  and  the  epi- 
gram at  Delphi,  that  even  among  horns  there 
was  but  one  kind  capable  of  resisting  the  Sty- 
gian water,  and  that  not  very  easily  procured, 
being  the  horn  of  a  Scythian  ass  *^. 

The  following  is  the  passage  of  Pausanias  re- 
lating to  the  Styx'': — "  In  travelling  westward 
from  Pheneus,  there  is  a  road  on  the  left  lead- 
ing to  the  city  Cleitor,  and  on  the  right  to 
Nonacris  and  the  water  of  the  Styx.  Nonacris 
was  formerly  a  small  town  of  the  Arcadians, 
which  received  its  name  from  a  daughter  of 
Lycaon.  Its  ruins  only  remain,  and  even  of 
these,  little  is  now  to  be  seen.  Not  far  from 
thence  a  precipice  rises  higher  than  any  that  I 
have  ever  seen,  over  which  falls  a  stream  of  wa- 
ter', by  the  Greeks  called  Styx.  This  water  de- 
scends upon  a  high  rock,  and,  after  having  passed 

*  Vitruv.  1.  8.  c.  3.  phyr.  in  Stub.  Eel.  1.  1.  c.  52. 

''   CalHmachus     Cyreiiaeus  §.  48. — ^lian.  1.  10.  c.  40. 
ap.  Porphyr.  in  Stob.  Eel.  1.  1.  ^  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  17,  18. 

C.  o2.  p.  4/.  ^  >iocTci  rov  x^vj^vot'  arx^ii. 

"  Philo    Heracl.    ap.    Por- 

166  RIVER    STYX.  [chap.  XXVI. 

through  the  rock,  flows  to  the  Crathis  \  It  is 
mortal  both  to  man  and  beast,  which  was  first 
discovered  by  its  effect  upon  goats.  Another 
wonderful  property  attached  to  the  water  of 
Styx  is,  that  vessels,  whether  of  glass  or  crystal, 
^or  murrhine,  or  earthen,  or  of  stone,  are  broken 
by  this  water  ;  and  that  vessels  of  horn,  bone, 
iron,  brass,  lead,  tin,  silver,  electrum,  and  even 
of  gold,  are  dissolved  by  it.  But  it  cannot  in- 
jure the  hoof  of  the  horse :  this  material  alone 
is  not  destroyed  by  the  water.  Whether  it  was 
by  this  water  that  Alexander  son  of  Philip 
was  poisoned,  I  have  not  been  able  to  discover, 
but  certainly  I  have  heard  so.  Above  Nona- 
cris  are  the  mountains  called  Aroania,  of  which 
the  greater  pait  belong  to  the  Pheneatte  ;  but 
Lusi  is  within  the  bounds  of  the  Cleitorii.  Lusi 
is  said  formerly  to  have  been  a  city  ;  but  not 
even  its  ruins  are  now  to  be  seen.'* 

I  can  find  no  person  at  Solos,  not  even  the 
didascalus,  who  is  scholar  enough  to  be  sensible 
that  he  is  living  on  the  banks  of  the  Styx  ;  but, 
what  is  very  curious,  though  ignorant  in  this  re- 
spect, they  preserve  the  old  notion,  that  the  wa- 
ter is  unwholesome,  and  relate  nearly  the  same 

*  TO  Jf  vSuf  TO  ocTTu  TOV  xfYiy.vov  ti-^YiXriV,  o'tff fXSov  d!  diCC  Trjq  TTE- 
ToS  Trapa  t^v  'NcovccKOiv  a-ra-l^ov  Tp«5  If  TOv  KpaOiv  7roTUf/.0]/  x.ecr- 
l/y.vrtTTTEi    /xay    TrpuTov    e?    TnTfnv       nam. 


story  concerning  it  as  Pausanias,  saying  that  no 
vessel  will  hold  the  water ;  which,  indeed,  tliey 
may  very  safely  affirm,  as  well  as  all  the  other 
fables  repeated  by  the  ancients,  if  it  is  inacces- 
sible, as  they  assert.  They  seem  also,  equally  with 
the  ancients,  to  have  neglected  the  considera- 
tion, that,  if  the  Styx  is  a  pernicious  water,  the 
stream  below  Solos  ought  to  partake  of  the  same 
quality,  which  has  not  been  pretended  either  by 
ancients  or  moderns.  The  cascade  is  called 
ra  Mavpa-vepta^ ^  and  sometimes  to.  ApaKo-v4pLa^. 
In  summer,  when  the  stream  is  scanty  and  the 
wind  high,  they  describe  the  cascade  as  blown 
about  like  a  torrent  from  a  mill. 

The  superstitious  respect  in  which  the  present 
inhabitants  hold  the  Styx  is  probably  the  effect 
o^  tradition,  supported  by  the  causes  which  had 
originally  produced  the  same  influence  on  their 
still  more  superstitious  ancestors, — such  as  the 
wildness  of  the  surrounding  scenery,  the  singu- 
larity of  the  waterfall,  (which,  though  it  might 
not  obtain  much  fame  in  the  Alps,  is  higher  than 
any  other  in  Greece,)  and  its  inaccessible  posi- 
tion. In  a  rude  state  of  society,  such  situations 
are  often  the  fabled  residence  of  the  personified 
objects  of  worship,  whose  supposed  presence, 

"  The  Black  VVutcrs.  "  The  Terrible  Waters. 

1()8  RIVER    STYX.  [chap.  XXVI. 

added  to  the  terrors  of  the  scene,  would  render 
an  oath  there  taken  more  solemn,  and  its  obliga- 
tion more  binding.  We  learn  from  Herodotus, 
in  the  passage  already  citeci,  that,  five  centuries 
before  our  aera,  the  Arcadians,  who  were  a 
people  preserving  their  origin  and  manners 
more  than  any  other  in  Greece,  were  accus- 
tomed to  swear  by  Styx,  and  to  meet  at  Nona- 
cris  for  that  purpose.  The  practice  seems  at  that 
time  to  have  been  falling  into  disuse,  for  this  is 
the  only  instance  of  it  occurring  in  history ;  but 
the  ancient  Arcadian  custom  had  probably  given 
a  celebrity  to  the  place  throughout  Greece,  and 
had  often  induced  persons  to  repair  thither  from 
other  parts  of  the  country  to  give  solemnity  to 
their  adjurations  ;  whence  it  was  natural  that, 
in  process  of  time,  the  poets  should  feign,  that  to 
swear  by  the  Styx  was  an  oath  inviolable  by  the 
gods  themselves.  It  was  very  natural  also,  un- 
der these  circumstances,  that  when  the  Greeks 
adopted  the  fables  of  Egyptian  origin,  concern- 
ing the  infernal  kingdom,  they  should  have  ap- 
plied the  name  of  Styx  to  its  imaginary  river. 

The  Mavra-neria  are  nearly  in  the  road 
across  Khelmos  from  Klukines  to  Sudhena, 
and  about  two  miles  from  Solos.  The  vici- 
nity of  the  Stijj:  to  Lusit  which,  as  I  have 
already  remarked,  was  at  or  near  Sudhena,  is 


shewn  by  the  epigram  ah'eady  cited,  in  which 
the  epithet  of  Luseis  is  attached  to  Styx. 
There  is  another  fountain  of  some  modern 
celebrity  on  the  opposite  face  of  Mount  Khel- 
mos  towards  Sudliena,  which  flows  into  the 
plain  below  that  village,  and  is  one  of  the 
sources  of  the  river  of  Karnesi,  which  joins  the 
Cleitor.  This  spring  is  not  very  plentiful,  nor 
do  I  learn  that  there  is  any  cascade,  but  it  is  use- 
ful as  furnishing  w-ater  to  the  cattle  which  feed 
on  the  mountain  in  the  summer ;  it  is  called 
IIovXlov  Bpvcri,  (the  Bird's  Fountain,)  and  the 
Klukiniotes  imagine  that  if  a  person,  ill  with  a 
dangerous  malady,  drinks  it,  he  speedily  re- 
covers or  dies. 

As  so  little  remained  of  Nonacris  in  the  time 
of  Pausanias,  it  is  not  surprising  that  we  find 
nothing  of  it  now.  It  may,  perhaps,  have 
stood  at  Mesomghi,  which  seems  the  most  con- 
venient position  in  the  neighbourhood  for  a 
town.  Not  long  since  there  was  found  in  the 
bed  of  the  river  near  that  village,  a  small  white 
marble  figure,  wanting  the  legs ;  and  when 
complete,  about  four  or  five  inches  high.  It  is 
now  in  the  possession  of  the  son  of  Khristodhu- 
los,  whom  I  could  not  prevail  upon  to  part  with 
it.  The  head  is  perfect,  the  hair  combed  back, 
and  on  the  top  of  the  head  there  is  something 

170  CLIMATE    OF    ARCADIA.       [CHAP.  XXVI. 

resembling  the  basket  of  the  (so  called)  Eleii- 
sinian  Ceres,  at  Cambridge,  the  whole  in  the 
rudest  style  possible,  and  certainly  very  ancient. 
It  was  probably  washed  down  by  the  rains  from 
the  site  of  Nonacris,  whether  that  position 
was  near  Solos,  or  higher  up  the  valley.  I  am 
much  disappointed  at  being  prevented  from  ex- 
ploring any  farther  in  that  direction  by  the 
snow,  which  is  reported  to  be  still  two  bonis 
deep  near  the  Dhrakoneria.  There  is,  indeed, 
no  travelling  freely  in  Arcadia  until  the  latter 
end  of  May,  such  is  the  rudeness  of  the  climate 
in  the  early  spring.  The  best  method  for  a 
person  who  has  time  perfectly  at  his  command, 
is  to  reserve  the  mountainous  parts  of  the  coun- 
try for  the  season  when  the  heats  of  summer 
render  the  plains  at  first  disagreeable  and  after- 
wards dangerous.  That  soft  season,  "  when 
the  plane  whispers  to  the  elm ",  ^  is  as  short 
as  it  is  delightful  in  the  lower  regions  of 
Greece,  but  lingers  on  the  mountains  through 
a  great  part  of  the  summer.  To  explore  the 
mountainous  districts,  however,  would  require 
a  protracted  residence,  which,  in  many  of  them, 
is  not  easy  in  the  present  state  of  Greece  ;  the 

Aristoph.  Xiibtvs  v.  1004. 


only  method,  therefore,  is  to  traverse  them  in  dif- 
ferent directions  as  the  opportunities  offer,  and 
this  cannot  be  done  without  frequent  exposure 
to  heat,  malaria,  and  fatigue  in  the  plains,  the 
combined  effects  of  which,  on  our  northern  con- 
stitutions, are  in  the  mildest  form  an  autumnal 
intermittent,  which  often  lasts  the  whole  winter. 
In  short,  no  time  is  ultimately  gained  by  exertion 
in  the  four  months  of  summer.  On  the  other 
hand,  if  the  traveller  were  to  confine  himself  to 
the  season  which  is  both  safe  and  agreeable,  his 
objects  would  never  be  attained :  there  is  no 
alternative,  therefore,  but  to  travel  during  a  part 
of  the  winter,  which  can  hardly  be  said  to 
conclude,  even  in  the  plains  of  Greece,  before 
the  vernal  equinox.  The  portion  of  the  year 
which  I  have  found,  after  some  experience,  to 
be  the  best,  is  from  the  middle  of  February 
to  the  middle  of  June,  and  from  the  middle 
of  October  to  the  middle  of  December.  In 
the  heat  of  summer  the  best  mode  of  insuring 
health  is  to  select  a  residence  on  the  sea- 
shore, in  a  situation  free  from  marshy  exha- 
lations, and  well  ventilated  by  the  Etesian 
breezes,  or,  what  is  still  better,  in  some 
village  in  the  highest  inhabited  parts  of,  the 
mountains.  With  these  precautions,  and  great 
temperance,  a  man  has  a  fair  chance  of  being 
able  to  travel  for  six  months  of  the  year  with- 


out  any  intermission,  except  that  of  a  few  short 
intervals,  which  are  equally  necessary  for  re- 
pose, and  for  tlie  acquisition  or  arrangement 
of  his  information. 

April  3.  —  From  Klukines  to  Megaspilio. 
I  set  out  at  8,  and,  crossing  the  ravine  of  the 
Styx,  arrive  in  half  an  hour  at  Perstera.  From 
this  side  I  have  a  better  view  of  Mount  Khel- 
mos  and  the  cascade.  In  the  middle  height  of 
the  mountain,  a  slender  stream  of  water  falls 
over  a  precipice  of  about  five  hundred  feet. 
Beyond  Perstera  we  enter  the  grfeat  ravine  of 
the  Akrata,  or  Crathis,  and  pass  olong  the  left 
side  of  it.  Here  we  meet  not  less  than  one 
hundred  women,  each  bearing  on  her  back  a 
great  bundle  of  wood,  equal  to  half  the  load  of 
an  ass.  In  these,  as  well  as  many  other  of  the 
mountainous  parts  of  Greece,  agriculture  and 
out-door  labour  of  every  kind  are  added  to  the 
domestic  duties  of  the  women ;  the  men,  for 
the  most  part,  being  employed  with  their  horses 
as  carriers  %  or  in  tending  the  flocks  ^,  or  resi- 
ding abroad  as  artizans  and  traders.  It  seldom 
happens,  however,  that  the  cultivated  land  of 
such  places   is  extensive,  nor  are  the  women 

a  uyu;yidr^i;.  ^^  tj^g  ground,  while  the  men 

b  Heraclides  Ponticus  re-      tend  the  flocks."— 'Ev  r^AQa- 

nicirKS  01  one  OI  tlie  most  lOlty        u,ccvii)v  vcopa,  yitntynvo'^  u,'(.y  a,l  •yu- 

and  rugged  districts  in  Epi-      ustixsc,  n'/Aitirt  Jl  ol  av^pjj. 
rus,  that  "  the  women   there 

CHAP.  XXVr.]  TO    MEGASPILIO.  173 

often  subjected  to  such  severe  toil  as  that  of 
the  wood-carriers  wliom  we  meet :  it  happens,  in 
the  present  instance,  in  consequence  of  a  want 
of  beasts  of  burthen,  to  which  I  see  that  these 
poor  women  are  obliged  still  more  to  assimilate 
themselves  in  the  steepest  parts  of  the  route, 
by  applying  their  hands  to  the  ground,  and  be- 
coming quadrupeds  over  a  considerable  space 
of  ascent.  The  firewood  which  they  are  carry- 
ing, they  had  previously  cut  on  the  top  of  a 
steep  mountain  on  the  left  of  our  road.  The 
wood  is  chiefly  of  lentisk  and  ilex.  I  observed 
that  most  of  the  women  were  spinning  as  they 
walked,  crouching  under  their  burthens.  I  did 
not  see  one  among  them  with  features  tolerably 
regular.  The  men  are  better  looking,  and  are 
a  strong,  healthy,  and  active  race.  An  old 
man  of  Solos,  whom  I  take  as  a  guide,  walks  so 
fast  that  my  horse  can  hardly  keep  pace  with 
him.  He  has  his  tufek  with  him,  and  has  lived 
for  the  last  month,  being  Lent,  upon  scarcely 
any  thing  but  bread  and  onions.  In  time  of 
fast,  all  the  Greeks,  who  are  under  the  necessity 
of  working,  live  as  hard  a  life  as  any  people  in 
the  world.  It  has,  of  course,  an  effect  on  their 
appearance  if  not  upon  their  health,  for  I  ob- 
served in  Tzakonia,  where  the  men  and  women 
are  both  remarked  for  their  beauty,  and  where 
some  of  the  men,  in   particular,  are  models  in 

174  TZIVLO.  [chap.   XXVI. 

form,  that  they  have  a  pallid,  worn  complexion, 
and  an  appearance  of  being  much  older  than 
they  really  are.  This  hard  and  laborious  life, 
however,  is  precisely  such  as  would  render  them 
capable  of  great  exertions  as  a  military  nation, 
if  that  love  of  liberty  which  animated  their 
ancestors,  and  which  still  seems  an  innate  prin- 
ciple in  all  the  mountainous  parts  of  Greece, 
were  to  excite  them  to  shake  off  the  yoke  of 
their  cruel  oppressors. 

Our  road  continues  winding  along  the  side  of 
the  ravine,  interrupted  by  frequent  torrents ;  at 
9.7  we  descend  to  the  bank  of  the  Crathis,  but 
soon  mount  the  slope  again,  and,  proceeding 
along  the  side  of  it,  arrive  at  10  at  Tjivl6% 
(Tzivlo,)  a  small  village,  where  we  halt  ten 
minutes.  Silivena  ^  is  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
ravine.  Here  we  quit  the  CrathiSy  and  turn  to 
the  left,  ascending  a  steep  ridge,  the  summit  of 
which  we  reach  at  10.35,  and  then  descend  ob- 
liquely into  the  ravine  of  a  torrent  which  begins 
from  a  snowy  mountain  a  little  on  the  left ;  it 
is  a  branch  of  the  Lago-Potamo,  which  joins  the 
sea  between  the  Akrata  and  the  river  of  Kala- 
vryta.  Leaving  the  hamlet  of  Apano-Potamnia 
a  mile  on  the  left,  we  again  ascend,  and  arrive 
at  the  summit  of  another  ridge,  called  Gaid- 
hara,  at  11.10,  leaving  on  the  left  a  remarkable 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  RIVER    LAGO.  175 

flat  topt  rocky  summit,  called  Petruki,  which  was 
directly  in  front  in  mounting  the  former  ridge 
from  Tzivlo.  On  the  Gaidhara,  a  road  to  Vos- 
titza  turns  off  to  the  right.  The  ridge  is  beauti- 
fully overgrown  with  large  firs,  in  the  midst  of  a 
natural  pasture  of  the  finest  turf,  which  gives  the 
hills  the  air  of  a  park.  The  fir-woods  become 
thicker  as  we  descend,  and  the  trees  of  a  very 
large  girth.  At  11.40  cross  the  Lago-Potamo, 
the  direction  of  the  route  being  now  to  the 
left  of  what  it  was  before.  We  ascend  obliquely 
the  side  of  the  ravine  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Lago,  through  a  thick  wood  of  firs,  with  stu- 
pendous bare  precipices  on  the  right.  The 
grandeur  of  the  scene  is  improved  by  the  fly- 
ing clouds  of  a  lowering  sky,  a  state  of  the 
atmosphere  which  always  increases  the  apparent 
scale  of  mountains,  by  leaving  their  several  fea- 
tures to  be  seen  only  at  intervals,  and  giving 
^continual  scope  to  the  imagination. 

At  12.5  arrive  at  the  summit  of  another 
ridge,  called  'T^ln^XosXravpos,  [High  Cross,]  hav- 
ing now  the  summit  of  Petruki  behind  us,  and 
bavins:  thus  made  the  half  circuit  of  it.  From 
the  ridge  of  High  Cross  there  is  a  view  of 
Mount  'Olonos,  the  mountains  behind  Kala- 
vryta,  and  those  towards  Vostitza,  also  of  the 
opposite  side  of  the  ravine  of  tlie  river  of  Kala- 
vryta,  as  far  as  the  village  of  Zakluru,  in  face  of 

I'jG  MEGASPILIO.  [chap.  XXVI. 

Megaspilio.  Leaving  this  place  at  12.15,  we 
descend  through  the  firs,  until,  turning  an  angle 
of  the  rocks,  which  still  continue  to  border  the 
right  of  the  road,  we  come  suddenly  upon  the 
convent  of  Megaspilio,  and  arrive  there  at 

According  to  the  tradition  of  the  monks, 
this  was  one  of  the  earliest  monastic  foundations 
in  Greece,  but  the  convent  has  been  several  times 
destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  front  part  of  the 
present  building,  except  a  small  portion  at 
the  northern  end,  is  not  more  than  forty-five 
years  old.  It  is  a  vast  wall,  twelve  feet  thick, 
built  in  the  face  of  an  immense  cavern,  which, 
towards  the  middle,  extends  ninety  feet  within 
the  precipitous  face  of  the  mountain,  but  di- 
minishes in  depth  from  that  point,  both  laterally 
and  vertically.  The  height  of  the  wall  is,  in 
most  parts,  sixty-five  feet,  that  of  the  precipice, 
from  its  summit  to  the  bottom  of  the  cavern,> 
or  ground  floor  of  the  convent,  nearly  300  feet. 
The  length  of  the  wall  in  front,  is  about  180 
feet,  making  two  re-entering  angles  as  it  follows 
the  shape  of  the  cavern.  Within  the  cavern 
are  a  church,  store-houses,  kitchens,  and  a  vast 
cellar,  rendered  cool,  even  in  the  midst  of 
summer,  by  the  thick  w^alls,  and  by  the  water 
which  trickles  down  the  sides  of  the  rock.  This 
cellar  contains  the  year's  consumption  of  wine 


for  the  convent,  besides  that  which  is  required 
for  the  supply  of  the  numerous  passengers  who 
lodge  here.  One  of  the  barrels  contains  l60 
loads,  each  load  being  two  goat  skins.  It  is  a 
red  wine  with  little  flavour,  and  considerably 
diluted  with  water.  There  arc  numerous  cells 
in  the  cavern  for  monks  and  servants,  and 
ranges  of  small  chambers  for  the  same  purpose 
are  built  on  the  top  of  the  wall,  with  wooden 
galleries  in  front  of  them.  The  'Hyoufievo^y  or 
abbot,  has  a  small  chamber  and  kiosk  at  the 
northern  end.  The  roof  of  the  buildina;  beins: 
sheltered  by  the  upper  part  of  the  cavern,  is 
formed  only  of  deal  plank. 

There  are  none  but  ecclesiastical  books  in 
the  monastery  ;  the  only  manuscript  the  monks 
can  shew  me,  is  a  copy,  from  a  vellum  manu- 
script at  Constantinople,  of  a  treatise  on  Al- 
chymy  ;  but  they  assert  that  many  valuable 
books  have  been  destroyed  in  the  fires.  The 
slope  of  the  hill  below  the  convent  is  agreeably 
divided,  as  far  down  as  the  river  side,  into  ter- 
races of  gardens,  which  are  bordered  by  groves 
of  fir  and  other  trees.  The  bare  precipices  at 
the  back,  crowned  with  other  forests,  complete 
this  delightful  scenery  ;  but  it  must  be  admitted 
that  the  monastery  itself  is  more  curious  than 
picturesque,    and    adds    little    to   the   natural 

VOL.  IIT.  N 

178  MEGASPILIO.  [chap.  XXVI. 

beauties  of  the  place.  The  most  valuable  pos- 
sessions of  Megaspilio,  are  in  the  plain  of  Elis, 
where  the  monks  lately  paid  10,000  piastres,  to 
be  exempted  from  the  inconvenience  of  sup- 
porting a  Turkish  spahi,  at  the  zevgalati  of  Aly 
Tjeleby.  They  have  a  metokhi  in  the  midst  of  the 
forest,  on  the  side  of  the  mountain  to  the  south- 
ward, another  just  below  the  convent,  towards 
the  river,  and  a  third  with  some  currant  plant- 
ations on  the  sea-side,  in  the  plain  of  Vostitza  ; 
besides  which,  the  monastery  possesses  13,000 
sheep,  and  eighty  oxen.  There  are  300  monks 
belonging  to  it,  but  it  never  happens  that  they 
are  all  present.  No  person  is  admitted  into  the 
house  at  night,  nor  are  the  gates  opened  after 
dark,  but  there  are  buildings  on  the  outside,  in 
which  travellers  may  lodge,  and  where  Turkish 
passengers  are  placed  at  all  hours  ;  the  monas- 
tery being  exempted  by  an  imperial  firmahn, 
from  lodging  Turks  within  the  house.  The 
monks  complain  of  the  large  sums  which  they  are 
often  required  to  pay  at  Constantinople  for  their 
privileges  and  security,  to  which,  moreover,  is 
attached  the  condition  of  supplying  passengers, 
gratis,  with  bread  and  wine,  and  to  the  Turks 
whatever  else  the  house  affords.  An  aqueduct 
brings  water  from  a  source  in  the  mountains  two 
hours  and  a  half  distant,  and  descends  by  an  open  - 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  CYNiETHA.  179 

ing  in  the  hills,  on  the  southern  side  of  the  con- 
vent, where,  after  turning  a  mill,  it  serves  to  water 
the  gardens  below :  the  mill  is  worked  only  in 
summer,  when  flour  is  provided  for  the  whole 
year.  To  the  westward  Megaspilio  commands 
a  prospect  of  the  ravine  of  the  river  of  Kalavryta, 
nearly  as  far  as  the  high  tabular  summit,  crowned 
with  a  ruined  castle,  called  Tremola,  which  I 
visited  last  year :  but  both  that  place  and  the 
town  of  Kalavryta  are  concealed  by  the  great 
woody  counterfort  of  Mount  Khelmos,  which 
lies  to  the  n.e.  of  the  town. 

I  can  no  longer  hesitate  in  placing  Cynsetha 
on  the  site  of  Kalavryta.  The  positions  of  Clei- 
tor  and  the  Styx,  determined  as  they  are  beyond 
a  doubt,  leave  no  room  for  a  second  opinion  on 
that  question,  when  the  following  words  of  Pau- 
sanias  *  are  taken  into  consideration  :  '*  Above 
Nonacris  are  the  mountains  called  Aroania ; 
it  is  said,  that  the  daughters  of  Proetus,  when 
afflicted  with  madness,  concealed  themselves  in  a 
cavern  in  these  mountains ;  but  that,  having  been 
brought  by  Melampus  to  the  temple  of  Diana 
at  Lusi,  they  were  cured  by  sacred  expiations. 
From  that  time,  the  epithet  of  Hemeresia  has 
been  given  to  this  Diana  by  the  Cleitorii.  The 
Pheneatas  occupy  a  great  part  of  the  Aroania, 
but  Lusi  is  within  the  boundary  of  the  Cleitorii: 

"  Pausan.  Arcad.  c.  18,  19. 

N  2 

180  CYNiETHA.  [chap.  XXVI. 

it  is  said  to  have  been  formerly  a  city.  Agesilaus 
of  Lusi  *  was  proclaimed  victorious  with  the 
race-horse  in  the  eleventh  Pythias  celebrated 
by  the  Amphictyones  :  at  present  not  even  the 
ruins  of  Lusi  remain.  Forty  stades  distant  from 
the  temple  of  Diana,  dwell  the  people  of  Ar- 
cadic  race,  called  Cynaethaenses,  who  dedicated 
the  statue  of  Jupiter  at  Olympia,  having  a  thun- 
der-bolt in  each  hand  ^  In  their  agora  are 
altars  of  the  gods,  and  a  statue  of  Hadrian.  But 
their  most  remarkable  monument  is  a  temple  of 
Bacchus.  Two  stades  distant  from  the  town, 
there  is  a  fountain  of  cold  water  under  a 
plane  tree.  Whoever  is  in  danger  from  the  bite 
of  a  mad  dog,  or  from  an  ulcer,  or  any  other 
[similar]  evil,  is  cured  by  drinking  of  this  foun- 
tain ;  whence  they  have  given  it  the  name  of 
Alyssus :  and  thus  it  appears,  that  if  the  Arca- 
dians have  a  water  near  Pheneus,  called  Styx, 
destructive  to  men,  they  have,  in  the  foun- 
tain of  the  Cynaethaenses,  a  good,  to  counter- 
balance the  evil." 

It  seems  clear  from  the  preceding,  as  well  as 
other  data  already  adduced,  that  the  vil- 
lage of  Sudhena,  which  stands  at  the  foot  of 
Khelmos,  on  the  s.  w.  side,  on  the  edge  of  a 

^  uyw  Aova-iiii.  Standing  on  a   pedestal  (Qot.- 

^  It   was  nine  feet  high :      6fov),  which,  as  well   as  the 
(Pausan.    Eliac  pr.  c    22.)      statue,  was  of  bronze. 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  LUSI.  181 

])lain  lying  midway  between  those  of  Katzanes 
and  Kalavryta,  on  a  higher  level  than  the  for- 
mer, and  on  a  still  higher  level  than  the  latter, 
is  upon  or  near  the  site  of  Lusi.  The  ancient 
foundations  westward  of  Sudhena,  at  the  princi- 
pal sources  of  the  river  of  Karnesi,  which  I  passed 
last  year  (May  27th),  in  the  plain,  proceeding 
from  Karnesi  to  Kalavryta,  probably  mark  the 
site  of  the  temple  of  Diana  Hemeresia ;  for  the 
time  distance  of  an  hour  and  a  half  from  thence 
to  Kalavryta,  partly  over  a  steep  ridge,  cor- 
responds very  well  with  the  forty  stades  of  Pau- 
sanias  between  the  temple  and  Cynaetha.  The 
fine  sources*  from  which  I  suppose  the  modern 
name  of  the  town  to  have  been  derived,  being 
about  the  actual  distance  of  two  stades  from 
Kalavryta,  at  which  Pausanias  places  the  Alysson 
from  Cynaitha,  tends  to  shew  that  Kalavryta 
occupies  the  exact  site  of  the  ancient  city. 
The  remark  of  Pausanias,  as  to  the  Cynsethaen- 
ses  being  of  Arcad'tc  race,  is  explained  by  their 
being  the  frontier  people  towards  Achaia  :  Poly- 
bins  shews  that  in  his  time  the  Arcadians  would 
willingly  have  disclaimed  them  ".  It  is  unfor- 
tunate that  Pausanias  omitted  to  describe  the 
course,  or  to  give  us  the  name  of  the  river  of 
Kalavryta,  as  it  would  have  served  to  identify 
one  of  the  streams  which  he  describes  on  the 

»  xax<i  Qi^Lra..  ^  Polyb.  1.  4.  c.  21. 

182  TO    VOSTITZA.  [chap.  XXVI. 

coast  of  Achaia^  and  would  thus  have  formed  a 
point  of  connection  in  the  geography  of  the  two 
ancient  provinces.  From  his  remark,  as  to  the 
Pheneaice  possessing  a  great  part  of  the  Aroania, 
it  would  seem  that  these  mountains  compre- 
hended not  only  Khelmos,  but  the  great  sum- 
mits also  of  Mazi  and  Turtovana,  adjoining 
Khelmos  to  the  south-eastward,  together  with 
all  the  ridges  as  far  as  Mount  Crathis,  and  the 
plains  of  Pheneus  and  Cleitor.  There  cannot 
be  any  question  that  each  of  the  summits  had 
anciently  its  separate  name,  though  not  even 
that  of  Khelmos,  a  mountain  little  inferior  to 
Cyllene^  Olenus,  or  Tat/getum,  has  been  pre- 
served in  history. 

April  5.  From  Megaspilio  to  Vostitza.  Set 
out  at  8.20.  Our  road  descends  the  mountain 
by  a  narrow  zigzag  path  among  bushes.  At 
8.40  cross  the  river  by  a  bridge.  Zakluru^ 
is  five  minutes  beyond,  a  village  having  two 
small  makhalas  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river, 
and  a  third  on  the  right.  We  proceed  along 
the  side  of  a  bare  mountain  above  the  left 
bank;  at  9,  quitting  the  river,  which  pursues  its 
course  northward  towards  the  sea,  through  a  nar- 
row ravine  bordered  by  precipices,  we  turn  to  the 
left  up  a  valley  formed  by  a  branch  of  the  river: 
after  skirting  the  right  bank  of  this  stream  a 


little  way,  cross  it  at  9.6,  and  mount  the  ridge 
over  the  left  bank,  leaving  Dumena  on  the  side 
of  the  opposite  mountain,  half  a  mile  on  the  left. 
At  9-40,  having  arrived  at  the  top  of  the  ridge, 
we  look  down  on  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  descend 
and  then  cross  another  ridge,  on  the  summit  of 
which,  at  10.25,  we  halt  five  minutes.  Here  is 
a  fine  view  of  the  opposite  part  of  Riimili;  Par- 
nassus,  and  the  mountains  near  Salona,  are  very 
conspicuous.  I  clearly  distinguish  the  great 
opening  behind  Delphi,  above  the  fountain  Cas- 
talia.  Below  us  is  a  hollow  of  cultivated  land 
and  pasture,  with  small  streams  running  into 
the  Kalavryta  river,  which  is  at  no  great  distance 
on  the  right.  Proceed  along  the  side  of  the 
hill,  and  halt  five  minutes  at  a  fountain  ;  eight 
minutes  beyond,  I  arrive  at  11  at  the  site  of 
an  ancient  town  ;  it  stood  on  the  lowest  part  of 
the  ridge  which  separates  the  course  of  the 
feeders  of  the  Kalavryta  river  from  the  waters 
flowing  to  another  stream  which  joins  the  sea  at 
two  miles  to  the  westward  of  the  former,  and  is 
called  the  river  of  Bokhusia.  The  Hellenic  re- 
mains consist  of  several  foundations  and  pieces 
of  wall,  of  some  of  which  there  are  two  or  three 
coiu'ses  still  extant.  The  city  was  on  the  east- 
ern face  of  the  ridge,  looking  towards  the  Ka- 
lavryta river :  I  conceive  it  to  have  been  Cery- 

184  VOSTITZA.  [chap.   XXVI. 

neia.     I  observe  two  or  three  sepulchres  of  the 
simplest  kind. 

Proceeding  obliquely  down  the  mountain 
which  forms  the  eastern  side  of  the  ravine  of 
the  river  Bokhusia,  we  arrive  at  11.35  at  a  der- 
veni,  or  guard-house.  This  is  nothing  more 
than  a  wicker  hut,  out  of  which  issue  two  un- 
armed Greeks,  one  of  them  beating  a  great  drum, 
and  the  other  begging  for  paras.  The  sides  of 
these  mountains  are  beautifully  variegated  with 
pines  and  shrubs,  and  clothed  with  a  fine  pasture. 
11.55  arrive  at  the  spot  where  the  river  emerges 
from  the  ravine  into  the  maritime  plain,  which 
widens  from  hence  to  Vostitza  ;  immediately 
afterwards  we  cross' the  river,  and  proceed  along 
the  plain  :  12.13,  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain 
on  the  left  are  some  walls  of  Roman  tiles,  in 
one  part  of  which  there  is  a  circular  niche.  At 
12.27  halt  till  1.4,  then  proceed  through  the 
plain  of  Vostitza.  At  Ij  cross  the  river  of 
Vostitza,  a  rapid  stream,  difficult  to  pass  after 
rains ;  at  2  arrive  in  the  middle  of  the  town 
of  Vostitza.  The  river  is  formed  from  several 
tributaries,  of  which  the  sources  are  near  Aio 
Vlasi,  and  in  the  summits  to  the  eastward  of  that 
place.  The  united  stream  flows  from  thence  be- 
tween the  mountains  Voidhias  and  Klokos,  and 
enters  the  plain  immediately  behind  Vostitza, 


after  which  it  makes  a  circuit  to  the  right,  so  as 
to  join  the  sea  between  two  and  three  miles  to 
the  eastward  of  the  town. 

Vostitza  stands  on  a  hill,  terminating  towards 
the  sea  in  a  cliff  about  fifty  feet  high,  which  is 
separated  from  the  beach  by  a  narrow  level. 
Here  are  some  copious  sources  of  water,  shaded 
by  a  magnificent  plane  tree,  nearly  forty  feet  in 
girth.  A  remarkable  opening  in  the  cliff,  ori- 
ginally perhaps  artificial,  leads  from  the  town 
to  the  ordinary  place  of  embarkation,  which  is 
just  below  the  fountains.  All  the  currants  and 
other  export  produce  of  the  northern  coast  of 
the  Morea  are  brought  here  in  boats  for  ship- 
ment. The  harbour  is  formed  by  a  low  alluvial 
point  at  the  mouth  of  a  river  which  corresponds 
to  the  Meganites  of  Pausanias.  Being  sheltered 
from  the  west  by  this  point,  it  is  a  safer  port  than 
that  of  Patra,  but  it  is  not  sufficiently  capacious, 
and  is  rather  too  deep  for  merchant  ships,  having 
a  deptli  of  six  or  seven  fathoms  near  the  shore. 
To  tlie  north  and  north-east  it  is  rather  exposed, 
but  I  should  think  seldom  dangerously  ;  for, 
though  it  now  blows  a  gale  from  that  quarter, 
there  is  very  little  sea  in  the  harbour.  Its  easy 
access,  and  the  fine  springs  so  commodiously 
placed  for  watering  ships,  v*'ill  always  secure  to 
the  position  some  commercial  importance ;  and 
the  more  so,  as  the  only  other  places  on   the 

186  VOSTITZA.  [chap.  XXVI. 

coast,  frequented  by  ships,  between  it  and  Pa- 
tra,  are  Lambiri  and  Psathopyrgo,  which,  like 
Akrata  and  Xylo-Kastro,  to  the  eastward,  are 
mere  anchorages,  and  are  not  to  be  compared 
with  the  fine  harbours  of  the  northern  coast  of 
the  Corinthian  Gulf,  where  the  shores  of  Locris, 
Phocis,  Bceoiia,  and  Megaris  form  a  contrast  in 
this  particular  to  the  Peloponnesus^  which,  on 
its  northern  and  western  sides,  possesses  not  a 
single  perfect  harbour,  except  Navarin.  For 
ship  or  boat  building,  the  mountains  around 
Vostitza  produce  pine  wood  in  abundance,  and 
other  kinds  of  timber  may  be  procured  from 
the  western  part  of  Achaia,  or  from  the  moun- 
tains on  the  northern  and  eastern  shores  of  the 

Vostitza  contains  only  one  mosque ;  there  are 
about  thirty  Turkish  families,  and  three  or  four 
hundred  Greek  :  it  has  lately  received  a  con- 
siderable increase  from  Galaxidhi,  from  whence 
many  of  the  inhabitants  have  emigrated,  to  avoid 
the  vexations  of  Aly  Pasha,  who  required  them 
to  work  at  his  vessels  without  pay ;  and  thus  a 
part  of  the  commerce  of  Galaxidhi  has  been  re- 
moved to  this  place. 

That  Vostitza  occupies  the  site  of  an  ancient 
town  of  importance,  is  evident  from  the  abun- 
dance of  broken  pottery,  and  from  numerous 
sepulchres,  containing  bones  and  broken  vases. 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  iF.GIUM.  187 

which  are  found  in  the  surrounding  fields.  I 
observed  several  of  these  formed  simply  of  four 
slabs  of  stone,  set  endwise.  I  remarked  also 
many  fragments  of  architecture,  or  sculpture  in 
marble,  which  had  been  brought  to  light  by  the 
plough  or  the  hoe ;  and  as  well  in  the  town  as  in 
the  cultivated  land  around  it,  many  broken  tiles 
of  large  dimensions,  some  of  which  are  painted 
with  architectural  ornaments,  and  shew  that  the 
ancient  buildings  were  often  of  brick-work. 
This  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  nature  of  the 
soil  in  this  part  of  Achaia,  which  is  a  sort  of 
crumbling  stone,  mixed  with  earth,  and  affords 
no  quarry  of  a  more  homogeneous  material ;  it  is 
the  cause  also  of  there  being  so  little  now  re- 
maining of  the  ancient  JEgium,  of  which  city 
Vostftza  is  undoubtedly  the  site.  A  small  se- 
pulchral bas-relief,  with  three  figures  in  very 
good  taste,  has  lately  been  found,  and  inserted 
in  the  wall  of  a  private  house ;  and  I  remarked 
in  several  places  in  the  town  portions  of  columns, 
particularly  at  one  of  the  churches. 

Although  the  fountains  of  Vostitza,  from  their 
situation  near  the  shore,  are  more  convenient 
for  supplying  water  to  ships  than  to  the  town, 
it  may  be  believed,  that  this  favour  of  nature, 
combined  with  the  defensible  hill,  the  fertile 
plain,  and  the  rivers  on  either  side,  were  the 
original  cause  of  the  Greek  settlement  in  this 

188  ^GTUM.  [chap.  XXVI. 

spot.  To  the  advantage  of  the  harbour,  and  its 
central  position  in  the  Corinthiac  Gulf,  central, 
at  least,  according  to  the  ancient  boundaries  of 
the  Gulf,  we  may  ascribe  the  magnitude  and 
importance  of  ^gium,  in  a  more  advanced 
stage  of  society.  The  destruction  of  Helice  and 
Bura,  in  the  time  of  the  Peloponnesian  war, 
added  to  the  decline  of  ^gse  at  an  earlier 
period,  prepared  ^Egium  for  being  the  chief 
town  of  the  Achaian  league.  During  the  eighty 
years  of  the  desolation  of  Corinth,  which  fol- 
lowed its  capture  by  Mummius,  ^gium,  being 
much  better  adapted  to  commerce  than  Sicyon, 
was  without  a  rival  in  the  Corinthiac  Gulf;  the 
establishment  of  a  Roman  colony  at  Corinth  by 
Julius  Caesar,  and  soon  afterwards  that  of  another 
at  Patrae  by  Augustus,  reduced  it  again  to  the 
third  in  rank  ;  but  as  late  as  the  reign  of  Marcus 
Aurelius,  it  preserved  the  memory  of  its  former 
supremacy  in  the  Achaian  council,  which  still  as- 
sembled at  iEgium,  when  Pausanias  travelled  \ 

The  first  object  which  the  Greek  traveller  ob- 
served at  ^gium,  approaching  the  town  from  the 
westward,  was  the  stoa  of  the  Athlete  Strato " ; 
then  a  temple  of  Lucina,  and  an  inclosure "  of  ^s- 
culapius.  The  statue  of  Lucina  was  acrolithic,  co- 
vered with  a  veil,  extending  one  hand,  and  hold- 
ing a  torch  in  the  other.    The  temenus  of  ^scu- 

^  Pausan.  Aohaic.  c.  24.  ^  Ibid.  c.  23.         <^  rii^ivoc. 

CHAP.  XXVI.]  iEGIUM.  189 

lapius  contained  statues  of  ^sculapius  and  Hy- 
gieia,  made  by  Damophon  ot"  Messene.  In  a 
temple  of  Minerva  there  were  two  statues  of  the 
goddess  in  white  marble ;  in  a  grove  of  Juno, 
one  which  it  was  not  permitted  to  any  but  the 
priestess  to  see.  Near  the  theatre  stood  a  temple 
of  Bacchus,  with  a  beardless  statue  of  the  god. 
In  the  agora  there  was  a  temenus  of  Jupiter,  in  the 
entrance  of  which,  to  the  left,  were  two  statues  of 
the  god,  one  of  these,  without  a  beard,  was  very 
ancient ;  the  agora  contained  also  a  building  *, 
in  which  were  statues  of  Neptune,  Hercules,  Ju- 
piter, and  Minerva,  surnamed  the  Argives ;  a 
temple  of  Diana,  who  was  represented  in  her 
statue  as  drawing  the  bow ;  and  a  tomb  of  the 
herald  Talthybius.  Adjacent  to  the  agora  there 
was  a  temple  sacred  to  Apollo  and  Diana.  In 
the  maritime  quarter,  near  the  sources,  which 
Pausanias  describes  as  agreeable  both  to  the 
taste  and  view  ",  were  temples  of  Venus,  of  Nep- 
tune, of  Proserpine,  of  Jupiter  Homagyrius,  of 
Ceres  Panachaia,  and  of  Safety*".  The  priests 
alone  were  permitted  to  see  the  statue  in  the 
last-named  temple.  The  j^gienses  had  also 
brazen  statues  of  a  very  youthfiil  Jupiter,  and 
of  a  beardless  Hercules  ;  they  were  works  of 
Ageladas  of  Argos,  and  were  kept  in  the  houses 

190  VOSTITZA.  [chap.  XXVI. 

of  the  priests.  The  Homagyrium  contained 
statues  of  Jupiter,  Venus,  and  Minerva ;  its 
name  was  said  to  have  been  derived  from  the 
common  council  here  held  by  Agamemnon, 
previously  to  the  Trojan  expedition.  It  was  the 
place  of  meeting  of  the  council  of  the  Achaian 
confederacy,  through  the  whole  course  of  its 
history.  All  measures  of  common  interest  were 
ratified  there,  and  it  still  served,  in  the  time  of 
Pausanias,  for  a  meeting  of  the  deputies  of  the 
Achaian  cities  ^. 

The  modern  houses  of  Vostitza  prevent  any 
effectual  attempt  to  trace  the  description  of 
Pausanias  on  the  site  of  the  upper  town.  I 
could  not  find  any  certain  vestiges  of  the  thea- 
tre, which  would  throw  some  light  on  the  topo- 
graphy, nor  are  there  any  remains  of  buildings 
very  apparent  near  the  shore  ;  though  it  is  highly 
probable  that  excavations  would  in  both  situ- 
ations lead  to  some  interesting  discoveries, 
more  especially  as  JEgium  flourished  during  the 
best  period  of  Grecian  art. 

Vostitza  is  often  mentioned  by  Phranza  in 
the  narrative  of  his  own  proceedings  and  those 
of  the  Palaeologi,  in  the  Morea,  between  the 
year  1428,  when  he  accompanied  Constantine 
thither,   and  the  termination  of  his  annals  in 

*  crvviS^tov  Tt^v  'Ax»iuv.  The  nued  to  meet  in  like  manner 
Amphictyonic  council  conti-      at  Delphi  and  Thermopylae. 


1477'     Chalcocondylas,  in  relating  the  Turkish 
conquest  of  the  peninsula,  evidently  intends  the 
same  place  by  JEgium  %  which  Phranza  calls  Vos- 
titza  ^,     Mahomet  the  Second,  in  the  year  1460, 
after  the  occupation  of  Mistra,   Kalamata,  and 
the  other  strong  places  in  Laconia  and  Messenia, 
advanced  from  Arkadhia  into  the  Eleia^  where 
Sandameri  and   Khlomutza  were  the  principal 
fortresses.    Having  reduced  these,  he  proceeded 
to  Patra,  which,  together  with  Vostitza,  had 
been  given  up  to  him  in  the  year  1458,  by  the 
treaty  of  Corinth.      He   then   captured   Kala- 
vryta,  which  had  been  ceded  by  the  same  treaty, 
but  had  been  re-taken  by  the  despot,  Thomas. 
His  last  conquests  were  Kastrimeno  and   Sal- 
meniko,  both  of  which  were  in  the  vicinity  of 
Mount  Voidhia.    Of  the  fortresses  of  the  Morea, 
there  remained,  after  this  period,  in  the  hands 
of  the   Venetians,   Mothoni,   Koroni,   Monem- 
vasia,  and  Argos.     Of  these,  Argos  was  taken 
in  1463  ;  Mothoni  not  till  1499. 

Vostitza  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  Achaian 
coast  between  Capes  Lambiri  and  Avgo,  as 
well  as  of  all  the  summits  which  rise  from  the 
northern  shore  of  the  gulf,  from  Mount  Rigani, 
behind  'Epakto,  to  the  peak  of  the  Corinthian 
Oneia,  above  the  modern  village  of  Perakhora, 
which  falls  in  a  line  with  Cape  Avgo.     Immedi- 

192  TO  PATRA.       [chap.  XXVI. 

ately  in  front  of  Vostitza  is  seen  a  part  of  Locris, 
which  I  have  not  visited.  A  remarkable  heiglit, 
rising  just  over  the  centre  of  the  islands,  called 
Trisonia,  is  said  to  be  the  position  of  a  Hellenic 
ruin :  behind  it  a  valley  ascends  between  the 
mountains,  in  which  is  the  village  of  Servula,  and, 
higher  up,  Xylo-Gaidhara.  Another  ruin  is  re- 
ported to  exist  near  Petrinitza,  a  village  situated 
in  a  plain  on  the  eastern  side  of  Cape  Psaromyti. 
A  little  farther  east  is  another  village,  Kesili,  in 
the  same  plain.  'Epakto  is  just  hid  by  the 
Achaian  coast.  The  harbour  of  Trisonia  is 
well  sheltered  by  the  islands  opposite  to  it  on 
the  main  land  ;  there  is  a  fine  plain,  but  it  is  not 
much  cultivated. 

April  6. — At  7.50  descend  through  the  open- 
ing in  the  cliff,  and  pass  westward  along  the 
sea-side.  At  the  end  of  the  cliflj  I  observe  in 
a  corn-field  a  square  stele  of  ordinary  stone, 
and  another  of  black  marble,  partly  buried  in 
the  ground.  The  former  is  three  feet  seven 
inches  square :  the  mouldings  on  both  are  a 
simple  ovolo  and  fillet.  I  remarked  also  in 
several  parts  of  the  cliff, 
sepulchral  niches  of  this 
form,  but  almost  entirely  ~ 
ruined  by  the  effect  of  time  on  the  crumbling 
rock.  At  8.20  cross  a  stream  flowing  from  the 
mountains  and  traversing  the  plain,  like  all  the 
others  of  this  coast,  in  a  broad  gravelly  bed.   In 

CHAP.  XXVI. 3      TO  PATRA,  193 

the  coarse  of  time  the  river,  by  its  alluvions, 
has  formed  the  long  point  which  shelters  the 
anchorage  of  Vostitza  on  the  west. 

At  8.43  we  pass  another  stream  not  so  large, 
which  joins  the  sea  in  a  small  curve  of  the 
coast:  this  seems  to  be  the  Phoenix,  and  the 
former  the  Meganitas  of  Pausanias.  At  9.15 
cross  a  rapid  river  flowing  in  a  wide  gravelly 
bed.  It  is  called  the  river  of  Salmeniko,  and 
issues  into  the  plain  from  some  heights  attached 
to  Mount  Voidhia.  Salmeniko,  now  a  small  vil- 
lage, is  the  place  which  resisted  the  Turks  so 
well  in  the  year  1460.  Rhtjpce  probably  stood 
on  the  banks  of  this  river,  perhaps  on  the  exact 
site  of  Salmeniko,  as  the  epithet  KepawUi^  which 
^schylus  ^  applied  to  Rhyp^e,  seems  to  indi- 
cate a  lofty  situation,  such  as  Chalcocondylas 
describes  that  of  Salmeniko.  Rhypae  flourished 
only  in  distant  ages  ^,  and  was  finally  demolished 
when  Augustus  colonized  Patrae,  and  removed 
thither  the  remaining  inhabitants  of  Rhypae  ;  its 
vestiges  only  were  left  in  the  time  of  Pau- 
sanias ".  At  9.40  we  reach  the  foot  of  the  bluff 
point,  which  forms  so  remarkable  an  object,  as 
well  from  the  Achaian  as  from  the  opposite 
coast  of  the  gulf.      Here  is  a   small  bay,  on 

«   Ap.  Strabon.  p.  387-  c   ^^.^^vy^-^^a,    ^i    a(^,av   Kcc) 

^  Myscellus  of  RhypiC  was  ^Axctiovi  rovg  h.  'Pu-j^uv,  xccra.- 

tlie  reputed  founder  of  Cro-  Sa,Xm  t?  s^a^o?  'Pi;3-aj.     Pau- 

toiia,  about  710  b.  c.  san.  Achaic.  c.  18. 

VOL.  III.  O 


the  shore  of  which  stands  a  khan  belong- 
ing to  an  aga  of  Patra.  The  bay  and  khan 
are  known  by  the  name  of  Lambiri,  or  rather 
of  the  vineyards  of  Lambiri^,  from  a  ruined 
village  of  that  name  on  the  mountain,  to 
which  belonged  the  land  near  this  harbour, 
formerly  planted  with  vines.  A  Greek  now 
rents  the  khan  and  six  stremata  of  corn-land 
from  the  aga,  for  200  ])iastres  a-year.  I  leave 
the  khan  at  10.  From  thence  the  road  begins 
to  traverse  the  stony  roots  of  a  mountain  which 
advances  from  Mount  Voidhia  into  the  gulf: 
it  is  called  the  mountain  of  Lubista,  or  the  Lu- 
bistes,  from  two  villages  of  that  name  ^y  which 
together  contain  about  fifty  houses. 

At  11.12,  a  mile  on  the  left,  a  cascade  falls 
over  a  rock  about  100  feet  high,  and  almost  per- 
pendicular, which  is  clothed  on  the  summit  and 
sides  with  woods  of  pine  and  prinari.  At  11.45 
we  descend  upon  the  sea-beach  at  Psatho-pyrgo, 
(Mat-tower,)  a  small  curvature  of  the  coast 
where  vessels  lie  sheltered  from  the  west  by  a 
low  point  in  that  direction,  beyond  which  ap- 
pears the  Morea  castle  ^  standing  upon  the 
cape  anciently  called  Rhium.  At  Psatho-pyrgo 
there  is  a  small  marshy  flat  by  the  sea-side,  and 
the  ruins   of  a  tower.     Quitting  this  place  at 

^  Accjji.'Try.p   ara.fji.'rziXioi..  '^  to  Kaarfov  t??  Mop^'ar. 

i:nAP.  xx\r.]  patra.  19.'> 

12.15,  we  proceed  again  through  a  shrubby  de- 
sert over  the  stony  extremity  of  the  mountain, 
which  is  here  lower  and  more  sloping  than 
before.  We  cross,  at  12.30,  a  stream  which 
rises  in  Mount  Voidhia,  and  descends  through  a 
gorge  in  the  hills  to  the  left;  it  joins  the  sea  at 
a  low  curved  sandy  point,  which  its  alluvions 
have  formed  in  the  course  of  ages,  and  which 
being  now  called  Dhrepano,  or  Dhrapano,  can  be 
no  other  than  the  Cape  Drepanum  of  Pausanias. 
Just  beyond  the  river,  we  pass  on  the  left  a  flat 
topped  height  overlooking  the  maritime  level ; 
it  has  some  appearances  of  artificial  ground,  and 
answers  exactly  to  the  site  of  Bolina. 

At  12.56  we  enter  the  plain  of  Kasteli,  which 
extends  to  Patra,  and  soon  afterwards  arrive  at 
the  head  of  a  bay  extending  from  Cape  Dre- 
panum to  Cape  Rhium.  This  bay  is  evidently  the 
Port  Panormiis  of  antiquity.  There  is  a  Turk- 
ish fountain  on  the  beach  ;  near  it  formerly 
stood  a  tekieh,  or  tomb,  of  a  Turkish  saint, 
from  which  the  bay  still  bears  the  name  of 
Tekieh.  At  1.30  Kasteli,  as  the  Morea  castle 
and  its  Greek  suburb  are  commonly  called,  is  a 
mile  on  the  right.  At  five  minutes,  on  either 
side  of  it,  a  small  stream  crosses  the  road  ;  the 
western  is  formed  of  several  torrents.  At  2,  we 
pass  another  rivulet,  and  at  2.40,  arrive  in  the 
middle  of  the  town  of  Patra. 

o  2 



Ancient  History  of  Achaia. — Twelve  Cities. — From  Patra 
to  Vostitza. — By  Sea  to  Xylo-kastro. — To  Trikkala. — 
Pellene. —  Mys^eum. — Cyrus.— Trikkala. — Olurus. — 
To  Vasilika. — To  Corinth. 

The  most  remarkable  events  in  the  early  his- 
tory of  Achaia,  are  represented  in  the  same 
manner  by  Strabo  and  Pausanias,  who  very 
nearly  agree  also  on  the  less  important  subject 
of  the  genealogy  and  personal  adventures  of  the 
family  of  Hellen,  as  connected  with  the  history 
of  this  and  the  other  provinces  of  the  Pelopon- 
nesus ^.  The  only  historical  fact  which  can  rea- 
sonably be  deduced  from  such  traditions,  com- 
pared with  the  evidence  of  the  earliest  of  Greek 
historians,  Homer,  is,  that  the  name  of  the 
Achaians  originated  in  Thessaly,  and  had  spread 
very  widely  in  Greece,  particularly  in  Pelopon- 
nesus, prior  to  the  time,  when  Grecian  history 
can  be  said  to  commence. 

^gialus,  or  the  country  adjacent  to  the 
northern  shore  of  the  Peloponnesus,  was  occu- 
pied, at  the  earliest  period  of  which  history  has 

^  Strabo,  p.  383. — Pausan.  Achaic  c.  1. 

CHAP.   XXVII.]  ACHAIA.  197 

any  knowledge,  by  the  lonians  of  Attica,  who 
there  founded  twelve  cities.  Wlien  the  Achaei 
were  expelled  from  Laconia  and  Argolis  by 
the  Hcracleidas,  eiglity  years  after  the  Trojan 
war,  they  placed  themselves  under  the  conduct 
of  Tisamenus,  a  grandson  of  Agamemnon,  and 
proceeding  to  ^gialus,  displaced  the  lonians, 
who  returned  into  Attica,  and  from  thence, 
under  the  sons  of  Codrus,  proceeded  into  Asia. 
The  division  of  the  Asiatic  Ionia  into  twelve 
cities,  and  the  adoption  by  the  Asiatics  of  the 
worship  and  rites  of  Neptune  of  Helice,  are 
convincing  evidences  of  the  truth  of  this  part 
of  Grecian  history,  and  shew  that  the  founda- 
tion of  the  twelve  cities  of  Achaia  was  an- 
terior to  that  occupation  of  the  ^gialus  which 
caused  its  name  to  be  changed  into  that  of 

There  is  reason  to  believe,  therefore,  that 
in  Achaia  the  federal  system  began  earlier,  as 
w^ell  as  lasted  longer,  than  in  the  other  parts  of 
Greece,  where  in  general,  when  the  regal  go- 
vernment, which  w'as  the  most  common  in  the 
early  ages,  had  ceased,  the  principal  city  of  the 
province  acquired  such  a  predominance  as  led 
to  the  comparative  insignificance  and  the  real 
decline  of  all  the  others,  and  this  state  of  things 
continued  until  foreign  power  acquired  the  chief 
influence  in  the  government  of  Greece.     But 

198  ACHAIA.  [chap.   XXVII. 

in  Achaia  the  federation  of  several  cities  of 
nearly  equal  power,  assisted  by  an  extensive  al- 
liance, survived  even  through  a  great  part  of 
the  latter  sera,  and  was  the  means,  at  length,  of 
conferring  upon  Achaia  the  empty  honour  of 
giving  its  name  to  all  southern  Greece,  as  long 
as  that  country  continued  to  be  a  province  of 
the  Roman  empire. 

It  is  in  the  nature  of  a  confederacy  of  small 
repubUcs  to  take  little  interest  as  a  nation  in 
external  politics,  until  some  one  of  the  states 
obtaining  superior  importance,  becomes  a  point 
of  union  for  a  central  government,  and  an  ex- 
ample to  the  others  of  more  enlarged  views  and 
a  higher  feeling  of  national  honour.  Achaia 
gave  no  assistance  to  the  defence  of  Greece 
against  the  Persians.  During  several  ages  she 
was  exempted  by  her  situation  from  the  neces- 
sity of  taking  any  active  part  in  the  wars  of  the 
leading  states  of  Greece.  Thus  she  had  more 
leisure  than  any  other  province  to  cultivate  the 
arts  of  peace,  and  increased  so  much  in  wealth 
and  population,  as  to  become  the  founder  of  some 
Greek  colonies  in  Italy,  whose  rapid  advances  to 
opulence  and  power  may  be  attributed  to  their 
adoption  of  the  wise  laws  and  institutions  of 

"  When  Xerxes  and  the  Medes  ",  says  Pau- 
sanias,  "  invaded  Greece,  the  Achaians  neither 


aidetl  Leonidas  at  Thermopylae,  nor  Themisto- 
cles  and  the  Athenians  in  the  sea-fights  at  Eu- 
boea  and  Salamis.  There  is  no  mention  of  them 
as  auxiHaries,  either  among  the  Athenians  or 
Lacedaemonians,  nor  did  they  partake  in  the 
affair  at  Plataea,  as  is  manifest  from  their  names 
not  appearing  in  the  common  offering  of  the 
Greeks  at  Olympia.  It  appears  to  me  there- 
fore, that  at  that  time  their  attention  was 
turned  towards  the  affairs  of  their  own  coun- 
try, and  that,  elated  with  their  Trojan  victory, 
they  could  not  bear  to  be  commanded  by  the 
Lacedsemonians,  who  were  Dorians.  This,  in 
time,  became  still  more  evident,  for  when  the 
Lacedaemonians  were  afterwards  at  war  with 
the  Athenians,  the  Achaians  readily  brought 
assistance  to  the  Patrenses,  and  were  not  less 
favourably  inclined  to  the  Athenians  \  As  to 
the  subsequent  wars,  the  Achaians  took  a  part, 
in  the  action  at  Chaeroneia,  against  Philip  and 
the  Macedonians,  but  it  is  said  that  they  were 
not  engaged  in  the  battle  at  Lamia,  not  having 
then  recovered  from  the  effects  of  the  defeat  in 
Boeotia."  ^ 

It  was    not    until  the  decline  of  the  great 

*  See  Thucyd.  1.  1.  c.  111.  Sparta  in  the  Peloponnesian 

and   Plutarch,    in   Alcibiad.  war.     Thucyd.  1.  2.  c.  9. 

Some  of  the  Achaians,  how-  ^  Pausan.  Achaic.  c.  6. 
ever,    were  in    alliance   with 

200  ACHAIA.  [chap.  XXVII. 

republics  of  Greece,  that  the  Achaians  as- 
sumed the  importance,  which  their  tranquil- 
hty  and  good  internal  government,  during  the 
earlier  periods,  insured  for  them  during  the 
last  ages  of  independent  Greece.  "  When  the 
Lacedaemonians,"  observes  Pausanias,  "  after 
the  defeat  at  Leuctra,  the  assembling  of  the 
Arcadians  in  Megalopolis,  and  the  re-esta- 
blishment of  the  Messenians,  were  no  longer 
able  to  preserve  their  former  prosperity ;  when 
the  Thebans  had  been  reduced  to  such  a  de- 
solate condition  by  Alexander,  that,  not  many 
years  afterwards,  when  they  were  restored  by 
Cassander,  they  were  found  incapable  of  de- 
fending themselves;  when  the  Athenians,  al- 
though benevolence  was  shewn  to  them  by  the 
Greek  nation  in  deference  to  the  memory  of 
their  former  actions,  could  never  secure  them- 
selves from  the  arms  of  the  Macedonians  ;  when 
the  Greeks  had  no  general  council,  and  each 
state  attended  to  its  own  affairs,  there  were 
none  who,  in  power,  could  be  compared  to  the 
Achaians,  all  whose  cities,  except  Pellene,  had 
ever  been  free  from  the  government  of  tyrants, 
and  had  never  sufffered  from  war  and  pestilence 
so  much  as  the  other  Greeks.  They  established, 
therefore,  a  community  of  designs  and  opera- 
tions, and  assembled  a  council  called  the  Achaic 
in  ^gium,  which,  ever  since  the  destruction  of 


Helice  by  an  inundation,  had  excelled  all  tlie 
other  cities  of  Achaia  in  dignity  and  power." 

Pausanias  then  proceeds  to  devote  ten  chap- 
ters to  the  events  of  that  instructive  period  in 
the  decline  of  Greece,  when  its  power  was 
chiefly  divided  among  the  Achaians,  ^tolians, 
and  Lacedeemonians.  Intent  only  on  their  own 
quarrels,  these  states,  as  well  as  the  smaller, 
were  blind  to  the  danger  threatened  from  the 
steady  policy,  the  military  strength,  and  the  un- 
relenting ambition  of  Rome.  Instead  of  uniting 
to  oppose  that  danger,  instead  of  endeavouring  to 
cement  alliances  with  the  kings  of  Macedonia, 
Illyria,  and  Asia,  each  state  in  its  turn  supported 
Rome  against  its  Grecian  rivals,  and  thus  invited 
the  Romans  to  bring  them  all  in  succession  under 
the  yoke.  By  constantly  referring  the  decision 
of  their  puerile  quarrels  to  the  senate  of  Rome 
or  its  emissaries,  they  offered  to  the  Romans  a 
temptation,  which  a  more  just  and  less  ambi- 
tious government  would  hardly  have  been  able 
to  resist. 

To  Achaia,  as  most  abundant  in  the  re- 
sources of  wealth,  high  reputation,  extensive 
alliances,  disciplined  forces,  and  commanders  of 
ability  and  honesty,  the  chief  disgrace  of  the 
ruin  of  Greece  is  to  be  ascribed.  The  great 
qualities  of  Aratus  and  Philopcemen,  instead  of 

202  ACHAIA.  [chap.  XXVII. 

being  exerted  in  producing  unanimity,  were 
exercised  upon  the  disputes  between  the  de- 
mocracies and  oHgarchies,  and  in  counteract- 
ing the  effects  of  the  support  which  the  latter 
received  from  Macedonia  or  from  Sparta.  One 
man  only,  and  he  belonging  to  a  people  uncivil- 
ized in  comparison  with  the  Achaians,  is  re- 
corded as  having  foreseen  the  consequences  of 
the  quarrels  of  the  Greeks  among  one  another. 
Livy,  copying  from  Polybius,  has  preserved  the 
speech  of  Agelas  of  Naupactus,  in  recommenda- 
tion of  the  only  policy  which  could  save  Greece 
from  ruin,  but  which  neither  Aratus,  nor  Philo- 
poemen,  nor  Polybius  himself,  had  the  sense,  or 
courage,  or  consistency,  to  pursue.  In  jus- 
tice, however,  to  Aratus  and  Philopoemen,  it 
should  be  added,  that  during  the  whole  career 
of  the  former,  and  the  greater  part  of  that  of 
the  latter,  the  Romans  had  not  yet  conceived 
the  designs  upon  Greece  with  which  they  were 
soon  afterwards  inspired  by  their  successes  in 
other  quarters,  and  by  the  subsequent  folly  or 
wickedness  of  the  Greek  leaders.  Philopoemen 
appears,  before  his  death,  to  have  taken  alarm  at 
the  conduct  of  the  Romans,  although  it  was  a 
conduct  which  he  himself  had  invited,  by  allow- 
ing the  Achaians  to  assist  the  Romans  against 
Philip,  Antiochus,  and  Nabis. 


The  opposition  of  the  democratic  and  tyran- 
nic, or  oHgarchic  interests,  which  is  the  great 
mover  of  the  poHtics  of  Greece  from  the  be- 
ginning to  the  end  of  its  history,  or,  at  least,  from 
the  time  when  it  became  repubHcan  to  the  final 
loss  of  its  independence— the  restless,  invidious, 
factious,  and  treacherous  spirit  which  has  cha- 
racterized so  many  of  its  leading  men  in  all  ages, 
conducted  the  country  with  rapidity  to  its  ruin, 
when  there  was  an  abundance  of  individuals  of 
that  character,  uncorrected  by  the  control  of 
such  men  as  Aratus  and  Philopcemen.  One  is 
surprised  to  find  Polybius,  who  has  left  us  many 
sensible  observations  upon  war  and  politics,  ap- 
proving of  the  support  given  by  the  Achaian 
league  to  the  Romans  against  Perseus,  instead 
of  recommending  to  his  countrymen  to  form  an 
effectual  union  of  the  whole  Greek  nation 
against  the  Italians,  whose  ill  success  in  the  first 
two  years  of  the  third  Macedonian  war,  was 
highly  encouraging  to  such  an  united  effort. 
In  fact  the  writings  of  Polybius  betray  that 
early  and  constant  partiality  for  the  Romans 
which,  cooling  the  ardour  of  his  patriotism  and 
blinding  him  to  the  dangers  of  his  country, 
must,  by  its  effects,  have  contributed  to  the 
subjugation  of  Greece  not  less  certainly  than 
the  glaring  folly  and  villainy  of  a  Diaeus  or  a 
Callicrates.      But  though    he   cannot  be  com- 

204  ACHAiA.  [chap,  xxvii. 

mended  for  the  wisdom  of  his  views,  it  is  a 
strong  proof  of  his  honesty,  that  not  all  his  ex- 
ertions or  talents,  nor  all  his  admiration  of  the 
Romans,  could  save  his  party  from  the  persecu- 
tions of  Callicrates,  nor  himself  from  being  in- 
cluded among  the  thousand  leading  men  of 
Achaia  who  were  detained  seventeen  years  in 
Italy,  until  only  300  of  them  survived.  Ul- 
timately this  was  a  fortunate  event  for  Polybius, 
for  Greece,  and  for  liteiature,  by  enabling  him 
to  obtain  the  friendship  of  some  of  the  most  il- 
lustrious Romans,  to  visit  Italy,  Spain,  and 
Africa,  to  intercede  with  Rome  in  favour  of 
conquered  Greece,  and  finally  to  write  a  history 
of  his  own  times,  for  which  he  was  better  quali- 
fied than  any  man  then  living  *.  Unhappily  we 
have  but  fragments  of  this  great  work,  in  conse- 
quence of  which,  the  historical  digression  in  Pau- 
sanias,  which  has  given  rise  to  these  remarks,  is 
the  more  valuable  as  containing  the  best  ma- 
terials for  the  history  of  the  last  years  of  the 
Achaian  league  and  of  Grecian  independence. 

It  is  difficult  to  understand  the  nature  of  the 
revolution  which  was  effected  by  Nero  in  the 
political  state  of  Greece,  or  to  comprehend 
what  kind  of  liberty  that  was  for  which  the 
people  were  indebted  to  the  caprice  of  such  a 

^  Puusan.  Arcad.  c.  37- 

CHAP.   XXVir.]  ACHAIA.  '205 

tyrant  \  It  is  probable,  that  his  favours  were 
confined  to  a  remission  of  a  part  of  the  tribute 
to  Rome,  and  that  he  deprived  the  Roman  prae- 
tor of  a  part  of  his  autliority  over  the  munici- 
paUties ;  the  consequence  of  which  could  only 
have  been  to  throw  all  the  cities  into  that  state  of 
anarchy  which  had  been  a  common  attendant 
of  their  democratic  constitutions  even  in  better 
times.  Whatever  may  have  been  the  imme- 
diate effects  of  the  decree  of  Nero,  they  did  not 
long  continue  ;  Vespasian  soon  found  it  neces- 
sary to  replace  Greece  in  its  former  state, 
which  was  undoubtedly  the  best  suited  to  the 
country  under  the  circumstances  of  those 

The  twelve  cities  founded  in  ^gialus  by  the 
lonians  and  occupied  by  the  Achaians  who  ex- 
pelled them,  were  Dyme,  Olenus,  Phar^e,  Tri- 
tsea,  Patrae,  Rhyp^,  ^gium,  Helice,  Bura, 
Mg^j  ^geira,  Pellene.  This  is  the  catalogue 
of  Herodotus  and  of  Strabo  ^.  According  to 
Pausanias,  Patr^  was  not  founded  until  after 
the  occupation  of  the  country  by  the  Achaei, 
and  he  names  Ceryneia  in  the  place  of  it  \  Po- 
lybius  omits  ^gae  and  Rhypag,  and  substitutes 
Leontium  and  Ceryneia.     But  Polybius  refers 

^  Sueton.      in     Neron. —  ^  Herodot.  1.  1.  c.   145. — 

Pausan.  Achaic.  c.  17- — Plin.      Strabo,  p.  385. 
1.  4.  c.  6. — Eutrop.  c.  4.  '■  Pausan.  Achaic.  c  18. 

206  ACHAIA.  [chap.  XXVII. 

to  the  cities  of  the  Achaian  confederacy  as  it 
was  estabUshed  on  the  aboHtion  of  the  monarchy, 
which  had  continued  from  Tisamenus  to  Ogy- 
gus  *,  when  JEgse  was  already  a  ruin,  and 
Rhypae  in  a  state  of  imbecility.  About  the  year 
305  B.  c,  the  federation  was  suspended  by  the 
discord  among  the  cities,  which  had  been  caused 
by  the  interference  of  the  Macedonians  in  the 
affairs  of  southern  Greece.  It  was  renewed  be- 
tween the  years  281  and  274  b.  c,  by  seven 
cities  of  the  western  part  of  Achaia,  which, 
thirty  years  later,  were  joined  by  Sicyon,  Co- 
rinth, and  Megara,  and  ultimately  by  the  greater 
part  of  the  Peloponnesus  ^. 

During  the  two  centuries  intervening  be- 
tween the  times  of  Polybius  and  of  Strabo,  all 
the  smaller  towns  of  Achaia  had  fully  partaken 
in  the  general  ruin  of  Greece  ;  and  Augustus 
having  annexed  Dyme,  Pharae,  and  Tritaea  to 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Roman  colony  of  Patnr, 
there  remained,  when  Pausanias  visited  the 
country,  about  170  years  afterwards,  very  lit- 
tle   besides    ruins    and    places    of   worship    in 

*  Polyb.  1.  2.  c.  41. — 1.  4.  already  in  a  very   declining 

c.  1. — Strabo,  p.  384.  state,     for    not    long   after- 

^  The  seven  cities  of  the  wards  the  Olenii  retired  from 

latter  Achaean    league,   were  their  city  into  three   neigh- 

Dyme^  Patrse,  Pharae,  Tritsea,  bouring  towns.     Polyb.   1.  2. 

^gium,Bura,Ceryneia.  Ole-  c.  41. — Strabo,  pp.384.  386. 

nus   refused  to  join  the  al-  — Pausan.  Achaic.  c.  18. 
liance,  possibly  because  it  was 

CHAP.  XXVII.]  PATRA.  207 

any  of  the  Achaian  cities,   except  Patrae  and 

April  15. — A  strong  north-eastern  wind  has 
continued  to  blow  at  Patra  from  the  6th  to  this 
day.  The  temperature,  in  the  warmest  hours 
of  the  day,  was  rather  high,  about  70°  Fah- 
renheit :  the  hills  in  the  gulf  were  capped,  and 
it  generally  rained  in  the  afternoon  within  the 
gulf.  In  February  the  same  wind  and  the  same 
appearance  of  the  atmosphere  prevailed,  with  a 
lower  thermometer,  though  high  for  the  season. 
I  remarked  this  effect  of  the  n.e.  wind  the  more, 
because  in  Greece  its  general  character  is  that 
of  a  clear  and  sharp  wind,  and  it  generally  ac- 
companies the  fine  weather  in  winter.  Upon 
inquiry  I  found  that  the  wind  at  sea  all  this 
time  was  scirocco  ("south-east).  It  seems,  that 
in  the  narrow  western  parts  of  the  gulf,  between 
the  capes  Psaromyti  and  Papa,  there  are  two 
prevailing  winds,  known  by  the  names  of  'E/m- 
ira<7ia  and  Evya^cuy  which,  in  the  kakophonic 
Zantiote  pronunciation  of  our  worthy  consul, 
sound  very  like  what  would  be  written  in  Eng- 
lish, Bashaw  and  Washaw.  'Efi^d^ei,  6  aepas 
and  Evyd^€c  6  Kop^os  are  also  common  expres- 
sions to  indicate  the  two  winds.  All  the  steady 
westerly  breezes  in  the  summer  blow  into  the 
gulf  and  along  its  mid-channel.  At  Patra  the 
Evgazia  generally  draws  from  the  n.e.,  being 

208  PATiiA.  [chap,  xxvit. 

deflected  upon  Patra  by  tlie  great  mountains 
Rigani,  Kaki  Skala,  and  Paleo-Vuni.  It  is  even 
known  to  blow  in  tliat  direction  when  the  wind 
is  south  at  sea,  and  when  beyond  Cape  Papa  it  is 
met  by  a  true  south  wind,  blowing  through  the 
channel  of"  Zakytho.  In  the  wider  parts  of  the 
Corinthiac,  as  well  as  in  the  Saronic  Gulf,  the 
winds  are  more  nearly  what  they  are  in  the 
open  sea,  but  modified  in  their  course  by  the 
mountains.  Thus,  the  Argolic  Gulf  gives  the 
southerly  wind  a  good  deal  of  easting  in  the 
Corinthiac  Gulf,  from  whence  it  draws  througli 
the  mid-channel  of  the  Strait  of  Naupactus,  and 
becomes,  as  I  have  said,  a  north-east  at  Patra. 
The  difference  of  the  two  kinds  of  north-east  is 
strongly  marked  at  Patra,  a  real  north-east 
being  clear  and  sharp  ;  a  false  one  being  marked 
by  the  usual  indications  of  a  scirocco,  namely, 
heat,  covered  mountains,  and -a  hazy  sky.  Al- 
though the  true  north-east  generally  accompa- 
nies the  fine  weather  in  winter,  and  is  light  and 
frosty,  terrible  gales  sometimes  occur  from 
that  quarter,  such  as  the  euroclydon  which 
blew  St.  Paul  to  Malta.  These  foul  weather 
north-easters  cap  the  mountains,  but  they  are 
not  very  common,  and  a  fall  of  rain  soon  brings 
about  a  change.  In  general  the  quality  of  the 
several  winds  in  Greece  are  nearly  the  same 
as  in  England. 

CHAP.    XXVII.]       TO    TRIKKALA.  209 

This  day  (April  1.5)  I  return  to  Vostitza  in 
company  with  Mr.  Consul  Strane.  The  pace  of 
our  agoyatic  hacks  is  slow.  At  10.25  set 
out; — 10.50,  cross  a  river,  (the  Meilichus  of 
Pausanias,)  on  its  banks  are  the  villages  of 
Apano  and  Kato  Sykena,  in  a  small  valley, 
which  to  the  west  is  bounded  by  the  rugged 
heights  near  Patra,  and  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion by  similar  heights  separating  the  valley 
from  the  plain  of  Kasteli :  11.35  cross  several 
small  torrents  (the  Charadrus  of  the  ancients) 
which  join  the  sea  a  little  west  of  the  castle ; — 
11.50  cross  a  stream  which  joins  the  sea  a  little 
east  of  the  castle  (the  Selemnus).  12.25  arrive 
at  the  head  of  the  bay  of  Tekieh  (Pa?iormus'). 
Two  Greek  ships  of  Galaxidhi  are  at  anchor  in 
the  bay ;  they  sailed  a  few  days  ago  from  Patra 
for  the  purpose  of  keeping  Easter  at  home,  but 
having  been  arrested  by  the  evgazia  have  lost 
the  feast  both  at  Patra  and  Galaxidhi.  This  is 
a  great  disappointment  to  the  poor  sailors,  as 
Easter  **  comes  but  once  a  year'*,  and  the  Greeks 
are  allowed  by  their  tyrants  to  keep  their  Bairam 
without  molestation. 

The  Easter  lamb  is  generally  purchased  seve- 
ral days  before  the  Sunday,  but  never  killed  till 
the  morning  or  the  evening  before.  From  Thurs- 
day to  Monday  no  work  is  done,  and  not  a  boat 
sails.     At  Patra   I  saw  the  boatmen  on  Easter 

VOL.  III.  p 

210  TEKIEH.  [chap.  XXVII. 

Sunday  ranged  in  parties  along  the  beach, — 
each  boat's  crew  seated  on  the  ground  in  the 
hot  sun,  round  a  great  fire,  roasting  lambs, 
and  waiting  with  impatience,  after  the  forty 
days'  fast,  till  they  were  dressed.  By  nine  or 
ten  o'clock  in  the  forenoon  most  of  the  families 
in  the  town  had  dined,  and  were  already  half 
drunk  and  dancing.  At  Patra  the  Greeks  have 
full  liberty  to  enjoy  the  festival  of  Lambri  *, 
with  all  its  honours  of  fine  clothes,  firing  of 
crackers  and  pistols,  painted  eggs,  roasted 
lambs,  drinking,  music,  and  dancing ;  but  they 
cannot  make  the  midnight  procession  through 
the  streets  as  at  Kalamata,  where  they  spoke  to 
me  with  great  pride  and  satisfaction  of  their 
superiority  in  this  respect  over  all  the  rest  of 
the  Morea. 

At  12.35  leave  Tekieh  ;  at  l.lo  cross  a  stream 
which  flowing  from  a  narrow  gorge  in  the 
advanced  part  of  Panachdiciim  on  the  right, 
joins  the  sea  at  Drepa7ii(m ;  1.35,  Psatho-pyrgo; 
3.45,  khan  of  Lambiri ;  leave  it  at  5.7,  and 
arrive,  at  7*20,  at  the  great  plane  tree  of  Vos- 

April  17. — Sail  this  morning  to  Xylo-kastro 
in  a  boat  bound  to  that  place  to  load  currants : 
the  distance  by  sea  is  about  thirty  English  miles. 

CHAP.  XX VII. 2         TO    TRIKKALA.  211 

In  less  than  an  hour  we  reach  Cape  Ghyftissa  % 
a  low  promontory,  which  terminates  the  olive- 
covered  plain  of  Vostitza  at  a  distance  of  two 
or  three  miles  from  the  town  :  it  shelters  the 
roadsted  on  the  eastern  side,  and  seems  to  have 
been  formed  by  the  alluvions  of  the  river  Seli- 
nuSf  like  the  promontory  of  the  JMeganitas,  on 
the  western  side  of  the  harbour.  A  bay  three 
miles  eastward  of  Ghyftissa  is  much  frequented 
for  the  fishery  of  sardeles  ^,  an  inferior  kind  of 
anchovy,  which  are  salted  in  the  gulf  and  car- 
ried to  the  islands.  The  fishermen  are  chiefly 
of  Zakytho ;  they  catch,  among  other  fish,  the 
Gof6%  which  weighs  sometimes  from  seventy  to 
one  hundred  pounds. 

In  the  adjacent  plain  are  the  villages  of  Ta- 
ratzes  '^  and  Temena  or  Temeni  ^ :  the  latter 
name  seems  to  indicate  the  position  of  the  re- 
lievos  of  Neptune  Heliconius  ;  for  although  the 
temple  and  sacred  grove  were  submerged  by  the 
earthquake  which  destroyed  Helice,  a  part  of 
the  sacred  portion  of  Neptune  may  have  been 
saved,  and  have  continued  sacred  to  him.  We 
are  becalmed  for  two  or  three  hours  off  Trupia 
and  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  Kalavryta.  Trupia 
is  a  metokhi  of  the  monastery  of  Megaspilio, 
delightfully  situated  at  the  foot  of  steep  hills 

*    ft'^icraa.  ^   crcci^iXcm;.  '^    Gobius  ?  '"*   Tu^XT^cctc. 

^  Ts^Evac,  or  TfjtAEv*. 

P  2 

212       CAPES  AKRATA,  AVGO.   [CHAP.  XXVII. 

on  a  woody  height  overlooking  a  narrow 
maritime  plain,  which  is  covered  with  currant 
vineyards.  The  wind  springing  up  from  the 
west,  we  quickly  pass  Cape  Akrata,  and  arrive 
abreast  of  that  called  Avgo. 

The  rivers  of  this  coast  all  issue  from  the 
mountains  through  narrow  rocky  openings, 
which  give  the  coast  a  very  peculiar  aspect  from 
the  sea,  the  mountains,  which  all  either  rise  ab- 
ruptly from  the  shore,  or  are  separated  from  it 
only  by  narrow  levels,  being  divided  into  distinct 
masses  by  the  rocky  ravines.  The  rivers  of  Sal- 
meniko  and  Vostitza,  the  Bokhusia,  the  river  of 
Kalavryta,  the  Akrata,  those  of  Zakhuli,  and 
Trikkala,  have  all  the  same  character.  Be- 
tween the  Bokhusia  and  the  river  of  Kalavryta 
the  maritime  plain,  as  I  have  just  remarked, 
is  covered  with  currant  plantations  ;  eastward 
of  Akrata  there  is  another  similar  level  on  the 
seaside,  above  which  rise  steep  fertile  slopes, 
studded  with  villages  and  clothed  with  corn 
fields,  which  produce  some  of  the  best  Grinia 
wheat  in  the  Morea.  The  sea  is  whitened  by 
the  water  of  the  rivers  which  flow  from  the 
mountains  above  this  bay.  At  Avgo  we  ap- 
proach a  barren,  uncultivated  coast,  covered 
with  slu'ubs  and  broken  into  small  hills  con- 
sisting of  white  precipices  like  those  of  Zakytho 
and  Patra. 

CHAP.  XXVII.]  CAPE    AVGO.  213 

Avgo  ^  is  a  promontory  of  these  white  cUffs, 
of  a  conical  form,  and,  although  not  high,  it  is  a 
very  conspicuous  object  throughout  the  gulf. 
We  then  pass  a  pyrgo  of  Nuri  Bey  at  Kamari, 
where  begins  a  narrow  plain  extending  to  Xylo- 
kastro.  This  plain,  though  much  of  it  is  un- 
cultivated, produces  rice,  corn,  olives,  and  cur- 
rants. It  is  marshy,  of  a  \vhite  argillaceous  soil, 
like  all  the  shore  to  the  eastward  of  Cape  Ak- 
rata,  and  so  extremely  unhealthy  in  summer  as 
to  be  almost  uninliabitable.  A  few  overseers 
of  the  property  of  the  NorapaloL,  or  family  of 
Notara,  and  of  Nuri  Bey,  are  the  only  persons 
who  remain  in  that  season  at  Kamari  and  Xylo- 
kastro.  At  6  in  the  evening  we  land  at  the 
magazine  of  Xylo-kastro,  and  ride  to  the  village, 
which  stands  at  the  foot  of  the  hills  half  a  mile 
distant.  It  consists  only  of  half  a  dozen  huts, 
belonging  to  one  of  the  Notarei.  The  adjacent 
hills  produce  a  good  red  wdne  unmixed  with 

April  18.— At  7i  we  set  out  for  Trikkala, 
and  enter  the  narrow  vale  of  the  river  of 
Xylo-kastro,  which,  flowing  from  Mount  Zyria, 
leaves  the  village   of  Xylo-kastro  on   the  left 

^  At^yciv,  egg.      In  this  and  fore^,  may  nitlicr  be  considered 

several  other  modern  Greek  a  dialectic  variation   than  a 

words  we  find  the  r  perform-  corruption  of  <Lo-j,  or  fIFON, 

ing  the  same  office  as  the  di-  the  accents,  moreover,  being 

gamma  of  old.     Avyov,  there-  the  same. 

^2i4f  XYLO-KASTRO.  [cHAP.  XXVll. 

bank  at  its  exit  from  the  gorge.  At  JAO  the 
valley  widens.  Like  the  maritime  plain  of 
Xylo-kastro,  it  is  covered  with  currant  vine- 
yards, thriving  in  a  soil  of  white  clay,  and  giv- 
ing, it  is  said,  triple  the  return  of  those  which 
grow  in  the  rich  mould  of  Gastuni.  To  our 
right  rise  white  precipices  of  the  same  kind  of 
soil  as  the  valley,  but  clothed  with  large  pines, 
which  form  a  wild  and  beautiful  scenery.  Be- 
fore us  are  the  two  great  summits  of  Mount 
Cyllene,—  Zyria  (the  proper  Cyllene)  to  the  right, 
and  Ghymno-vuni,  or  Mount  StymphaluSy  to 
the  left.  They  are  separated  by  a  ravine, 
through  which  flows  the  principal  branch  of  the 
river  of  Xylo-kastro. 

Under  Zyria,  in  a  lofty  situation,  is  seen  the 
town  of  Trikkala.  At  the  opening  of  the  valley 
we  are  met  by  the  horses  sent  for  us  by  the  No- 
tarei.  Pass  a  pyrgo  and  zevgalati  belonging  to 
one  of  them.  At  8.30,  leaving  on  the  left  the 
valley,  which  is  now  narrow,  we  ascend  the 
rugged  hills  to  the  right  j  the  road  very  bad  : 
towards  the  summit  of  the  ridge  the  ground  is 
more  even.  At  8.57  some  Hellenic  founda- 
tions occur  in  the  road.  At  9.25,  being 
just  below  the  village  of  Zugra,  I  observe  some 
fragments  of  a  temple,  or  other  public  edifice, 
on  the  road  side  to  the  left :  it  was  situated  on 
a   narrow   precipitous    ridge,    which    advances 

CHAP.  XXVII.]  ZUGRA.  215 

from  the  main  height  of  Zugra  towards  the 
river.  Among  the  fragments  are  those  of  a 
cornice  and  of  a  semicircidar  pilaster,  the  dia- 
meter of  wliich  is  one  foot  two  inches.  Pro- 
ceeding, at  9.30,  along  the  eastern  side  of  the 
height  of  Zugra,  I  arrive,  at  9.4^2,  at  some 
other  ancient  foundations.  At  9-50,  a  little 
beyond  a  fountain  on  the  road  side,  there  is  a 
small  catacomb  cut  in  the  side  of  the  rocky  hill. 
Three  or  four  minutes  beyond  this  are  more  ex- 
tensive remains ;  in  some  places  three  or  four 
courses  of  regular  masonry  still  subsist :  the 
place  is  called  Fortes  (the  Gates),  the  catacomb 
Fur  no  (the  Oven). 

J>om  the  Furno  I  ascend  to  the  summit  of 
the  height  of  Zugra,  where  1  find  the  remains 
of  a  large  ancient  city, — doubtless  Pellene ;  for 
Strabo '  and  Pausanias "  agree  in  placing  the 
Pellenaea  next  to  the  Sicyonia  westward ;  and  in 
shewing,  that  the  city  stood  at  a  distance  of 
sixty  stades  from  the  sea,  in  a  strong  and  lofty 
situation.  Apollonius "  also  has  exactly  described 
this  position  when  he  says,  that   Pellene  stood 

on  the  brows  of  ^gialus  :    k-rr    ocppva-cv  AlyiaXolo. 

The  distance  of  sixty  stades  from  the  sea  will 
agree  very  well  with  our  two  hours  and  a  third, 

«  Strabo,  p.  386.  *=  Apolloa.  Argon.  1.  1.  v. 

*»  Pausan.  Achaic  c  26,  176. 


making  some  allowance  in  time  for  the  rugged 

Parnassus,  Helicon,  Cithcey^on,  and  Geraneia 
are  seen  from  hence,  and  Cylleiie  occupies  all 
the  horizon  to  the  southward.  The  hill  or  ridge 
of  Pellene  has  a  direction  nearlynorth  and  south. 
Toward  the  southern  end  of  it  are  some  founda- 
tions mixed  with  plain  columns.  On  the  middle 
and  highest  summit  of  the  hill  I  trace  the 
foundations  of  a  small  inclosure,  or  citadel, 
within  which  is  a  piece  of  fluted  Doric  column, 
a  foot  and  a  half  in  diameter;  and  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  hill,  below  it,  some  other 
pieces  of  the  same  columns,  near  which  lie 
those  of  a  plain  Doric  frize — the  triglyphs  one 
foot  seven  inches  and  a  half  in  width.  North- 
ward of  the  Acropolis  there  are  many  founda- 
tions round  a  single  tree,  together  with  the  ruin 
of  a  circular  building,  thirty-two  feet  in  diame- 
ter :  the  masonry  of  the  foundation  is  of  a  very 
regular  Hellenic  kind, — the  upper  part  of  rough 
materials  and  tiles.  Other  remains  are  scattered 
over  the  heights  in  this  quarter ;  but  there  is  no 
building  clearly  traceable.  To  the  east  the  hill 
of  Zugra  slopes  to  the  precipices  and  steep  de- 
clivities which  overhang  the  river  of  Xylo-kastro. 
Zugra  is  a  hamlet  of  ten  houses,  standing  on  this 
face  of  the  height,  just  under  the  northern  end 


of  the  ruins.     The  site  of  the  ruins  is  called 
Tzerkovi  *. 

Pausanias  remarks^,  that  "  the  Pellenenses 
bordered  on  the  ^geiratae,  and  were  the  last 
of  the  Achaians  towards  Sicyon  and  the  Argolis ; 
that  between  ^geira  and  Pellene  there  was  a 
small  town "",  called  Donusa,  which  had  formerly 
been  conquered  and  destroyed  by  the  Sicyonii, 
and  that  it  was  said  to  be  the  same  place  men- 
tioned by  Homer  in  the  Catalogue, — 

or  y  'TTTB^y^Tiriv  re  xat  alvrsivyw  AovoEaaav, 

but  that  the  name  had  been  negligently  altered 
[into  Tovoea-aa]  by  Pisistratus,  or  some  of  those 
who  assisted  him,  when  he  collected  the  poems 
of  Homer  from  the  records  in  which  they  were 
dispersed'*.  Aristonautae,"  Pausanias  adds,  "was 
a  haven  of  the  Pellenenses,  to  which  there  was 
a  road  along  the  sea  of  120  stades  from  ^geira. 
From  thence  to  Pellene  was  half  that  distance. 
The  city  was  placed  on  a  hill,  the  summit  of 
which  was  acute,  and,  from  this  cause,  unin- 
habited :  the  town  was  divided  into  two  parts, 
situated  below  the  summit  on  either  side.  On 
the  road  [from  Aristonautae]  to  Pellene  there 

^   Pausan.  Achaic.C.  26,  27-        o-Trao-z^sva  ts  y.a)  ocWifxjJV  fj^vrii/.r,^ 

218  PELLENE.  [chap.  XXVII. 

was  a  statue  of  Hermes  surnamed  Dolius,  of  a 
square  form,  bearded,  and  having  a  hat^  on  the 
head.  In  the  same  road,  and  near  the  city, 
there  was  a  temple  of  Minerva,  built  of  the 
stone  produced  in  the  country '' ;  it  contained  a 
statue  of  ivory  and  gold,  which,  according  to  the 
Pellenenses,  was  made  by  Phidias,  and  was  an 
earlier  work  of  that  artist  than  either  the  statue 
of  Minerva  in  the  Acropolis  of  Athens  or  that 
at  Platseae.  They  affirmed  also,  that  there  was  an 
adytum  sacred  to  Minerva "^  under  the  basis  of  the 
statue,  and  that  the  air  rising  from  thence,  being 
moist,  preserved  the  ivory ".  Above  the  temple 
of  Minerva  there  was  a  grove  ^  surrounded  with 
a  wall,  sacred  to  Diana  Soteira,  and,  opposite 
to  it,  the  temple  of  Bacchus  Lampter  :  at  his 
festival,  called  Lampteria,  torches  were  brought 
into  the  temple  at  night,  and  bowls  of  wine  were 
placed  in  various  parts  of  the  city.  Pellene 
contained  also  a  temple  of  Apollo  Theoxenius, 

a  ^7xoc.  ""^^  below  the  statue,   there 

^  Xi&ov  eVt;i(^ci)pkov.  was  a  receptacle   for  water. 

•=  a^vTov  T^i-  'AO/jvaf.  At  Olympia,  where  the   si- 

^  It  was  for  a  similar  pur-  tuation  was  very  humid,   it 

pose   that  the  chryselephan-  was  found  necessary  to  fill  a 

tine  statue  of  ^sculapius  at  similar    receptacle    with     oil 

the  Hierum  of  Epidauria  was  instead    of    water. — Pausan. 

placed  over  a  well,  and  that  on  Eliac.  pr.  c.  1 1. 

the  pavement  of  the  Parthe-  ^  a.\ao<;. 


with  a  statue  of  the  god  in  brass ;  and  there 
was  a  contest,  called  the  Theoxenia,  in  which 
the  natives  contended  for  a  prize  of  money". 
Near  the  temple  of  Apollo  was  that  of  Diana, 
whose  statue  was  represented  drawing  the  bow  ". 
In  the  Agora  there  was  a  fountain  supplied  by 
a  conduit ;  for  the  sources  below  the  town,  at 
the  place  called  Glyceiae,  were  not  plentiful. 
For  washing "",  they  employed  rain  water'*.  The 
Gymnasium,  destined  to  the  exercise  of  the 
ephebi,  contained  a  statue  in  stone  of  a  native, 
named  Promachus  son  of  Dryon;  to  whom  the 
Pellenenses  had  also  raised  a  statue  in  brass  at 

The  lesser  quarter  of  Pellene  contained  a 
temple  of  Lucina^.  Below  the  Gymnasium 
was  the  Posidium,  formerly  a  demus ;  though 
deserted,  it  was  still  held  sacred  to  Neptune. 
Sixty  stades  distant  from  Pellene  was  the  My- 
saeum,  and  a  little  beyond  it  Cyrus  :  in  either 
place  were  copious  fountains.  At  Mysaeum 
a  festival  of  seven  days  was  celebrated  in  a 
grove  of  trees  in  honour  of  Ceres,  to  whom  the 
place  was  sacred.  At  Cyrus  there  was  a  sanc- 
tuary of  -^sculapius,    where   suppliants   were 

220  PELLENE.  [chap.  XXVII, 

cured  :  at  the  principal  fountain  stood  a  statue 
of  ^sculapius. 

To  the  westward  of  the  site  of  Pellene  the 
ridge  descends  suddenly  to  another  stream,  call- 
ed Fonissa,  which  rises  in  the  northern  part  of 
Mount  Zyria,  and  flows  in  the  direction  of 
Mount  Koryfi*,  a  high  insulated  peak,  very 
conspicuous  from  every  part  of  the  gulf, — ^pro- 
bably  the  aiTrecvr]  Tovoea-aa  of  Homer.  On  its 
summit  stands  a  ruined  church  of  Panaghia 
Spiliotissa.  The  river  Fonissa,  after  making  a 
half  circle  to  the  west  of  this  hill,  joins  the  sea 
near  Kamari. 

Having  returned  from  the  summit  of  the 
ridge  to  the  Fortes,  I  proceed  at  11.23,  and 
follow  the  crest  of  a  height  between  the  two 
rivers  ;  it  is  a  continuation  of  the  ridge  of  Pel- 
lene. At  12|;  a  high  precipitous  mountain, 
branchinq;  northward  from  the  northern  end 
of  Zyria,  and  called  Mavrioro,  is  four  or  five 
miles  on  the  right,  covered  with  firs  and 
snow.  This  is  probably  the  ancient  Chelydorea, 
to  which  Pausanias  refers  in  his  Arcadics, 
when  he  remarks  that  the  Pheneatice  bordered 
upon  two  of  the  districts  of  Achaia,  those  of 
^geira  and  Pellene,  and  tliat  its  boundaries  to- 
wards the  latter  were  at  a  place  near   Mount 

CHAP.  XXVII.]       MOUNT    CHELYDOREA.  2^21 

Cjllene,  called  Porinas,  and  likewise  in  the 
mountain  Chelydorea,  of  which  the  greater 
])art  belonged  to  the  province  of  Achaia,  that 
is  to  say,  to  the  Pellenenses.  Chelydorea  re- 
ceived its  name  from  the  tortoise  which  Mer- 
cury was  said  to  have  found  here,  and  con- 
verted into  a  lyre  ^. 

At  12.20  we  begin  to  ascend  the  steep  slopes 
upon  which  Trikkala  is  situated.  The  town  is  di- 
vided into  three  quarters  ^  called  Apano,  Meso, 
and  Kato.  At  12.43  we  arrive  at  the  Lower,  and, 
proceeding  a  quarter  of  an  hour  higher,  alight 
in  Meso  Makhala,  at  the  house  of  Dr.  Notara, 
where  he  and  his  two  brothers,  with  their  fami- 
lies, all  reside  in  the  same  pyrgo.  They  are 
sons  of  the  Gorgonda  Notara,  with  whom 
Chandler  lodged  at  Corinth.  The  eldest  still 
occupies  the  family-house  in  that  town.  Pa- 
nutzo,  the  second,  is  not  married  ;  he  is  modest, 
amiable,  religious,  and  a  good  Hellenic  scholar, 
and  having  neither  art  nor  activity  enough  to 
fill  the  situation  of  Hodja-bashi,  has  resigned 
that  honour  to  his  younger  brother  Sotiraki, 
who  is  better  adapted  to  such  an  office.  Pa- 
nutzo  has  a  library  in  a  room  which  he  has 
built  adjoining  to  his  brother's  pyrgo,  and 
which  serves  for  a  dining-room  for  the  family. 
His  books  are  chiefly  of  medicine  and  divinity, 

'^  Pausfin.  Arcad.  c.  1;").  IJ- 


and  there  is  but  a  poor  collection  of  classics ; 
it  is,  however,  the  only  attempt  at  a  private 
library  that  I  have  met  with  in  Greece. 

The  slopes  of  the  hills  on  either  side  of  the 
river  of  Xylo-kastro,  from  the  foot  of  Mount 
Cyllene  to  the  sea,  form  the  most  valuable  part 
of  the  district  of  Trikkala,  as  they  formerly  did 
that  of  Pellene.  They  produce  good  corn,  but 
with  a  return  of  not  more  than  seven  or  eight 
to  one.  In  some  places  the  springs  with  which 
they  abound  feed  channels  of  irrigation  for 
fields  of  arabo-siti.  The  branch  of  the  river 
which  flows  from  Mount  Zyria  through  Trik- 
kala, is  a  white  muddy  torrent  falling  in  cas- 
cades over  the  rocks :  the  main  stream  rises  be- 
tween Ghymno-vuni  and  Zyria,  in  a  valley  called 
Flamboritza,  which  belongs  to  the  Notarei,  and 
supplies  excellent  pasture  in  summer.  On  the 
other  side  of  Ghymno-vuni  is  the  plain  of  Sti/m- 
phalus.  Panutzo  says  that  there  is  a  theatre  at 
Stymphahis  cut  in  the  rock,  which  is  under 
water  at  this  season,  but  visible  in  summer.  He 
does  not  pretend  however,  that  he  has  seen  it ; 
nor  can  I  comprehend  whereabouts  it  can  be. 
He  states  also  that  there  are  two  peaks  at  the 
summit  of  Mount  Zyria,  on  one  of  which  is  a 
church  of  St.  Elias,  and  on  the  other  some 
foundations  of  the  temple  of  Mercury  Cyllenius. 
The  houses   of  Trikkala  are    much   dispersed 

CHAP.  XXVII.]         MYSyEUM,    ETC.  223 

among  gardens,  which  are  well  watered  by  nu- 
merous rills  from  the  mountain,  and  produce 
apples,  plums,  and  cherries,  in  great  plenty,  but 
the  fruit  is  not  very  good,  as  no  pains  are  ever 
taken  to  improve  its  quality  by  ingrafting,  or 
by  new  stocks  from  other  places. 

April  19.  —  Ride  up,  and  employ  the  morning 
in  making  observations  from  the  highest  point, 
immediately  above  Trikkala,  called  Varnevo, 
which  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  eastern  part 
of  the  Corinthiac  gulf,  with  parts  of  those  of 
Argos  and  j^gina,  though,  unfortunately  for 
my  purpose,  neither  Larissa  (the  castle  of  Ar- 
gos) nor  the  Acro-Corinthus  are  visible.  Some 
of  the  hills  of  the  Phliasia  hide  the  latter  from 
view,  and  Mount  Mavrioro  impedes  the  view  to 
the  westward. 

I  cannot  discover  or  hear  of  any  remains  in 
this  vicinity,  that  will  answer  to  Mysoeum  and 
Cyrus.  Trikkala  itself,  though  corresponding 
to  them  by  its  abundance  of  water,  is  too  near 
to  Pellene,  being  not  more  than  half  the  sixty 
stades  of  Pausanias.  It  is  evident,  however, 
that  they  were  in  some  part  of  the  adjacent 
mountains,  for  the  distance  aforesaid  can  only 
be  measured  inland  from  the  site  of  Pellene, 
that  place  being  itself  not  more  than  sixty  stades 
from  the  sea.  The  valley  of  Flamboritza  seems 
the  most  probable  situation. 

224  TO    VASILIKA.  [chap.  XXVII. 

OluruSy  a  small  town,  or  maritime  castle,  be- 
longing to  Pellene  %  was  probably  at  Xylo-kas- 
tro ;  which,  standing  at  the  entrance  of  the 
gorge  leading  from  the  maritime  plain  into  the 
Pellenceay  was  a  position  of  great  importance  to 
the  safety  of  that  district.  Though  Xylo-kas- 
tro  is  now  only  a  small  hamlet,  inhabited  by  the 
cultivators  of  the  plain,  and  containing  no  re- 
mains of  antiquity,  the  name  seems  to  indicate 
that  a  fortress  once  occupied  the  site. 

April  20.— From  Trikkala  to  Vasilika.  The 
road,  in  order  to  avoid  the  abrupt  descent  to 
the  main  branch  of  the  Xylo-kastro  river,  and 
the  ascent  from  its  right  bank,  makes  a  detour 
by  the  foot  of  the  Ghymno-vuni.  Here  it  tra- 
verses the  lower  part  of  the  pine  forests,  which, 
in  direct  contradiction  to  the  name  of  the 
mountain,  cover  the  lower  part  of  it.  After 
passing  many  rivulets  and  copious  springs,  we 
arrive  at  Markasi,  a  small  village,  standing  op- 
posite to  Trikkala  on  the  right  side  of  the  great 
glen  of  the  Xylo-kastro  river,  and  about  three 
miles  distant  in  a  straight  line  from  Trikkala. 
From  Markasi  we  continue  to  ascend  the  heights 
obliquely,  chiefly  through  pine  woods :  at  the 
hamlet  of  Ghelini,  which  stands  on  the  edge  of 
the  great  acclivity,  we  enter  an  elevated  level, 

*  Xenoph.  1.  7-  c  4. — Plin.      in  "o^ou^oj. 
H.  N.  1.  4.  c.  «.— Stephan. 

CHAP.  XXVII. 3  TO    VASILIKA.  225 

where  the  soil,  unUke  that  of  the  district  of 
Pelleney  is  red  ;  there  are  many  oaks  dispersed 
over  the  plain,  which  is  tolerably  well  cultivated, 
though  the  soil  is  by  no  means  fertile.  Beyond 
this  elevated  tract,  which  towards  Ghymno- 
vuni  is  bordered  by  pine  forests,  we  descend 
into  the  valley  of  Kesari,  in  which  the  waters 
run  to  the  right,  and  form  a  small  lake  dis- 
charged by  a  katavothra,  the  issue  of  which  is 
probably  the  fountain  of  StympJialus,  for  over 
the  same  extremity  of  the  vale  I  perceive 
Mount  Apelaurum  in  face  of  StymphaluSy  at  the 
foot  of  which  are  the  Stymplialian  zerethra  ; 
thus  the  two  katavothra  and  the  intermediate 
fountain  lie  nearly  in  a  line.  Apelaurum  is  here 
called  Mermingo-longo  %  or  Ant-forest.  To  the 
left  of  it  appears  Mount  Armenia,  and  a  part 
of  the  range  of  Artemisium. 

On  the  hill  forming  the  western  side  of  the 
valley  into  which  we  descend,  stands  the  village 
of  Kesari  ^,  with  a  large  white  pyrgo  ;  this  we 
leave  on  the  right  at  some  distance,  and  nearer, 
in  the  same  direction,  another  village,  Kle- 
mendi " ;  we  then  cross  the  northern  end  of  the 
valley,  which  is  narrow  in  this  part.    Left  Trik- 

*  Msp/xiyyoXoyyof .  as  if  these  names  were  the  re- 

•*  KsVapi  or  Katcrapj.  mains  of  some  ancient  record 

•^  KAS|M,EtTi.     It  would  seem      of  Caesarian  clemency- 

VOL.   III.  Q 

2^26  KESARI.  [chap.  XXVII. 

kala  at  95,  passed  Markasi  at  11,  Ghelini  at 
12.10,  and  Klemendi  at  1. 

After  a  halt  of  ten  minutes  on  the  ascent  of  the 
eastern  side  of  the  valley  of  Kesari,  we  turn  to 
the  left,  and  from  the  summit  of  the  mountain 
enjoy  a  fine  prospect  of  the  Isthmus^  with  a  part 
of  the  gulf  of  'Eghina.  The  ridge  is  covered 
with  a  mixture  of  pines  and  oaks,  through  which 
we  descend  in  the  direction  of  Sicyon,  until  we 
arrive  upon  broken  clayey  ground  like  that  near 
Xylokastro.  At  2.25,  on  the  descent,  I  ob- 
serve fragments  of  ancient  pottery  in  the  gullies 
by  tlie  road-side,  and,  on  a  neighbouring  emi- 
nence to  the  right,  some  Hellenic  foundations  : 
soon  afterwards  descend  into  the  valley  of  the 
stream  which  joins  the  sea  on  the  western  side 
of  Sicyon^  and  which  takes  its  rise  at  no  great 
distance  above  the  place  where  we  cross  it.  In 
this  valley,  at  2.50,  pass  some  Hellenic  found- 
ations ;  at  2.56,  some  mills  are  on  the  right, 
worked  by  a  derivation  from  the  stream.  Soon 
afterwards  ascend  the  steep  side  of  the  hill  of 
Sicyon,  and  arrive  at  the  theatre  at  3.15.  As 
we  ascended,  I  observed  below,  on  either  bank 
of  the  river,  some  heaps  of  ruins  and  squared 
blocks  of  stone. 

April  21. — At  9-10  descend  from  the  village 
of  Vasilikci  by  a  rugged  road  through  an  open- 

CHAP.  XXVII.]  TO    CORINTH.  227 

ing  in  the  cliffs  on  the  northern  side  of  the  hill 
of  Sicyon.  On  the  descent  there  is  a  fine  foun- 
tain ;  the  road  then  bends  to  the  right,  and  at 
the  bottom  crosses  a  river,  the  ancient  Asopus, 
which  is  now  a  large  stream,  but  in  summer  is 
dry  :  9-38,  Ibrahim  Bey,  a  village  and  large 
pyrgo  belonging  to  Nuri  Bey  are  on  the  right  j 
many  other  small  villages  are  seen  in  the  plain, 
which,  as  formerly,  is  planted  in  many  parts  with 
olives  %  and  still  preserves  its  ancient  agricultural 
riches ",  in  proportion  at  least  to  the  general  de- 
solation. In  natural  fertility,  however,  it  is  not  to 
be  compared  to  Elis  or  Messeiiia;  the  best  part 
is  that  immediately  around  Sici/on.  The  soil  of 
the  remainder,  like  that  of  Zakytho  and  a  large 
portion  of  Achaiay  is  a  white  argillaceous  sub- 
stance, corrected  perhaps  by  a  mixture  of  cal- 
careous matter.  It  is  more  adapted  I  believe  to 
olives  and  vines,  particularly  the  currant,  than  to 
grain  which  is  better  produced  in  some  of  the 
hilly  parts  of  Achaia,  or  in  the  richer  plains  of 
Patrce,  Dj/me,  and  Elis.  At  10.45,  in  the  middle 

a  Oliviferai  Sicyonis— Stat.  Theb.  1.  4.  v.  30. 

^  E  >j  /Aoi  TO.  yATcc^y  Ko^iv^ov  y.ul  'Ety.vuio;. — Adag.  Graec. 

Aristoph.    Av.    v.     969. —  P.        27-  C.  31. — ni?  av   ■^rXovT^aa.i- 
Sulpicius,    ab  NaiipactO   pro-        f^^,  Aio?  y.a.1  Ar,TOV<;  vU.  ;    ^Xnja.- 

fectus,  classem  adpulit  inter       '('^'  Lizv<(.,,  u  to^  f^E<7ov  ^jn- 

Atheii.  1.5.  c.  19. 

Sicyonem  et  Corinthum,  a- 
grumque  nobilissimae  fertili- 
tatis  effuse  vastavit.     Liv.  1. 


228  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVII. 

of  the  olive  plantations  of  Vokha,  as  the  plain 
is  now  called,  we  cross  a  small  river,  probably 
the  Nemea^f  which  anciently  formed  the  bound- 
ary of  the  Corinthia  and  Sicyonia;  and  at  11.5 
another  stream,  called  the  Longo  Potamo  ;  soon 
afterwards  we  pass  another  branch  of  the  same, 
— and  at  11.36  enter  Corinth.  Though  with 
post-horses  our  pace  from  Sky  on  has  been  slow, 
on  account  of  the  muddy  roads  and  the  nature 
of  the  soil,  which  after  rain  resembles  soap. 

■  Androsthenes,    Corintho  to\    Ne/^sai'    'nrorot.fji.ov.      Diod. 

profectus,  ad  Nemeam  (amnis  Sic.  1. 14.  c.  83. — 'O^i^si  ^\  t^i/ 

est  Corinthium  et  Sicyonium  "Zmvunocv  kou  rriv  Ko^ivGiav  tto- 

interfluens  agrum)  castra  lo-  ra/Aoj  Nf/xsa.     Strabo,  p.  382. 
cat.     Liv.  1.  33.  c.  15. — waga 



Corinth  and  its  two  ports. — Ancient  descriptions  of  the  city 
by  Strabo  and  Pausanias. — Existing  monuments. — Long 
Walls. —  Description  of  Couintii  by  Wlieier. — District  of 
Corinth, — An  ancient  Peristowium. 

From  the  remotest  period  of  Grecian  history  to 
the  Roman  conquest,  Corinth  maintained,  with 
a  very  small  territory,  the  highest  rank  among 
the  states  of  Greece.  In  the  meridian  ages  she 
was  surpassed  by  some  other  cities,  but  was  pre- 
eminent in  the  dawn  as  well  as  in  the  decline 
of  independent  Greece.  Hers  was  the  earliest 
school  of  policy  and  the  arts,  and  she  was  the 
last  to  resist  the  ambition  of  Rome.  The  nu- 
merous colonies  sent  forth  under  Corinthian 
leaders  are  proofs  of  her  power,  populousness, 
and  civilization,  long  before  Athens  or  Sparta 
had  assumed  a  superiority  among  the  states  of 
Greece.  13y  the  peculiarity  of  her  position, 
Corinth  became  the  centre  of  commercial  inter- 
course between  Europe  and  Asia,  the  chief  port 
for  the  exchange  of  commodities  between 
Greece  and  foreign  nations,  and  the  most  fre- 
quented point  of  communication  between  the 

230  CORINTH.  [chap,  xxvih. 

different  parts  of  Greece  itself.  The  multitude 
which  flocked  at  the  end  of  every  third  year  to 
the  Isthmian  games  was  an  additional  source  of 
wealth,  so  that  the  public  revenue  was  propor- 
tionally greater  than  that  of  any  of  the  states  of 
Greece  ^.  It  was  in  the  period  between  the  de- 
cline of  Argos  and  the  rise  of  Athens,  when  the 
public  power  and  riches  were  concentrated  in 
the  persons  of  the  Bacchiadae  and  Eetionidse, 
that  Corinth  was  in  the  height  of  its  splendour, 
but  the  same  local  advantages  continued  to 
maintain  the  republic  in  a  high  secondary  sta- 
tion, until  it  became  the  head  of  that  confede- 
racy which,  at  length,  was  the  only  barrier  op- 
posed by  independent  Greece  to  the  conquering 
arms  of  Rome. 

It  is  not  surprising  therefore,  that  when  the 
Romans,  tempted  by  the  riches,  provoked  by 
the  imprudent  insolence  of  some  of  the  citizens 
of  Corinth,  and  encouraged  by  the  treachery  of 
others  ^,  succeeded  in  reducing  the  Achaian 
league  to  submission,  their  conquest  of  Corinth 
should  have  been  followed  by  its  pillage  and 
destruction.  The  best  part  of  the  Corinthia 
was  then  given  to  Sicyon,  and  so  complete  was 
the  ruin  of  the  city,  that  the  site  was  deserted 
for  many  years ;  serving  only  during  that  time 

'■^  Strabo,  p.  378-  ^  Pausan.  Achaic.  c.  1.  et  seq. 


to  supply  antiquities  and  works  of  art  to  Rome, 
where  a  taste  for  such  objects  was  first  strongly 
excited  by  the  abundance  and  beauty  of  those 
found  in  the  plunder  and  among  the  ruins  of 
Corinth.  A  hundred  and  two  years  after  the 
conquest  by  Mummius,  Corinth  was  revived  by 
Julius  Caesar  %  M'ho  at  the  same  time  restored 
Carthage.  He  repeopled  Corinth  with  Roman 
freedmen,  mixed  with  Greeks  from  various 
quarters,  and  conferred  upon  it  all  the  privileges 
of  a  Roman  colony.  When  visited,  about  two 
centuries  afterwards,  by  Pausanias,  it  preserved 
a  larger  share  of  its  former  magnificence  than 
could  have  been  expected  after  such  calamities 
as  it  had  undergone  ^. 

The  commanding  situation,  which  gave  so 
much  distinction  to  the  narrow  territory  of  Co- 
rinth among  the  republics  of  Greece,  although 
not  of  the  same  consequence  in  modern  times, 

*B.  C.  44.    Straboj  p.381.  as    the  Romans    neither  de- 

— Paiisan.  1.  2.  c.  1,  2. — The  stroyed  the  public  buildings, 

words  of  Strabo  are :  Uoxiiv  ^l  nor  persecuted  the  religion  of 

•Xj^a\toi  \sn\^vi  fjuiivcica,  in  Ko^^^6o?,  the     Corinthians.       And    as 

civeXtxp^yi   iraXiv   inro   Kcctcrccp^j;,  many  of  those  buildings  were 

&c. — Those  of  Pausanias  are  still  perfect  in  the   time   of 

not  less  explicit  as  to  the  de-  Pausanias,    there  must   have 

solation  of  Corinth  :    Kopmdov  been    some  persons  Avho  had 

Si  oIkovo-i  Ko^iv^iwv  ovSe);  en  rHiv  the  care  of  them  during    the 

apxaiwi/,  ETToixoi  S\  ccTToaTa.Xv/nq  century  of  desolation. 

vTco  'Vufjicciuv.  —  Nevertheless,  ^  Strabo,  p.  378,  et  seq. — 

the  site,   I  conceive,    cannot  p.  833. — Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  1.  et 

have  been  quite  uninhabited,  seq.— Athen.  1.  2.  c.  5. 

'232  COUINTH.  [chap.   XXVIII. 

would  be  sufficient  perhaps  to  make  Corinth 
the  capita],  should  Greece  be  ever  united  into 
one  national  body.  Independently  of  those  ad- 
vantages, military  and  commercial,  which  it  de- 
rives from  a  proximity  both  to  the  Adriatic  and 
JEgsenn  branches  of  the  Mediterranean,  and 
from  its  occupying  the  communication  between 
Peloponnesus  and  northern  Greece,  Corinth 
possesses  some  of  the  peculiarities  which  re- 
commend Athens  and  Argos,  in  a  greater  de- 
gree than  either.  In  the  abundance  of  v/ater 
for  which  it  was  anciently  so  justly  renowned  % 
it  has  a  superiority  over  those  cities,  very  im- 
portant in  such  a  climate.  The  Acro-Corinthus 
is  a  stronger  and  more  commanding  position 
than  either  the  Acropolis  or  the  Larissa ;  Le- 
chaeum,  though  devoid  of  the  natural  strength 
of  Munychia  or  of  Nauplia,  yet,  as  lying  at  one 
third  of  the  distance  of  those  ports  from  their 
respective  cities,  is  more  convenient  to  com- 
merce and  more  easily  brought  within  a  system 
of  military  protection  :  while  the  ports  of  the 
Corinthia  on  the  Saronic  Gulfj  which,  with  the 
exception  of  Cenchreiae,  were  probably  con- 
sidered by  the  ancients  less  commodious  than 
the  land  locked  harbour  of  Athens,  are  scarcely 

"  Strabq,  p.  379- — Pausan.      Or.  37- — Arx  scatens  fonti-» 
1.  2.  C.  3.     svvS^ov  a,crrv. — Si-       btis.      Liv.  1.  15.  c.  28. 
monidcs  ap.   Dion.  Chiysost. 

CHAP.  XXVIII.]       LECH^UM,    CENCHIIEI^.  233 

inferior  to  the  latter  in  their  aptitude  to  modern 

Pausanias,  before  he  begins  to  describe  the 
city  of  Corinth,  speaks  in  the  following  terms  of 
LechasLim,  of  the  road  which  led  from  the  Isth- 
mic  .Posidonium  to  Cenchreiae,  of  Cenchreias 
itself,  and  of  the  objects  on  the  road  from  Cen- 
chreiae to  Corinth.  "  Leches  and  Cenchrias, 
the  reputed  sons  of  Neptune  by  Peirene,  daugh- 
ter of  Achelous,  gave  name,"  he  says  %  *'  to  the 
two  ports  of  the  Corinthians.  In  Lechasum 
there  is  a  temple  of  Neptune  with  a  brazen  sta- 
tue. In  the  road  from  the  Isthmus  to  Cen- 
chreiae there  occurs  a  temple  of  Diana,  contain- 
ing an  ancient  statue  made  of  wood.  In  Cen- 
chreiae there  is  a  temple  of  Venus  with  a  statue 
of  stone,  and  near  it,  upon  a  rock  in  the  sea, 
a  brazen  Neptune.  On  the  other  projection  of 
the  port  are  temples  of  ^sculapius  and  of  Isis. 
Over  ag^ainst  Cenchreiae  is  the  bath  of  Helene. 
This  is  an  abundant  source  of  salt  water,  slightly 
warm,  flowing  from  a  rock  into  the  sea  ^.  On 
the  road  ascending  [from  Cenchreiae]  to  Co- 
rinth there  are  several  sepulchral  monuments ; 

^   Pausan.  1.  2.  C.  2.  Toii  ^i^xwo;  ' Ao-y-X'/nnov  Kcci    'lcj-»- 

TE  lo-T.  vaoi    xyocXixa.    Xi&oV        Tiv.^w  Jo     'EXii>r,g    £crT»     Xovt^ov. 
ixna.  ^\  ociro,  iirl  rc^  piVfAOCTi   tJ       t-'^*^'?    e?    SaP^aa-crav  ly.   TTSTga?  pcT 

'2S4t  LECH.EUM,    CENCHREI^.       [CHAP.  XXVIII. 

near  the  gate  is  that  of  Diogenes  of  Si  nope, 
whom  the  Greeks  surname  the  Dog.  There  are 
also  near  tlie  city  a  grove  of  cypresses  named 
Craneium  %  the  sacred  portion  ''  of  Belierophon- 
tes,  a  temple  of  Venus  Melanis,  and  the  tomb 
of  Lais,  on  which  is  the  figure  of  a  lioness  hold- 
ing a  ram  between  her  fore  feet." 

The  position  of  Lechseum  is  indicated  by  a 
height  on  the  coast  opposite  to  the  middle  of 
the  modern  town  of  Corinth  :  a  lagoon  adjacent 
to  it  may  perhaps  be  the  remains  of  the  port, 
which  was  probably  for  the  most  part  artificial, 
and  vvas  therefore  more  easily  filled  up  by  the 
effects  of  neglect,  and  by  that  accumulation  of 
soil  which,  in  the  course  of  fifteen  centuries,  has 
changed  the  face  of  many  of  the  level  shores  of 

Cenchreiae  is  not  richer  in  vestiges  of  anti- 
quity than  Lechaeum,  but  it  retains  its  ancient 
name,  in  the  usual  form  of  the  modern  accusa- 
tive case,  with  the  loss  only  of  the  7,  Kexptah. 
One  part  of  the  description  of  the  place  by  Pau- 
sanias  is  curiously  illustrated,  and  his  text  at 
the  same  time  amended,  by  an  existing  colonial 

^  In  a  civil  contest  at  Co-  escaped  into  the  Acro-Corin- 

rinth  [^b.  c.  393^  one  of  the  thus.     Xenoph.  Hell.  1  4.  c. 

parties    took   refuge    in    the  4. 
Craneium,   and  from   thence  ''  TE/xtyoj. 


coin  of  Corinth  of  the  time  of  Antoninus  Pius*. 
On  the  obverse,  the  port  of  Cenchreiae  is  repre- 
sented as  inclosed  between  two  promontories ; 
on  each  of  which  stands  a  temple.  In  the  sea 
at  the  entrance  of  the  port  there  is  a  statue  of 
Neptune,  holding  a  trident  in  one  hand  and  a 
dolphin  in  the  other.  Comparing  this  repre- 
sentation with  the  passage  of  Pausanias,  which 
is  cited  at  length  in  a  preceding  note,  it  ap- 
pears probable  that  the  word  used  by  him  was 
not  pevfiaTc  but  'ep/xan  *'  rock ",  though  some 
further  correction  in  the  words  Bia  rrjs  6a\da-arjs 
seems  still  to  be  required.  Hence  also  it  ap- 
pears, that  the  temple  of  Venus  stood  on  one 
of  the  promontories,  a  fact  which  is  not  very 
clearly  indicated  by  the  words  of  Pausanias. 

The  bath  of  Helene  is  found  at  a  mile  to  the 
southward  of  the  port  of  Kekhries,  near  a  cape 
forming  the  termination  of  the  ridge  which 
borders  the  Isthvius  on  the  south,  and  which,  at 
the  western  end,  is  separated  from  the  Acroco- 
rinthus  by  a  ravine  watered  by  a  small  river. 
The  cape  separates  the  bay  of  Kekhries  from 
that  which  takes  its  name  of  Galataki  from  a 
village  near  the  shore.  The  water  of  the  bath 
of  Helene  rises  at  such  a  height  and  distance 

^  JNIillingen,     Recueil    de      inedites :  Rome,  1812. 
quelques  medailles  Grecques 

^36  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

above  the  sea,  that  it  serves  to  turn  a  mill  in 
its  passage.  The  water  is  tepid  as  Pausanias 
has  remarked. 

The  description  of  Corinth  by  Strabo  is  valu- 
able, as  it  was  one  of  the  places,  (perhaps  one 
of  the  few  places  in  Greece,)  which  he  visited 
in   person.     **  Its    situation  '*,    he   says  *,    "  as 
it  is  described  by  Hieronymus,  Eudoxus,  and 
others,  and  as  we  ourselves  saw  it  soon  after  its 
restoration  by  the  Romans,  is  as   follows.     A 
lofty  mountain,    named    Acro-Corinthus,    rises 
three  stades  in  perpendicular  height,  with  an 
ascent  by  the  road  of  thirty  stades.     It  termi- 
nates in  an  acute  vertex,  and  is  most  steep  on 
the  northern  side,  under  which  a  level  table- 
land is  occupied  by  the  city.      The  city  was 
forty  stades  in   circuit,  and  was  surrounded  by 
a  wall  in  every  part  where  it  is  not  covered  by 
the  mountain.     The  Acro-Corinthus  was  com- 
prehended within  the  same  inclosure,  and  was 
encompassed  by  it  in  every  part  except  where 
the  mountain  was  incapable  of  receiving  a  wall. 
On  the  ascent  we  observed  the  remains  of  the 
ancient  line  of  fortification,  so  that  it  appeared 
that  the  entire  circumference  of  the  city  was 
about  eighty-five  stades.      In   other  parts  the 
mountain   is  less    precipitous,   though    it  rises 
everywhere  to  a  great  height  and  is  conspicu- 

^  Strabo,  p.  370- 


ous  on  all  sides.  There  is  a  small  temple  of 
Venus  on  the  summit,  and  beneath  the  summit 
is  the  fountain  Peirene,  which  does  not  flow, 
but  remains  always  full  of  sweet  and  pellucid 
water.  It  is  said,  that  from  this  fountain  and 
some  subterraneous  veins,  the  sources  are  fed 
which  run  from  the  foot  of  the  mountain 
through  the  city,  and  supply  it  with  a  sufliciency 
of  water.  There  is  also  an  abundance  of  wells  " 
in  the  city,  and,  as  it  is  said,  in  the  Acro-Co- 
rinthus  also,  though  we  did  not  see  any.  Below 
the  Peirene  are  considerable  remains  of  the  Si- 
sypheium,  a  certain  temple  or  palace  built  of 
white  marble." 

Pausanias  begins  his  account  of  Corinth  with 
the  gate  of  Cenchreias,  between  which  and  the 
Agora  he  has  not  noticed  any  object.  His  de- 
scription may  be  divided  into  four  parts :  1 . 
The  Agora.  2.  The  street  leading  to  Lechae- 
um.  3.  The  street  leading  to  Sicyon.  4.  The 
ascent  to  the  Acrocorinthus,  followed  by  a  de- 
scription of  that  fortress ". 

In  the  Agora  stood  a  Diana  Ephesia, — two 
wooden  statues  of  Bacchus  %  one  surnamed  Ly- 
sius,  the  other  Baccheius ;  they  were  covered 
with  gilding,  except  the  faces,  which  were 
painted  red ; — a  temple  of  Fortune  with  an  up- 

*>  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  2, 3, 4,  .'>. 

238  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

right  statue  of  Parian  marble, — a  temple  sacred 
to  all  the  Gods, — near  the  latter  a  fountain  "  is- 
suing from  the  mouth  of  a  dolphin  at  the  feet 
of  a  brazen  Neptune,  and  a  statue  of  Apollo  Cla- 
rius  in  brass, — a  statue  of  Venus  by  Hermo- 
genes  of  Cythera, — two  brazen  upright  statues 
of  Hermes,  one  of  them  in  a  temple,  the 
other  in  the  open  air^ — three  statues  of  Jupiter 
in  the  open  air,  one  called  Chthonius,  another 
Hypsistus,  the  other  without  any  surname.  In 
the  middle  of  the  Agora  there  was  a  Minerva 
of  brass,  on  the  basis  of  which  were  figures  of 
the  Muses  in  relief.  Above  the  Agora  *"  stood 
a  temple  sacred  to  Octavia,  sister  of  Augustus. 
On  the  side  of  the  Agora  leading  to  Lechaeum 
were  Propylaaa,  upon  which  stood  two  gilded 
chariots,  one  bearing  Phaethon  and  the  other  the 
Sun.  A  little  beyond  the  Propyliea,  to  the 
right  of  the  road,  stood  a  brazen  Hercules,  near 
which  was  the  entrance  to  the  fountain  Peirene'*. 
The  sources  were  adorned  with  white  marble, 
and  the  water,  which  was  excellent  for  drinking% 
flowed  from  some  apartments  resembling  ca- 
verns into  an  open  receptacle  ^  Here  also 
there  was  a  statue  of  Apollo  in  an  inclosure, 
which  contained  a  picture  of  Ulysses  punishing 
the  suitors  of  Penelope.    In  continuing  to  follow 


the  street  leading  to  Lechaeum,  there  occurred  tj^a-  ^>^ 
a  seated   Hermes  in  brass,  with  a  ram  standing  ^    ''  - 
beside  him,  to  indicate  that  Hermes  is  the  deity  ,^,^  ^  ^ 
who  chiefly  presides  over  flocks  ;  not  far   from  /^p»^-^ 
it  were  a  Neptune,  a  Leucothea,  and  a  Palae-  ^  ^*^-' 
mon  upon  a  dolphin.     Near  the  statue  of  Nep- 
tune ^   were  baths  constructed  by  the  Spartan 
Eurycles,    and    adorned  by    him    with    various 
marbles,  particularly  with  that  of  Crocese  in  La- 
conia ''.     This  was  the  most  sumptuous  batli  in 
Corinth,   although  baths  were  numerous  in  the 
city  in  consequence  of  the  abundance  of  foun- 
tains ",   derived  either  from  native  sources  or 
from  the  aqueduct  of  Stymphalus  constructed 
by  Hadrian,  who  had  built  also  one  of  the  baths 
in  Corinth.     On  the  left  hand  of  the  entrance 
into  the  bath  of   Eurycles   stood   a   statue   of 
Neptune,  and  near  it  a  Diana   represented  as 
engaged  in  the  chace ''.     Beyond  the  latter  was 
the  most  remarkable   of  all  the    fountains^    of 
Corinth ;  it  was   surmounted  with    a    (brazen) 
statue  of  Bellerophontes    mounted    on    Pega- 
sus; the  water  flowed  through  the  hoof  of  the 

*  Try-.Tia-Uv  tov  rioa-siSuiio-.  are  Common.  Respecting Cro- 

**  Eurycles  governed  Laco-  ceae  and  Eurycles,  see  Pausan. 

nia  under  Augustus  QStrabo,  Lacon.   c.  21,  and  Chapters 

■pp.  363.366]:    coins  of  the  VI.  VII.  of  this  work. 

Lacedaemonians  in  brass,  with  "^  x.-ijea*.               <*  6r>fivova-u. 

the  legend  F.niEYPYKAEOYS,  «  x^Wi. 

240  CORINTH.  [chap.   XXVIII. 

On  the  right  of  the  street  leading  from  the 
Agora  to  Sicyon  stood  the  temple  of  Apollo, 
containing  a  brazen  statue  of  the  god  j  a  little 
farther  was  the  fountain  *  of  Glauce.  Above  ^ 
this  was  the  Odeium ",  and  near  it  the  monu- 
ment of  Mermerus  and  Pheres,  sons  of  Medeia, 
upon  which  stood  a  statue  of  Terror'*  repre- 
sented as  a  woman.  Not  far  from  this  monu- 
ment was  the  temple  of  Minerva  Chalinitis,  so 
called  because  Minerva,  among  other  benefits 
conferred  upon  Bellerophontes,  gave  him  the 
horse  Pegasus,  broke  in  the  horse  herself,  and 
put  the  bridle  upon  him  ^.  The  statue  in  this 
temple  was  made  of  wood,  with  the  face,  hands, 
and  feet  of  white  marble.  The  theatre  was  not 
far  from  the  temple  of  Minerva,  and  contained 
a  naked  Hercules  of  wood,  said  to  have  been 
made  by  Deedalus  ^  Above  ^  the  theatre  was 
the  temple  of  Jupiter,  surnamed  Capetolius,  a 
word  equivalent  to  Coryphaeus  in  Greek  j  and 

*  x^titri-  ''  ^TEf.  by  T.  C.    Atticus    Herodes. 

*=  This  appears  to  be   the  He  adds,  that  it  was  very  in- 

roqfed  theatre,  [[QEar^ov  v-^ru-  ferior  to  that  which  the  same 

^6<Piov,']  mentioned  by  Philo-  Herodes  built  at  Athens, 
stratus  as  having  been  built  "*  Aufj^a,. 

— p^§D(7a^7ruy.«  y.ov' 
pa  X^'^"'°''  ^aX^a,•  y^vEyxs.      Pindar.  01.  13.  V.  92. 
f  Pausanias  adds,  that  there      though  they  were  rude  («to- 
was  something  divine,  f'vSso*  Tt,      xun^a.  U  tr.y  b\J/i»). 
in  the  works  of  Daedalus,  al-  s  lieh^. 

CHAP.  XXMH.3  CORINTH.  ^4-1 

not  far  from  the  theatre  the  ancient  Gymna- 
sium % — then  the  source  of  water  called  Lerna, 
which  was  surrounded  with  columns  and  seats, 
furnishing  a  cool  retreat  in  the  heat  of  summer; 
and  temples  of  Jupiter  and  of  -^sculapius,  the 
former  containing  a  brazen  statue  of  Jupiter,  the 
latter  an  >^sculapius  and  a  Hygieia  of  white 
marble.  In  the  ascent  to  the  Acrocorinthus 
there  were  two  sacred  portions  ^  of  Isis — one  of 
Isis  Pelagia,  the  other  of  Isis  ^gyptia  j  and  two 
others  of  Sarapis,  in  one  of  which  he  was  sur- 
named  "in  Canobus"".  Beyond  these  were 
some  altars  of  the  Sun,  and  a  sanctuary  of  Ne- 
cessity and  Force  '',  into  which  it  was  unlawful 
to  enter.  Above  this  stood  a  temple  of  the 
Mother  of  the  Gods,  containing  a  pillar  and  a 
throne  ^  both  made  of  stone.  In  a  temple 
sacred  to  the  Fates,  to  Ceres,  and  to  Proserpine, 
there  were  not  any  statues  visible  ^  Here  was 
the  temple  of  Juno  Bunaea,  so  called  from  its 
reputed  founder,  Bunus,  son  of  Mercury.  On 
the  summit  of  the  Acro-Corinthus  there  was  a 
temple  of  Venus,  containing  statues  of  the  god- 

*  The  words  are,  ro?  ^^i-  b  ^,^i,„.  c  |,  k«v<^^^.. 

TO  apvai'o.      One  can  hardly  ®   Mrirfo;  QsZn  voc.6^  Ian,  y.a.) 

doubt  that   Pausanias  wrote  '^I'lcXn  y-ccl  Qgovo?. 

ov  ^of'fui,  and  that  the  Gym-  ^  "''  '?*"•("*  ^'%°'-'^'  "^^  «7^^- 

nasium  was  not  far  from  the  Z^*'''*' 


VOL.  III.  ^  R 

^42  PEIRENE.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

dess  in  armour,  of  the  Sun,  and  of  Love  bearing 
a  bow.  Behind  the  temple  there  was  a  source 
of  water,  said  to  have  been  the  same  as  that  of 
Peirene  in  the  city,  to  which  it  was  supposed  to 
descend  underground. 

Upon  comparing  the  two  descriptions  of  an- 
cient Corinth,  by  Strabo  and  Pausanias,  it  is  re- 
markable, that  although  both  agree  in  regard 
to  the  reported  communication  between  the 
well  of  the  Acro-Corinthus  and  the  fountain 
Peirene  of  the  lower  city,  they  differ  as  to  the 
position  of  that  lower  fountain.  Pausanias  de- 
scribes it  on  tlie  road  from  the  Agora  to  Le- 
chgeum,  Strabo  as  issuing  from  the  foot  of  the 
Acro-Corinthus  ;  and  thus  it  appears  that  there 
were  three  sources  at  Corinth,  all  which,  at 
some  period  of  time  at  least,  were  known  by 
the  name  of  Peirene.  All  the  three  are  still  ob- 
servable ;  namely,  the  well  in  the  Acro-Corin- 
thus, the  rivulets  which  issue  at  the  foot  of  that 
hill,  as  described  by  Strabo,  and  the  single 
source  below  the  brow  of  the  height  on  which 
the  town  is  situated,  in  the  position  alluded  to 
by  Pausanias. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  imagine,  that  between 
the  times  of  Strabo  and  Pausanias  a  change 
may  have  taken  place  in  the  application  of  the 
name  Peirene  in  the  lower  city,  in  consequence 
of  the  water  of  the   northern  fountain  having 


been  found  by  experience  better  than  that  of 
the  sources  at  the  foot  of  the  Acro-Corinthus. 
The  practice  of  the  modern  Corinthians  gives 
countenance  to  this  supposition  ;  for  they  use 
the  former  fountain  alone  for  drinking,  while  the 
water  which  issues  from  below  the  Acro-Corin- 
thus, instead  of  being  thought  the  lightest  in 
Greece,  as  Athena2us  describes  that  of  Peirene  % 
is  considered  heavy"";  the  water  is  little  used  for 
drinking,  and  the  springs  are  the  constant  resort 
of  women  washing  clothes.  As  the  remark  of 
Athenaeus  is  nearly  of  the  same  date  as  the  de- 
scription of  Pausanias,  it  is  fair  to  apply  them 
both  to  the  same  source  of  water.  It  appears 
that  the  new  Corinthians,  after  the  visit  of 
Strabo,  which  was  about  fifty  years  posterior  to 
their  re-establishment,  adopted  Roman  refine- 
ment on  the  subject  of  water  so  thoroughly, 
that,  not  contented  with  Peirene,  or  with  Lerna, 
which  sometimes  was  preferred  to  Peirene  \  or 
with  any  of  their  wells  or  other  sources,  they  at 
length  prevailed  upon  the  Emperor  Hadrian  to 
construct  an  aqueduct  twenty  miles  in  length, 
in  order  to  bring  water  for  them  from  Stym- 

^   EraSju^o-ag    to     u'tto    t»j?    Iv  c    ,  ,  ,  ,  Xoyoi;  ly'iicro  ■ttoiov  vSoi- 

Ko^iv&cii  Yln^vivrig  xaAot-'jixsv*);    idujp  ^^v     >)J«7tov    Iffjiv,    Kccl    Tuiv     uXv 

xovCpuTi^ov  nroLVTUv  iij^ov  tuv  hocto.  iyy.opLKX.^6v:u:v  to   aVo  t^j  Aeoi/iji;, 

T»)i'  'EAXa^a.    Athen.  1.  2.  C.  .5.  o.'K'Kuv    S(    to    utto   t??    FlEi^Jji-n?, 

i'  Cxpv.  &c.     Athen.  1.  4.  c.  14. 

244  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

Pausanias  divides  the  objects  of  curiosity  at 
Corinth  into  such  as  belonged  to  the  ancient 
Greek  city,  and  those  which  were  constructed 
by  the  Roman  colony  ^.  He  does  not  distin- 
guisli  them  all,  but  we  may  include  among  the 
latter  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Capetolius,  the  tem- 
ple of  Octavia,  the  Odeium,  the  sanctuaries  of 
Isis  and  Sarapis,  the  baths  of  Eurycles,  and  the 
aqueduct  of  Hadrian. 

There  still  exist  the  ruins  of  two  buildings  of 
Roman  Corinth,  and  the  remains  also  of  two  of 
the  principal  temples  of  the  ancient  city. 

The  Roman  remains  are  : — 1st.  A  large  mass 
of  brick  work  on  the  northern  side  of  the  bazar 
of  modern  Corinth,  perhaps  a  part  of  one  of 
the  baths  built  by  Hadrian  ;  Wheler  seems  to 
have  found  it  in  I676  nearly  in  its  present  state: 
2dly.  An  amphitheatre,  which  that  traveller 
did  not  see :  it  is  excavated  in  the  rock  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  modern  town,  not  far  from 
the  left  bank  of  the  torrent  which  I  have  already 
mentioned  as  separating  the  Acro-Corinthus 
from  the  heights  to  the  eastward.  As  this  am- 
phitheatre is  not  noticed  by  Pausanias,  it  is  pos- 
sibly a  work  posterior  to  his  time.  The  area 
below  is  290  feet  by  190:  the  thickness  of  the 

Tu  [All  ?\,fiTOju,£n»  £T»  run  u^^ixiuv      sail.  Corinth,  c.  2. 

IcttIv'  TCI  ^i  ito>Xci,   avTwv  ett*  t?c 


remaining  part  of  the  cavea  is  100  feet.  Above 
this  there  was  probably  a  superstructure  of  ma- 
sonry supported  upon  arcades,  but  no  remains 
of  it  are  now  to  be  seen.  At  one  end  of  the 
amphitheatre  are  the  remains  of  a  subterraneous 
entrance  for  the  wild  beasts,  or  gladiators,  who 
were  to  gratify  the  Roman  taste  of  the  colony 
of  Corinth. 

The  ruins  belonfrino-  to  ancient  Corinth  are: — 
1st.  On  the  western  outskirts  of  the  modern  town, 
remains  of  the  peristyle  of  a  Doric  temple  ;  it 
forms  part  of  the  inclosure  of  a  house.  There 
are  now  standing  five  fluted  columns  belonging 
to  one  of  the  fronts,  and  three  (counting  the 
angular  column  twice)  belonging  to  one  of  the 
sides  of  the  peristyle,  making  seven  columns  in 
all.  Of  these,  the  three  columns  of  the  side, 
and  the  two  adjoining  columns  of  the  front,  are 
complete,  with  their  architraves  in  four  pieces. 
Of  the  two  remaining  columns  of  the  front,  the 
capital  of  one  is  gone,  and  the  architraves  of 
both.  The  columns  are  five  feet  ten  inches  in 
diameter  at  the  base ;  the  shafts  are  formed  of 
a  single  piece  of  limestone,  covered  with  a  coat- 
ing of  fine  stucco,  according  to  a  common  prac- 
tice of  the  Greeks  when  the  material  was  not  of 
the  hardest  kind.  When  Wheler  visited  Corinth 
in   1676,  there  were  twelve  columns  standing, 

'24)6  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

eleven  of  which  preserved  tiieir  architraves, 
and  were  "  so  placed",  he  remarks,  "  as  to  shew 
that  they  formed  a  portico  about  the  cella  of  a 
temple  *' ;  the  twelfth  column  was  of  the  same 
diameter  as  the  others,  but  stood  upon  a  higher 
level, — it  was  so  situated,  he  adds,  towards  the 
western  end  within,  as  to  prove  that  it  had  sup- 
ported the  roof  of  the  pronaos.  When  Stuart  de- 
signed this  ruin,  ninety  years  afterwards,  it  was 
in  the  same  state  ;  there  were  still  four  columns 
of  the  front  remaining,  and  six  of  one  of  the 
sides,  together  with  the  column  at  the  angle  of 
the  peristyle,  and  the  column  on  a  higher  level, 
which  Wheler  supposed  to  have  belonged  to  the 
pronaos,  but  which,  being  at  the  western  end, 
belonged  more  probably  to  the  posticum,  as 
Greek  temples  generally  faced  the  east.  Some 
drawings  of  the  same  ruin,  made  about  the  year 
1785,  by  Mayer,  an  artist  employed  by  the 
British  ambassador.  Sir  R.  Ainslie,  which  have 
since  been  published,  shew  that  between  the 
visit  of  Stuart  and  that  time  the  column  of  the 
posticum  had  fallen  or  had  been  removed.  Not 
long  afterwards  four  columns  of  the  side,  toge- 
ther with  their  three  architraves,  were  thrown 
down,  so  that  Mr.  Hawkins,  who  visited  the  ruin  in 
1795,  found  it  in  its  present  state.  The  columns 
were  demolished  by  the  Turk  whose  house  stands 


upon  the  site,  because  they  stood  in  the  way  of 
some  new  buildings  which  he  was  projecting. 

The  remains  of  this  temple  are  not  sufficient 
to  enable  us  to  ascertain  its  original  length, 
the  number  of  columns  in  the  sides  of  Doric 
temples  not  having  always  the  same  proportion 
to  the  number  in  the  front ;  but  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  it  had  six  columns  in  front,  and  that 
it  was  about  sixty-five  feet  in  breadth,  or  nearly 
the  same  as  that  of  the  temple  of  Nemea :  it 
was  therefore  of  the  middle  class  of  hexastyles 
as  to  magnitude,  the  larger,  such  as  those  of 
Paestum,  Egesta,  Syracuse,  and  Sehnus,  being 
about  eighty  feet ;  the  smaller  class,  to  which 
belong  the  temples  of  Theseus,  Jupiter  Panhel- 
lenius,  and  Apollo  Epicurius,  being  about  forty- 
five  feet  in  breadth. 

2.  At  a  short  distance  to  the  northward  of  this 
ruin,  on  the  brow  of  the  cliffs  overlooking  the 
plain  and  bay  of  Lechaeum,  there  is  an  artificial 
level,  on  which  I  remarked  the  foundations  of 
a  large  building,  and  some  fragments  of  Doric 
columns,  sufficient,  I  think,  to  prove  that  in. 
this  spot  anciently  stood  another  of  the  prin- 
cipal edifices  of  Grecian  Corinth.  It  was  appa- 
rently a  temple  of  the  usual  plan,  and  of  larger 
dimensions  than  that  to  which  the  extant  co- 
lumns belonged,  for  some  fragments  of  shafts, 
probably  not  from  the  lowest  part  of  the  shaft, 

248  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

are  six  feet  three  inches  in  diameter,  and  the 
chord  of  the  fluting  is  twelve  inches.  It  seems 
therefore  to  have  been  a  hexastyle  about  se- 
venty-five feet  in  breadth.  The  position  of 
these  two  temples  renders  it  probable  that  they 
were  both  in  or  near  the  street  leading  from  the 
agora  to  the  Gate  of  Sicyon.  The  last-mentioned, 
having  stood  on  the  brow  of  a  line  of  cliffs,  which 
bounded  the  city  on  the  north,  must  have  been 
to  the  right  of  the  street.  Its  dimensions  and  its 
situation,  which  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and 
commanding  in  Greece,  shew  that  it  was  one  of 
the  chief^  or  rather  the  principal  temple  of  the 
lower  city,  most  probably  that  of  Apollo,  which 
Pausanias  describes  as  being  on  the  right  hand 
proceeding  towards  the  gate  of  Sicyon ;  for  as  to 
the  temple  of  Jupiter,  the  epithet  of  Capetolius 
evinces  that  it  was  a  work  of  the  Roman  colony, 
of  which  period  the  remains  of  the  building  al- 
luded to  have  no  semblance.  According  to  the 
Corinthian  mythology,  Neptune  and  the  Sun 
having  contended  for  the  possession  of  the  Co- 
rinthia,  Briareus  adjudged  tlie  Isthmus  to  Nep- 
tune, and  the  Acro-Corinthus  to  the  Sun,  who 
ceded  it  to  Venus.  The  temple  of  Neptune 
was  the  chief  building  at  the  Isthmus,  that  of 
Venus  occupied  the  summit  of  the  Acro-Corin- 
thus :  the  temple  of  Apollo,  therefore,  was  pro- 
bably  the  chief  sacred  building  in  the  lower 


town  of  Corinth.     Of  this,  indeed,  we  derive  a 
strong  presumption  from  Herodotus  *. 

The  temple  of  Jupiter  Capetolius  occupied, 
perhaps,  a  position  on  the  edge  of  the  cliffs  to 
the  westward  of  the  temple  of  Apollo. 

The  seven  columns  which  are  still  standing 
probably  belonged  to  the  temple  of  Minerva 
Chalinitis.  The  great  antiquity  of  the  statue 
of  the  goddess,  as  described  by  Pausanias,  and 
her  epithet  and  worship,  connected  with  the 
favourite  fable  of  Bellerophontes  and  Pegasus, 
one  of  the  earliest  and  most  celebrated  events 
of  the  Corinthian  mythology,  are  in  perfect 
conformity  with  the  appearance  of  remote  anti- 
quity displayed  in  the  existing  columns.  We  not 
only  find  in  them  tlie  narrow  intercolumniation, 
tapering  shafts,  projecting  capitals,  and  lofty 
architraves,  which  are  the  attributes  of  the  early 
Doric,  and  which  were  perpetuated  in  the  ar- 
chitecture of  the  western  colonies  of  Greece, 
but  we  find  also  that  the  chief  characteristic  of 
those  buildings  is  still  stronger  in  the  Corin- 
thian temple  than  in  any  of  them,  its  shaft 
being  shorter  in  proportion  to  the  diameter  than 
in  any  known  example  of  the  Doric  order,  and, 
unlike  that  of  any  other  Doric  column  of  large 

^  Herodot.  1.  3.  c.  52.  converse  with  his  son  Lyco- 

Periandcr  issued  an  edict,      phron,  should  pay  a  fine  to 
that  wlioever  should  hold  any      Apollo. 

250  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVHI. 

dimensions,  being  composed  of  a  single  block 
of  stone.  Although  no  certainty  can  be  ob- 
tained as  to  the  date  of  this  temple,  I  am  in- 
clined to  think,  when  we  consider  the  origin 
and  history  of  the  Doric  order,  and  on  com- 
paring the  peristyle  of  Corinth  with  the  other 
most  ancient  temples,  both  of  Greece  Proper 
and  of  its  western  colonies,  that  the  latest  date 
to  which  it  can  be  attributed  is  the  middle  of 
the  seventh  century  before  the  Christian  aera ; 
but  that  it  may  be  considerably  more  ancient^. 
There  were  ruins  of  another  very  ancient 
building  in  the  lower  town  of  Corinth,  in  the 
time  of  Strabo,  which  seem  to  have  disappeared 
before  Pausanias  travelled  in  Greece,  as  he 
makes  no  mention  of  it.  Strabo  describes  the 
Sisypheium  as  situated  below  Peirene " ;  he 
seems  to  have  been  doubtful  with  regard  to  its 
original  use,  but  the  manner  in  which  he  men- 
tions its  ruins  shews  its  former  magnitude  ;  and 
its  strength  may  be  inferred  from  a  circum- 
stance mentioned  by  Diodorus.  When  Deme- 
trius, son  of  Antigoims,  was  secretly  admitted 
into  the  town  by  a  party  of  the  citizens,  the 
garrison  of  Cassander  took  refuge  partly  in  the 

^  See  the  additional  note  Xvjy.o>,l^ov  -jnitoi-n^Uov    Stccaui^o^ 

to  this  Chapter.  l^elTtot  ovy.  hxlyu..     Strabo,  p. 

^  Itto  ^\  TV;  Ylu^rf/y,  TO   "Liav-  oy"- 
(pnov  i(7riv,  Upov  T»vcij  n  <oua'iXnov 


Sisypheium,  and  a  part  in  the  Acro-Corinthus. 
Demetrius,  with  great  difficulty,  and  by  the  as- 
sistance of  engines,  obtained  possession  of  the 
Sisypheium  %  after  which  the  garrison  of  the 
Acro-Corinthus  surrendered.  It  might  be  doubt- 
ed whether  Strabo,  in  describing  the  position  of 
the  Sisypheium,  with  regard  to  Peirene,  meant 
the  fountain  in  the  citadel,  or  that  which  issues 
from  the  foot  of  the  Acro-Corinthus,  but  there 
seems  little  doubt  from  Diodorus,  that  the  Sisy- 
])heium  was  in  the  lower  city. 

The  table  land  at  the  foot  of  the  Acro-Corin- 
thus, which  was  occupied  by  the  city  of  Co- 
rinth ",  overlooks  a  lower  level,  extending  along 
the  sea-shore  on  one  side  to  the  Isthmus,  and 
on  the  other  to  Sicyon.  This  lower  level  was 
traversed  by  two  parallel  walls,  which  con- 
nected Corinth  with  Lechasum  ".  Their  lengtli 
was  twelve  stades '' ;  the  distance  between  them 
was  not  great,  for  Strabo  describes  the  walls  as 
built  "  on  either  side  of  the  road  to  Lechaeum.  "^ 
On  the  other  hand,  it  appears    from  a  military 

6x,v^uiMcca-i  Kccl  -zoxx^  y.a.x.oTra%-  "  Xeiioph.  Hellen.  1.  4.  c. 

0-aj  eTXe  to  ^lav^iov  kcctcc  x^cctoi;.        4. — Id.  in  Agesil. 

Diodor.  Sic.  1.  20.  c  103.  ^  Strabo,  p.  380. 

^  xura-i  -h  ?roXt5  IttI  r^ct'm^u-  ^  Exars^wasv  Tn<;  oaou  ri],  irct^ct, 

doi/;   ETriTrE^ou    yug^'iov    wgo;;    ocvtr)       -j-^  Asvaiov. 

T*i  p'^ij  ToD '  AxgoKogiirOot/.  Strabo, 


operation  which  took  place  in  the  second  year 
of  the  Corinthiac  war  %  that  they  included  a 
space  considerably  broader  than  that  of  an  or- 
dinary road.  Praxitas  the  Lacedaemonian,  who 
was  stationed  at  Sicyon,  was  introduced  into  the 
Longomural  inclosure  by  some  Corinthians  dis- 
affected towards  the  Argives  and  their  alHes, 
who  were  then  in  possession  of  Corinth.  Find- 
ing the  space  between  the  walls  too  wide  to  be 
effectually  occupied  by  his  troops,  which  con- 
sisted of  a  Lacedaemonian  mora  ^,  together  with 
the  Sicyonii  and  150  Corinthian  refugees, 
Praxitas  added  the  protection  of  a  rampart  and 
ditch,  stretching  from  the  one  wall  to  the  other. 
Li  this  hazardous  position,  with  the  enemy  both 
in  his  front  at  Corinth,  and  in  his  rear  at  Le- 
chaeum,  Praxitas  was  attacked,  after  the  interval 
of  a  day,  by  the  combined  forces  from  the  city, 
the  greater  part  of  whom  were  Argives.  The 
Lacedaemonians,  as  usual,  were  on  the  right 
of  their  line,  the  Sicyonii  in   the   centre,  the 

^  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  4.  c.  4.  and  as  even  their  full  strength 
This  war  began  b.c.  395,  seems  to  have  been  different 
and  lasted  eight  years,  end-  at  different  times,  the  conjec- 
ing  at  the  peace  of  Antalci-  ture  is  very  uncertain.  On 
das.  the  construction  of  the  Lace- 
''  Perhaps  about  400 :  but  dacmonian  army,  see  Barthe- 
as  the  morse  were  seldom  lemy.  Voyage  du  Jeune  Ana- 
complete  on   foreign  service,  charsis,  note  to  c.  50. 


Corinthian  refugees  near  the  eastern  wall.  The 
Sicyonii  were  defeated  by  the  Argives  in  the 
centre,  and  pursued  towards  the  sea,  while  the 
Corinthian  refugees,  on  the  left,  defeated  an 
adverse  body  of  mercenaries  under  Iphicrates, 
and  advanced  to  the  part  of  the  city  wall  which 
separated  the  town  from  the  Longomural  in- 
closure.  When  the  Argives  found  that  the 
Lacedaemonians  had  maintained  their  position 
against  the  Corinthians  opposed  to  them,  they 
endeavoured  to  regain  the  city,  but  were  inter- 
cepted by  the  Corinthian  refugees.  By  this 
check  they  came  into  contact  with  the  Lacedae- 
monians in  such  a  manner  as  gave  the  latter 
the  greatest  advantage  against  the  right  or  un- 
covered side  of  the  Argives,  who,  thus  exposed  *, 
were  inevitably  driven  against  the  eastern  wall. 
Many  were  slain  in  endeavouring  to  mount  the 
steps  leading  up  to  the  battlements,  others  were 
trodden  down  in  the  confusion  by  their  own 
comrades.  The  dead  bodies,  says  Xenophon, 
were  piled  up  like  heaps  of  corn,  or  wood,  or 

The  walls  of  Corinth  were  celebrated  for 
their  height  and  strength  '',  and  they  inclosed  a 
larger  space  than  those  of  any  city  in  Greece, 
except  Athens.  If  we  reckon  the  periphery  of 
*  7rato/*evo»  ej  t«  yu|M,i/a.  ^  Plutarch.  in  Apophth.  Lacon. 


the  Long  Walls,  including  Lechaeum,  at  thirty 
stades,  and  add  to  it  the  eighty-five  stades  as- 
signed by  Strabo  to  the  circumference  of  the 
city,  including  the  Acro-Corinthus,  the  entire 
circuit  of  the  fortifications  will  be  115  stades. 
This  was  about  sixty  stades  less  than  the  cir- 
cumference of  the  walls  of  Athens,  including  its 
ports  ;  but  when  it  is  considered  that  sixty  or  se- 
venty stades  of  the  Athenian  walls  inclosed  only 
akind  of  broad  street,  it  will  not  appear  that  the 
whole  of  the  inclosed  space  was  much  smaller 
at  Corinth  than  at  Athens,  though  probably 
there  was  a  larger  portion  of  uninhabited  ground 
within  the  walls  of  Corinth.  We  read  in  Plu- 
tarch, that  when  Aratus  *  surprised  the  Acro- 
Corinthus,  a  part  of  his  troops,  after  entering 
the  town,  reached  the  citadel  without  being 
seen,  and  that  another  part  hid  themselves 
under  the  rocks,  while  the  patrole  passed  by. 

The  narrative  of  Xenophon  in  the  place 
which  has  just  been  referred  to,  shews  the  great 
importance  of  the  Corinthian  Long  Walls  in  time 
of  war.  They  completed  a  line  of  fortification 
from  the  summit  of  the  Acro-Corinthus  to  the 
sea,  and  thus  intercepted  the  most  direct  and 
easy  communication  from  the  Isthmus  into  the 

*  Plutarch,  in  Arat. 


Peloponnesus,  for  the  rugged  mountain  which 
borders  the  southern  side  of  the  Isthmian  plain, 
has  only  two  passes,  one  by  the  opening  on  the 
eastern  side  of  the  Acro-Corinthus,  which  ob- 
liged an  enemy  to  pass  under  the  eastern  side 
of  Corinth,  and  was  moreover  defended  by  a 
particular  fortification,  as  some  remains  of  walls 
still  testify,  the  other  along  the  shore  at  Cen- 
chreiae,  which  was  also  a  fortified  place  in  the 
hands  of  the  Corinthians.  And  hence  the  im- 
portance of  the  pass  of  Cenchreias,  in  all  opera- 
tions between  the  Peloponnesians  and  an  enemy 
without  the  Isthmus,  as  is  clearly  shewn  on  more 
than  one  occasion  in  the  Hellenics  of  Xenophon. 
Not  long  after  the  battle  of  Leuctra,  when  the 
victorious  Boeotians  invaded  Laconia,  and  when 
the  Athenians,  having  been  persuaded  to  join 
the  alliance  against  Thebes,  sent  Iphicrates  with 
an  army  to  Corinth  to  intercept  the  Boeotians 
on  their  return  through  the  Isthmus,  Xenophon 
censures  the  Athenian  commander  for  posting 
on  the  Oneium  (the  passes  of  Mount  Geraneia) 
a  body  of  men  insufficient  to  withstand  the 
Boeotians,  while  he  left  the  most  important  pass 
of  all,  that  of  Cenchreiae,  unguarded '.  Three 
years  afterwards,  b.  c.  366.,  when  Epaminondas 

*   •jraiQiMviv     a^iiXaxrov     t*!v       o^o>.   Xenoph.  Hell.  1.  6.  C.  5. 

256  '         FORTIFICATIONS.  [CHAP.  XXVIII. 

took  the  field  in  order  to  force  the  Achaians  and 
Arcadians  to  a  more  attentive  observance  of 
their  alUance  with  Thebes,  he  directed  the  Ar- 
give  commander,  Peisias,  to  advance  from  Ar- 
gos,  and  seize  the  passes  of  Oneium,  in  order  to 
secure  the  safe  passage  of  the  Boeotians  to  the 
Isthmus.  Peisias  first  surprised  the  height  above 
Cenchreiae  in  the  night,  and  occupied  it  with 
2000  hoplitae,  having  provisions  for  seven  days, 
the  Thebans  meantime  advancing  from  the 
northward  upon  the  passes  of  Geraneia.  The 
Lacedasmonian  and  Athenian  commanders  upon 
that  mountain,  thus  threatened  in  the  rear,  made 
no  further  resistance,  and  their  enemy  advanced 
without  difficulty  into  Achaia% 

The  successful  attempt  of  Praxitas  upon  the 
Long  Walls  was  immediately  followed  by  the  de- 
molition of  a  part  of  them,  by  an  incursion  of  the 
Lacedaemonians  into  the  northern  part  of  the  Co- 
rinthia,  and  by  the  capture  of  Sidus  and  Crom- 
myon.  The  Athenians  felt  their  own  territory  so 
insecure,  while  the  enemy  was  master  of  the  Le- 
chaean  walls,  that  they  took  an  early  opportu- 
nity, after  the  departure  of  Praxitas,  to  march  to 
Corinth  with  their  whole  disposable  force,  at- 
tended by  masons  and  carpenters,  and  built  up 
first  the   wall  towards   Sicyon,   as  their  allied 

3  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  7-  c.  1. 


enemies  were  still  in  considerable  force  in  that 
place,  and  then,  with  more  leisure,  the  eastern 
wall.  These  works,  however,  were  soon  de- 
molished, and  the  gates  of  Peloponnesus  once 
more  thrown  open  by  Agesilaus  %  who,  after 
having  ravaged  the  Argolis  in  his  way  from 
Sparta,  reached  Corinth  by  the  way  of  Tenea. 
His  brother  Teleutias  at  the  same  time  attacked 
Lechaeum  by  sea,  and  destroyed  its  docks. 

The  description  of  Corinth  by  Wheler  and 
Spon  shews  that  very  little  change  has  occurred 
here  in  the  last  130  years ;  and  as  Nuri  Bey 
defies  the  firmahn  of  the  Porte,  by  which  I 
obtained  admittance  into  the  Palamidhi  and 
the  other  fortresses,  asserting  that  his  requires 
a  particular  and  separate  firmahn,  I  must  be 
satisfied  with  verifying  the  accounts  of  Wheler 
and  Spon,  as  well  as  an  exterior  view  will  per- 
mit. They  were  an  hour  in  riding  on  horse- 
back, by  a  narrow  rugged  path,  to  the  first  gate. 
Here  they  were  obliged  to  alight,  and  to  enter 
on  foot.  The  first  inclosure  was  well  covered  with 
houses,  of  which  a  part  was  in  ruins,  but  many 
still  inhabited ;  for  those  in  the  town  consisted  at 
that  time  chiefly  of  occasional  residences  for  plea- 
sure or  business :  the  families  of  both  Turks  and 
Christians  keeping  the  best  part  of  their  move- 

*   araTTETao-a;    7?5?     TI-Xottov-        AgeSll. 
vtiaov  ruq  7ru^a?.      Xenoph.  in 

VOL.   111.  S 


iable  property  in  the  Castle,  to  which  they  were 
in  the  habit  of  retiring  for  security,  whenever 
the  corsairs,  to  whose  robberies  the  coasts  of 
Greece  were  then  much  exposed,  excited  any 
alarm  below.  The  fortress  contained  a  great 
number  of  cisterns,  hewn  in  the  rock,  for  col- 
lecting rain  water,  and  two  natural  sources,  the 
higher  of  which,  towards  the  southern  side  of 
the  hill,  was  very  plentiful :  it  is  the  ancient 
Peirene.  There  were  three  or  four  mosks  in 
the  Castle,  and  five  or  six  small  churches,  but 
most  of  the  latter  were  ruined.  The  cathedral 
of  the  metropolitan  bishop,  dedicated  to  St. 
Nicolas,  was  *'  a  very  mean  place  for  such  an 
ecclesiastical  dignity;"  but  it  contained  two  old 
manuscripts  of  the  Scripture,  divided  according 
to  the  usual  readings  of  the  Greek  Church,  and 
two  liturgies  of  St.  Basil,  written  upon  long  scrolls 
of  parchment,  rolled  upon  cylinders  of  wood. 
From  the  first,  or  outer  castle,  the  two  travellers 
entered  the  inner  through  a  gate  strongly  built, 
with  towers  on  each  side  of  it.  The  inclosure 
into  which  it  conducted  comprehended  all  the 
remainder  of  the  summit  of  the  Acro-Corinthus ; 
Wheler  reckoned  it  at  two  miles  in  circum- 
ference. The  wall  which  surrounded  it  was 
strengthened,  on  two  of  the  highest  points,  by 
towers,  or  bastions.  On  the  eastern  pinnacle 
of  the  mountain  stood  a  small  mosk,  from  whence 


they  enjoyed  the  same  magnificent  prospect 
which  Strabo  has  described.  It  may  be  seen 
ahnost  as  well  by  mounting  a  broad  slope,  be- 
tween two  crests  of  rock  which  project  above 
the  surface  of  the  northern  side  of  the  Acro- 
Corinthus.  This  slope  leads  up,  like  a  great  na- 
tural road,  to  the  very  wall  of  that,  which  Wheler 
has  described  as  the  second  inclosure  of  the 
fortress,  and  which,  though  inner  in  one  sense, 
is  exterior  in  another,  since  it  encompasses 
the  greater  part  of  the  summit  of  the  hill,  and 
has  no  second  protection,  except  on  the  side  of 
the  western  inclosure.  The  view  comprehends 
perhaps  a  greater  number  of  celebrated  objects 
than  any  other  in  Greece,  though  in  extent  it  is 
not  to  be  compared  to  some  others  which  1 
have  seen.  Hymettus  bounds  the  horizon  to 
the  eastward,  and  the  Parthenon  is  distinctly 
seen  at  a  direct  distance  of  not  much  less  than 
fifty  English  miles.  Beyond  the  Isthmus  and  bay 
of  Lecha^um  rise  the  Oneia,  beyond  which  are 
seen  all  the  great  summits  of  Locris,  Phocis, 
Bceotia,  and  Attica ;  and  the  two  gulfs  from 
the  hill  of  Koryfi  (^Gonoessa)  on  the  Corin- 
thiac,  to  Sunium  at  the  entrance  of  the  Saro- 
nic.  To  the  westward  the  view  is  impeded  by 
a  great  hill,  which  may  be  called  the  Xri/jbixa,  or 
eye-sore,  of  the  Acro-Corinthus,  especially  with 
regard  to  modern  war.     Its  summit  is  a  trunc- 

s  2 


ated  peak,  which  may  be  reached  on  horseback, 
by  turning  to  the  right  of  the  road  which  leads 
to  the  Acro-Corinthus,  at  a  small  distance  short 
of  the  first  gate.  This  height  is  particularly 
formidable  to  the  western  or  lower  inclosure 
of  the  modern  fortress,  which  slopes  towards 
the  hill,  and  is  completely  exposed  to  its  fire, 
at  a  distance  of  about  1000  yards.  The  wall 
of  the  greater  inclosure  is  neither  very  strong 
nor  very  high,  nor  is  it  defended  by  a  ditch  j 
so  that,  while  the  attention  of  the  garrison  of 
the  lower  fortress  is  occupied  from  the  height 
to  the  west,  nothing  but  a  force  so  numerous  as 
to  occupy  all  the  points  of  the  larger  inclosure 
can  secure  it  from  an  assault ;  for  the  passage 
up  the  northern  slope  of  the  hill  which  I  have 
mentioned  is  not  the  only  one  by  which  the 
summit  may  be  gained. 

It  appears  that  the  Venetians  made  some 
additions  to  the  works  of  the  western  inclosure, 
during  the  twenty-five  years  they  were  in  pos- 
session of  Corinth,  after  Wheler's  visit ;  but  it 
does  not  seem  from  his  description  that  they 
altered  the  general  plan  of  the  fortifications,  or 
improved  the  defences  of  the  great  inclosure  of 
the  summit.  It  would  require  such  additions, 
together  with  a  very  large  garrison,  to  render 
the  Acro-Corinthus  a  very  defensible  post  against 
a  regular  army  in  the  present  times. 


As  pirates  of  late  years  have  not  been  so  for- 
midable in  these  seas  as  they  were  in  the  time 
of  Wheler,  a  larger  proportion  of  the  inhabitants 
of  Corinth  now  reside  in  the  lower  town,  and  a 
smaller  in  the  Castle,  and  there  are  fewer 
Turks  5  but  the  amount  of  population  seems  to 
be  nearly  the  same.  He  reckons  1500,  half  of 
whom  were  Turks.  There  are  now  about  200 
Greek,  and  100  Turkish  houses.  The  rayah 
householders  pay  from  eighty  to  600  piastres  a 
year  for  the  x"'P'^h  or  acquittance  for  all  taxes. 
The  modern  town,  like  the  ancient,  is  situated  on 
the  intermediate  level  which  lies  between  the  foot 
of  the  Acro-Corinthus  and  the  range  of  cliffs.  It 
occupies  a  large  space  of  ground,  being  divided 
into  several  separate  portions,  with  intervals  of 
vine-yard  and  corn-land,  and  many  of  the  houses 
are  surrounded  with  gardens  of  orange,  fig,  al- 
mond, and  other  fruit  trees,  mixed  with  cy- 
presses. The  most  remarkable  object  is  the 
palace  of  Nuri  Bey,  standing  in  a  large  inclosure, 
near  the  middle  of  the  cliff  above  mentioned. 
It  is  difficult  to  account  for  the  extreme  un- 
healthiness  of  Corinth  in  the  summer  and  au- 
tumn, as  the  situation  seems  such  as  to  expose 
it  to  the  most  complete  ventilation.  The  dews 
are  said  to  be  particularly  lieavy. 

Like  many  of  the  other  celebrated  cities  of 
Greece,  Corinth  retains  its  ancient  name,  and, 

262  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIIT. 

in  common  with  its  neighbours,  Megara,  ^gina, 
and  Argos,  retains  it  without  any  alteration,  al- 
though many  a  traveller  perhaps  has  left  Corinth 
with  a  different  impression.  The  fact  is,  that 
the  name  is  still  written  KoptvOos,  but  as  it  gene- 
rally occurs  after  the  article  tov,  the  initial  of  the 
name  after  n  receives  the  sound  of  g,  according 
to  a  modern  practice,  which  was  also  that  of  the 
ancients.  In  rapid  speech,  the  position  of  the 
accent  on  the  first  syllable  has  the  effect  of 
shortening  the  last  two  :  and  the  final  y  or  s  is 
often  mute  in  modern  Greek.  Thus,  Korinthos 
in  writing  becomes  Gortho  in  the  vulgar  tongue, 
though  not  always  so  in  politer  pronunciation  : 
the  Turks  call  it  Ghiurdos. 

Korintho  is  the  chief  town  of  a  kaza  which 
is  sixty  miles  in  length,  extending  westward 
from  Fonia  (Pheneus)  inclusive,  as  far  as  Fanari 
and  Potamia,  which  are  situated  between  Epi- 
daurus  and  Trcezen  :  to  the  south-eastward  it 
confines  on  the  districts  of  Argos  and  Nauplia. 
There  are  eighty  villages,  besides  many  small 
tjiftliks.  Wheler  says  that  the  Kadi  boasted  of 
a  jurisdiction  extending  over  300  villages;  either 
therefore  the  kaza  was  still  larger  in  his  time  than 
it  is  now,  or  it  is  much  depopulated.  The  latter 
I  believe  to  be  the  case,  though  it  is  certain  that 
the  district,  particularly  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
town,  has  benefited  much  from  the  hereditary 


power  of  the  family  of  Nuri  Bey,  which  has  been 
estabHshed  at  Corinth  during  nearly  a  century; 
for  here,  as  in  every  other  part  of  Turkey,  where 
a  powerful  family  has  been  long  settled,  their  in- 
terest in  the  prosperity  of  tlie  district  counteracts 
in  some  degree  the  usual  blind  and  eager  avarice 
of  the  Turkish  character,  and  produces  an  effect 
favourable  to  the  security  of  the  subject:  and  this 
is  greater  and  more  permanent  in  proportion  to 
the  moderation  of  the  governor,  as  by  avoiding 
the  character  of  accumulating  treasure,  he  is  so 
much  the  less  exposed  to  the  jealousy  and  rapa- 
city of  the  Porte. 

In  some  parts  of  the  district  of  Corinth,  the 
vacuum  caused  by  the  Russian  insurrection,  and 
by  the  Albanian  invasion  consequent  upon  it, 
has  been  in  great  measure  filled  up  by  a  settle- 
ment of  Albanian  peasants. 

No  part  of  the  vilayeti  is  remarkable  for  fer- 
tility, except  the  plains  of  Corinth  and  Sicyon, 
though  corn  is  produced  in  every  part.  The 
principal  produce  is  the  oil,  grain,  silk,  currants 
of  the  coast,  and  the  cheese,  butter,  skins,  honey, 
vermilion,  resin,  sheep  and  cattle  of  the  interior: 
the  latter  part  of  the  district  is  chiefly  moun- 
tainous, but  it  contains  a  few  inclosed  plains, 
which,  like  those  of  Arcadia,  are  in  great  part 
unproductive,  for  want  of  drainage.  The  bey 
complained  much  to  me  of  the  blockade  of  the 

264  CORINTH.  [chap.  XXVIII. 

Adriatic  and  Naples,  produced  by  Bonaparte's 
decrees  against  our  commerce.  The  Sclavonian 
ships  no  longer  come  here  for  oil  and  cheese, 
while  oil  is  at  an  excessive  price  at  Trieste,  and 
the  cheese  of  the  Morea  is  spoiling. 

In  the  garden  of  Notara's  house,  in  which  I 
am  lodged,  there  is  a  well,  the  mouth  of  which 
is  formed  of  a  single  cylindrical  piece  of  white 
marble,  pierced  in  the  centre,  a  foot  and  a  half 
in  height,  and  sculptured  with  ten  human  figures 
in  very  low  relief.  The  marble  probably  served 
the  same  purpose  anciently  as  it  now  does; 
that  is  to  say,  that  it  was  the  peristomium  of  a 
well,  belonging  perhaps  to  one  of  the  temples  of 
Corinth  \  It  is  said  to  have  been  formerly  the 
mouth  of  a  well  in  the  house  of  a  Turk  in  the 
eastern  part  of  the  town,  who  sold  or  made  a 
present  of  it  to  Notara,  and  who,  now  that  it 
has  excited  much  attention  from  travellers,  is 
so  angry  with  himself  for  having  parted  with  it, 
that  he  refuses  to  sell  another  piece  belonging 
to  the  same  monument,  which  still  lies  buried  in 
his  garden.  The  latter  fragment,  however,  if 
it  really  exists,  cannot  contain  much  more  than 
some  ornamental  moulding  at  the  top  of  the  pe- 
ristomium, corresponding  to  a  circle  of  Ionic 

*  Sculptured      peristomia      in  the  temples  of  the  Greeks 
Avere  common  decorations,,  as      and  Romans, 
well  in  the  private  houses  as 


eggs  and  beads  which  is  under  the  feet  of  the 
figures,  for  the  entire  heads  of  the  figures  are 
still  traced  on  Notara's  marble,  though  much  in- 
jured, and  some  of  them  almost  obliterated, 
having  probably  been  destroyed  by  the  Turks, 
according  to  their  custom  when  they  meet  with 
any  representation  of  the  human  figure.  The 
completeness  of  the  stone  at  the  bottom,  and 
its  incompleteness  at  the  top,  induced  M.  No- 
tara,  when  he  applied  it  on  his  well,  to  place 
the  former  side  upwards,  and  thus  to  reverse  the 
figures  *. 

They  are  all  in  a  walking  attitude.  Seven  of 
them  face  in  one  direction,  and  the  remaining 
three  in  the  opposite.  The  two  that  meet  re- 
present Apollo  and  Minerva,  the  former  wearing 
a  chlamys,  with  his  right  shoulder  bare,  his  lyre 
under  the  left  arm,  and  the  plectrum  in  the  right 
hand.  Minerva  is  bare-headed ;  all  the  upper  fore 
part  of  her  body  is  covered  in  front  with  a  scaly 
aegis,  upon  which  appears  a  serpent,  instead  of 
the  head  of  Medusa.  She  bears  a  helmet  in  her 
right  hand,  and  a  spear  in  the  left.  She  is  fol- 
lowed by  Hercules,  shouldering  an  enormous 
club,  and  carrying  a  bow  and  quiver  in  his  left 
hand ;  a  lion's  skin,  tied  by  the  paws  round  his 

*  This  curious  specimen  of     part  of  the  collection  of  the 
the  ancient  Corinthian  school      Earl  of  Guilford, 
is  now  in  England^  and  forms 

266  CORINTH.         [chap,  xxvni. 

neck,  hangs  over  his  back.  Behind  him  is  a 
female,  enveloped  from  the  neck  to  the  feet  in 
a  loose  peplus,  bound  in  the  middle  with  a  narrow 
zone.  Diana  follows  Apollo,  extending  her  left 
hand,  in  which  is  a  bow,  and  with  her  right 
leading  a  stag  by  one  of  the  feet.  A  quiver 
appears  over  her  left  shoulder :  her  right  arm  is 
disencumbered  of  the  peplus,  and  shews  a  short 
tunic,  covering  only  the  breast  and  brachium, 
and  apparently  made  of  fur.  She  is  followed 
by  a  matronly  figure,  whose  limbs  are  extremely 
muscular,  and  who  is  clothed  in  a  peplus  differ- 
ing only  from  that  of  the  female  following 
Hercules  in  having  the  ulnas  bare.  Next  to 
her  comes  Mercury,  naked,  with  the  exception 
of  a  chlamys  hanging  upon  his  arms,  and  known 
only  by  the  wings  at  his  heels.  He  is  followed 
by  three  females,  of  much  lighter  proportions 
than  the  others. 

In  the  first  and  third  of  these  females  the 
peplus  is  thrown  aside  from  the  right  shoulder, 
and  exhibits  a  tunic  of  fur,  like  that  of  Diana ; 
the  lining  of  fur  appears  also  on  the  pepli  of 
these  two  figures,  at  the  feet.  The  middle  figure 
is  drest  in  a  peplus  like  that  of  the  matron  who 
follows  Diana;  her  looks  are  cast  down,  and  her 
head  is  covered  with  a  veil,  of  which  she  holds 
a  corner  between  the  thumb  and  finger  of  the 
right  hand,  while  her  left  is  joined  to  the  right 


hand  of  the  female  who  precedes,  and  who  looks 
round,  and  appears  to  lead  her.  The  last  of 
these  three  females  touches  the  elbow  of  the 
middle  one  with  her  left  hand,  looking  at  the 
same  time  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  with  a 
coquettish  air  holding  up  the  lower  end  of  her 
peplus  with  the  right  hand.  The  form  of  the 
breast  is  more  developed  in  this  figure  than  in 
any  other  ;  the  peplus  adheres  more  closely  to 
the  limbs,  the  shape  is  more  displayed,  and  a 
broad  belt,  on  which  some  ornaments  are  visible, 
passes  across  the  left  shoulder,  and  under  the 
right  arm, — all  shewing,  but  particularly  the 
cestus,  that  the  figure  is  intended  for  Venus. 

This  monument  is  the  best  specimen  I  have 
met  witli  in  Greece,  of  that  early  style  of  Greek 
sculpture  (before  it  was  brought  to  perfection 
at  Athens),  which  Pausanias  calls  the  ^ginetan, 
but  of  which  Corinth  and  Sicyon  were  equally 
the  schools.  The  noble  and  correct  simplicity 
of  true  taste  are  conspicuous  in  the  whole  design, 
though  the  execution  is  still  very  distant  from 
the  perfection  of  the  Attic  style.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  the  three  young  females  following 
Mercury,  which  form  an  extremely  graceful 
group,  all  the  other  figures  have  an  Egyptian 
rigidity  of  form  and  attitude.  The  drapery  falls 
in  equal  folds  and  plaits,  in  the  manner  com- 
monly known  by  the  name  of  Etruscan,  and  is 


wrought  with  adihgence  and  care,  proving  that 
the  steps  by  which  the  Greeks  arrived  at  such 
perfection  in  the  expression  of  drapery,  were 
not  less  slow  and  painful  than  their  progress  in 
the  imitation  of  animate  nature,  an  observation 
which  may  account  for  the  general  imperfection 
of  modern  sculptors  in  drapery,  who  have  never 
passed  through  the  same  long  process  of  prac- 
tice and  experience,  in  this  particular  produc- 
tion of  the  chisel.  It  is  evident  that  the  subject 
of  this  relief  is  one  of  the  actions  of  Hercules ; 
on  the  vases  of  Athens,  which  so  often  represent 
them,  we  find  him  constantly  attended  by  Mi- 
nerva, as  he  is  on  this  monument.  It  would 
seem  also,  that  the  veiled  damsel,  preceded  by 
Mercury,  and  led  by  Venus  and  another  female, 
is  a  bride.  Is  it  the  marriage  of  Hercules  and 



I  HAVE  offered  an  opinion  that  the  hexastyle  temple^  of  which 
the  extant  columns  at  Corinth  formed  a  part,  is  not  less  an- 
cient than  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century  before  the 
Christian  aera.  In  a  question  which  admits  only  of  a  conjec- 
tural result,  some  kind  of  petitio  principii  is  generally  neces- 
sary. I  assume,  therefore,  that  the  short  monolithic  shaft  of 
the  Corinthian  temple,  is  a  proof  of  its  superior  antiquity  to 

TO    CHAPTER    XXVIII.  269 

every  known  example  of  the  Doric  order.  The  substitution 
of  a  more  slender  shaft,  composed  of  several  pieces  of  stone, 
in  the  place  of  a  single  mass  of  shorter  proportions,  is  a  na- 
tural step  in  the  progress  of  architecture,  in  which  art  we 
generally  find  that  the  raising  of  large  masses  by  the  appli- 
cation of  numerous  hands,  has  preceded  the  study  of  a  pleas- 
ing form,  and  the  economy  of  materials  and  manual  labour. 
It  is  incredible  that  the  heavy  proportions  of  the  Corinthian 
temple  should  ever  have  been  reverted  to  in  Greece,  after  the 
more  agreeable  effect  of  a  lighter  column  and  entablature  had 
been  experienced,  and  they  had  been  generally  adopted. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  evident  that  a  long  course  of  years 
was  required  to  bring  the  order  into  that  almost  perfect  form 
to  which  it  had  attained,  when  a  temple  of  the  dimensions  of 
that  at  Corinth  was  constructed.  The  peripteral  hexastyle 
may  be  considered  as  having  completed  the  invention  in  its 
simple  state,  before  those  decorations  were  gradually  intro- 
duced, which  were  principally  derived  from  the  improving  art 
of  statuary,  and  which  ended  in  giving  to  the  Doric  order  the 
very  diflferent  character  exhibited  in  the  great  Athenian  ex- 

It  is  almost  unnecessary  to  remark,  that  this  order  of  archi- 
tecture, although  styled  Doric,  is,  in  fact,  the  European 
Greek,  in  contradistinction  to  the  Asiatic  Greek,  called  the 
Ionic:  it  was  invented  in  European  Greece,  about  the  same 
time  that  the  Ionic  was  produced  in  Asia,  and  was  equally 
employed  by  every  tribe  of  Greeks,  as  well  in  Greece  Proper, 
as  by  the  colonies  of  those  tribes  in  Italy  and  Sicily.  At  the 
same  time  it  is  not  improperly  termed  Doric,  inasmuch  as  it 
was  brought  to  perfection  in  the  Doric  cities,  which  were  the 
earliest  schools  of  art  in  European  Greece.  The  order  I  con- 
ceive to  have  been  indigenous  in  that  country,  and  to  have 
been  brought  by  slow  gradations  into  its  perfect  state,  mth- 
out  any  assistance  from  foreign  aid ;  for  every  part  of  it  is 
traceable  to  the  wants  and  consequent  inventions  of  a  people 
in  a  rude  state  of  society,  inhabiting  a  particular  soil  and 


climate,  wliose  structures  gradually  improved,  until  the  cell 
with  a  pitched  roof,  which  enclosed  the  worshipped  idol,  was 
surrounded  with  a  gallery  supported  by  columns,  and  thus 
assumed  the  shape  of  a  Doric  temple.  That  some  kind  of 
temple  was  coeval  with  idolatry,  we  can  hardly  doubt.  In 
the  Iliad,  in  the  Odyssey,  as  well  as  in  the  other  very  an- 
cient poems  ascribed  to  Homer,  temples  are  frequently  men- 
tioned by  the  same  term  vr,ol,  by  which  they  were  known  to 
the  Greeks  in  all  subsequent  ages.  On  the  other  hand,  had 
Greek  architecture  then  attained  any  of  thcrse  characteristics 
by  which  it  was  afterwards  known.  Homer  would  scarcely  have 
omitted  to  give  some  indication  of  them  in  the  course  of  his 
poems.  A  similar  inference  may  be  drawn  from  the  ruins  of 
iMycense,  which  are  anterior  to  the  time  of  the  poet,  and  con- 
tain specimens  of  an  architecture  very  different  from  the 
Doric.  The  artists  of  those  times  were  chiefly  noted  for  the 
construction  of  treasuries,  not  of  temples,  which  afterwards 
served  for  the  same  purposes  as  the  former.  Another  fact 
deducible  from  the  remains  of  JNIycenae,  as  well  as  from  the 
descriptions  left  by  Pausanias  and  other  authors  of  the 
Greek  buildings  of  those  times,  is  that  the  early  colonies 
from  Egypt,  although  they  introduced  some  of  the  mythology 
of  that  country,  did  not  transplant  its  arts  in  any  great 
degree ;  for  there  is  nothing  at  JMycena?  bearing  any  resem- 
blance to  the  monuments  of  Egypt,  nor  indeed  have  the 
temples  of  Greece  any  similarity  to  those  of  Egypt  beyond 
the  existence  of  columns,  which  are  so  natural  an  invention, 
that  they  are  found  in  the  huts  or  caves  of  similar  climates  in 
every  part  of  the  world,  and  in  the  course  of  improvement 
have  become  the  principal  ornament  of  sacred  buildings  in 
the  most  distant  countries.  In  fact,  the  peculiarities  of  the 
architecture,  both  of  Egypt  and  Greece,  may  be  traced  to  the 
nature  of  each  country.  In  a  narrow  valley,  scarcely  ever 
irrigated  by  the  atmosphere,  but  annually  inundated  by  the 
river,  inclosed  between  stony  ridges,  and  deficient  in  forest 
trees,  the  dwellings  and  temples  were  excavated  in  the  rocks. 

TO    CHAPTER    XXVIII.  271 

or,  at  a  later  period,  were  imitations  of  caverns,  with  Hat 
roofs,  situated  on  heights  beyond  the  reach  of  the  inundation. 
In  the  rainy  climate  of  Greece,  on  the  other  hand,  a  pitched 
roof  was  necessary :  the  country  abounding  in  timber  as  well 
as  stone,  the  earliest  Doric  buildings  were  naturally  formed 
of  the  material  more  easily  Avrought,  and  hence  the  temple 
in  stone  was  an  imitation  of  a  construction  in  wood,  as  all 
the  details  of  Doric  architecture  tend  to  prove.  Upon  the 
whole,  therefore,  it  may  be  concluded  that  the  Doric  order 
arose  as  soon  as  internal  tranquillity  had  followed  the  settle- 
ment of  the  Heracleidse,  in  the  Peloponnesus,  and  that  it  arose 
in  those  cities  which  were  the  earliest  seats  of  art  in  Greece ; 
namely,  Sicyon,  Corinth,  and  Argos.  As  a  proof  that  the  first 
temples  were  built  of  wood,  there  still  remained,  in  the  time  of 
Pausanias,  the  ruins  of  an  oaken  temple  at  Mantineia  of  ex- 
treme antiquity ;  and  the  oaken  column  in  the  opisthodomus 
of  the  Heraeum  of  Olympia,  if  not  actually  a  relic  of  a  more 
early  wooden  temple  of  the  same  dimensions,  was  at  least  a 
memorial,  shewing  that  the  most  ancient  Heraeum  had  been 
constructed  in  that  material.  Three  centuries  are  not  too 
much  to  allow  for  the  space  of  time  which  elapsed  between 
the  first  conception  of  the  Doric  temple  in  wood,  and  its  exe- 
cution in  stone,  of  the  dimensions  of  the  extant  columns  of 
Corinth.  This  would  bring  down  the  Corinthian  temple  to 
the  eighth  century  before  the  Christian  aera. 

The  next  inquiry  is,  how  far  the  period  to  which  I  have  as- 
signed the  temple  of  Corinth  will  be  justified  by  a  comparison  of 
its  construction  with  that  of  the  other  existing  monuments  of 
Doric  architecture,  of  Avhich  the  date  is  better  known  ;  for  of 
none,  except  the  buildings  of  Athens  and  the  temple  of  Phiga- 
leia,  is  there  any  absolute  certainty  in  this  respect.  The  ex- 
amples which  may  be  presumed  to  approach  the  nearest  to  the 
Corinthian  temple  in  point  of  time,  and  which,  as  being  all  hcxa- 
styles,  furnish  the  most  proper  objects  of  comparison,  are  the 
Panhellenium  of  JEgina,  the  temples  of  Syracuse  and  Egesta, 
and  the  oldest  of  those  at  Paestum  and  Selinus.  The  followinji 


considerations  may  lead  to  an  approximation  to  the  date  of 
the  Panhellenium.  jEacus,  grandfather  of  Achilles,  was  said 
to  have  been  the  founder  of  this  temple  ^ ;  by  which  we  can 
only  understand  the  founder  of  the  temple  first  erected  on 
Mount  Panhellenium.  The  natural  resources  of  jEgina  will 
not  allow  of  the  supposition,  that  the  building  of  which  the 
remains  exist  could  have  been  executed  in  any  period  but 
that  in  which  the  island  had  acquired  the  height  of  its  poAver 
and  opulence  by  the  success  of  its  commerce.  This  success 
appears  to  have  been  developed  simultaneously  with  that  of 
Corinth,  after  the  restoration  of  settled  governments  in  the 
Peloponnesus  under  the  Heracleidae,  when  the  prosperity  of 
^gina  increased  rapidly  under  the  protection  of  Argos  and 
Epidaurus,  until  the  island  became  an  independent  state,  but 
at  what  exact  period  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining ''. 

About  the  year  560  b.  c,  when  Amasis,  king  of  Egypt, 
encouraged  commercial  intercourse  betAveen  Greece  and 
Egypt,  by  creating  a  Greek  city  at  Naucratis,  in  the  Deltas 
j^Egina  was  the  only  European  republic  which  had  a  com- 
mercial colony  there,  and  its  Egyptian  commerce  seems  to 
have  rivalled  that  of  the  two  most  opulent  states  of  Asia ; 
for,  when  nine  other  Asiatic  cities  built  a  temple  in  com- 
mon at  Naucratis  for  the  use  of  their  citizens,  Miletus, 
Samus,  and  -Slgina  each  erected  in  that  city  a  separate 
temple,  dedicated  to  the  principal  deity  of  the  metropolis; 
that  of  the  Alilesii  to  Apollo,  that  of  the  Samii  to  Juno,  and 
that  of  the  ^ginetae  to  Jupiter  ^.  It  is  difficult  to  conceive 
that,  when  this  temple  was  executed,  the  great  national  work 
on  Mount  Panhellenium  was  not  already  completed ;  it  is  evi- 
dent, at  least,  from  Herodotus,  that  at  that  time  the  power 

^  Xiyouffiv  Aiaxov  "roirxrai  f/u  A/(.  sisted  him  in  obtaining  possession  of 

Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  30.  the  throne.     This  was  the  beginning 

''  Herodot.  1.  5.  c.  83.  of  the  intercourse    between    Asiatic 

'^  Psammetichus,   about  a  century  Greece  and  Egj-pt,  which  continued 

earlier,    had   first  infringed  the  old  to  increase   to  the  time  of  Amasis. 

Egj-jHian  customs  hostile  to  strangers  Herodot.  1.  2.  c.  ISi, 
by  giving  lands  in   lower  Egj'pt  to  ^  Herodot.  1.  2.  c.  178. 

the  lonians  and  Carian!>,  who  had  as- 

TO    CHAPTER    XXVITI.  273 

of  .^gina,  as  indicated  by  its  rivalship  with  the  Saniii^  was 
already  of  ancient  date  ^. 

The  period  below  which  it  cannot  well  be  supposed  that 
the  Panhellenium  was  erected,  was  Avhen  Athens,  whicli 
jEgina  in  the  height  of  its  power  had  defied  and  insulted, 
obtained  superiority  at  sea.  It  was  after  the  expulsion  of 
the  Pisistratidae,  b.c.  510,  that  tlie  Athenians,  already  very 
considerable  in  wealth  and  power,  began  to  turn  their  at- 
tention to  naval  affairs,  with  such  success  that,  although 
they  suffered  some  injury  from  the  ^ginets  about  the  year 
just  mentioned,  they  had  collected,  thirty  years  afterwards, 
a  fleet  of  fifty  ships,  which,  in  union  with  twenty  from  Co- 
rinth,  was  able  to  oppose  the  navy  of  ^Egina  with  varying 
success '^.  When  both  states  put  forth  their  utmost  strength, 
in  the  battle  of  Salamis,  B.C.  480,  Athens  had  one  hundred 
and  eighty  ships,  jEgina  only  forty-two*^.  Such  an  in- 
creasing disparity  in  the  power  of  two  hostile  neighbours,  led 
inevitably  to  the  subjection  of  the  smaller ;  and,  although 
Herodotus  speaks  in  strong  terms  of  the  wealth  Avhich 
^gina  acquired  by  the  Persian  spoil  at  Plataia'^,  it  is  nei- 
ther to  this  period  that  we  can  attribute  the  erection  of 
Panhellenium,  nor  to  that  in  which  the  arts  of  peace  were 
susjiended  throughout  Greece  by  an  overwhelming  invasion, 
nor  to  that  when  the  island  was  exerting  itself  to  the  utmost 
against  a  neighbour  becoming  every  year  more  powerful ;  but 
to  the  earlier  time  when  j'Egina  rivalled  the  chief  states  of 
Asia,  and  exceeded,  in  commerce  and  naval  power,  all  those 
of  Europe,  with  the  exception  of  Corinth.     Considering  all 

'  Herodot.  1.  3.  c.  59.     The  his-  c.  S9  et  scf-;. 
torian  says,  that  the   Samii  first  at-  '   Id.  1.  8.  c.  46.     On  the  number 

tacked  the  ^ginetre,  in  the  reign  of  of  the  ^Eginetan   ships,   see  Trans- 

Amphicrates,kingof  Samus,  ofwhom  actions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Li- 

therc  is  no  other  notice  in  histary%  terature,  Vol.  I.  Part  2.  p.  250. 

"  Herodot.  1.  5.  c.  78  et  ae,/.    1. 6.  "  Herodot.  1.  9.  c.  79. 

VOL.  IH.  T 


these  circumstances,  it  does  not  seem  probable  that  the  Pan- 
hellenium  was  undertaken  at  a  period  much  later  than  COO  B.C. 

On  comparing  it  Avith  the  neighbouring  temple  of  Theseus, 
which  is  known  to  have  been  built  about  465  b.c,  and  which 
is  so  exactly  of  the  same  class  of  hexastyles  that  the  breadth 
of  the  two  buildings  is  equal  within  a  foot,  we  find  such  a 
similarity  between  them  as  at  first  sight  would  dispose  the 
spectator  to  doubt  that  there  can  have  been  so  great  a  difference 
between  their  dates  as  I  have  supposed.  Their  iconic  decora- 
tions, however,  furnish  the  strongest  evidence  of  this  differ- 
ence ;  nor  does  the  comparison,  in  this  instance,  admit  of  any 
deception,  the  sculptures  of  the  Theseium  having  formed  a 
part  of  the  construction,  which  could  not  have  been  added 
subsequently  to  the  erection  of  the  temple;  whereas  the  statues 
in  the  aeti  of  the  Panhellenium,  which  may  have  been  so 
added,  would  in  this  case  only  strengthen  the  opinion  of 
there  having  been  a  considerable  interval  between  the  erection 
of  the  two  temples.  As  to  the  statues  having  been  more 
ancient  than  the  building,  that  is  almost  impossible,  at  least 
with  regard  to  the  greater  part  of  them,  as  they  were  ob- 
viously made  expressly  for  the  aeti ;  in  short,  it  can  hardly 
admit  of  a  doubt,  that  they  were  contemporary  with  the 
building.  Nor  is  it  in  the  least  surprising,  that  we  should 
find  architecture  in  a  more  advanced  state  than  sculpture  at 
any  given  period  of  antiquity,  previous  to  that  of  the  perfec- 
tion of  iconic  sculpture,  the  latter  art  being  so  much  the  more 

Independently  of  these  works,  there  are  some  proofs,  in 
the  comparative  construction  of  the  two  temples,  that  the 
Panhellenium  is  the  more  ancient,  if  an  entablature  consider- 
ably heavier  and  a  shorter  column  be  admitted  as  an  evidence 
of  such  antiquity.  In  the  Panhellenium  the  height  of  the 
entablature  is  to  that  of  the  column,  including  the  capital,  as 
1  to  2-53 ;  in  the  Theseium  the  column  is  nearly  three  times 

TO   CHAI-^KR   xxviir.  275 

the  height  of  the  entablature.  The  lower  diameter  of  tlie 
shaft  being  unity,  the  height  of  the  column,  including  the 
capital,  is  5-3  in  the  Panhellonium ;  5*7  in  the  Theseium  ^. 

If  a  century  at  the  least  elapsed  between  the  building  of 
the  temples  of  Jupiter  Panhellenius  and  of  Theseus,  a  much 
greater  difference  of  date  would  be  justified  by  an  architec- 
tural comparison  of  the  former  building  with  the  remains  of 
the  temple  of  Corinth,  in  which  the  short  monolithic  shaft  and 
an  architrave  ^  still  heavier  than  that  of  the  Panhellenium, 
seem  to  attest  a  much  remoter  antiquity.  It  would  be  absurd, 
however,  to  apply  the  rule  of  proportion  to  such  a  question  ; 
the  only  opinion,  therefore,  which  can  be  given  with  any  degree 
of  confidence  is,  that  the  most  recent  period  of  time  to  which 
the  Corinthian  hexastyle  can  be  attributed  is  the  reign  of 
Cypselus,  who  ruled  at  Corinth  from  the  year  603  to  the  year 
633  B.C.,  and  than  whom  there  is  no  Corinthian  monarch 
more  likely  to  have  erected  this  edifice,  as  he  was  equally 
noted  for  the  wealth  which  he  extorted  from  his  subjects,  and 
for  the  magnificence  of  his  dedications  to  the  gods  ^. 

^  The  following  numbers  exhibit  a  *"  The  architrave  is  the  only  mem- 
comparison  of  the  other  proportions  ber  of  the  entablature  preserved.  Ac- 
of  the  Panhellenium  and  Theseium.  cording  to  the  usual  proportions  of 
In  the  Panhellenium,  which  had  twelve  the  several  members  among  one  an- 
columns  in  the  side,  the  length  on  the  other,  the  entire  height  of  the  enta- 
upper  step  of  the  stylobate  is  94.  feet;  blature  of  the  Corintiiian  temple  was 
in  the  Theseium,  which  had  thirteen  not  less  than  half  that  of  the  column, 
columns  in  the  sides,  the  length  is  including  the  capital. 
104:  the  breadth  of  both  is  13.  In  "^  Herodot.  1.  1.  c.  14. — Plutarch, 
the  peristyle  of  the  Panhellenium  the  in  Septem  Sap.  Conviv.  et  de  Pyth. 
lower  diameter  of  the  shaft  is  3  feet  Orac— Plato  in  Kwn/.- 
3  inches,  the  upper  2  f.  4-6  in. ;  in  sx/Sav. — Strabo,  pp.  333. 378.— Pau- 
that  of  the  Theseium  the  lower  is  3  f.  san.  Eliac.  prior,  c.  2.  The  most  cele- 
S'4  in.,  the  upper  2  f.  6*6  in.  The  bratcdof  the  offerings  of  Cypselus  was 
height  of  the  column,  including  the  a  large  statue  of  Jupiter  of  hammered 
capital,  in  the  Panhellenium,  17  f.  3  gold,  at  Olympia.  It  would  seem, 
ill. ;  in  the  Theseium,  18  f.  8  in.  The  from  a  comparison  of  the  last  two  au- 
general  intercolumniation  of  the  Pan-  thors,  tliat  the  statue  was  at  Olvinpia 
hellenium  is  5  f.  4-8  in, ;  that  of  the  in  the  time  of  Strabo,  but  had  been 
Theseium,  5  f.  4  in.  removed  before  that  of  Pausanias. 




But  the  temple  of  Corinth  may  also  be  ascribed,  as  I  have 
already  remarked,  with  great  probability,  to  a  remoter  anti- 
quity ;  for  example,  to  the  beginning  of  the  eighth  century, 
when  Corinth,  under  the  Bacchiadae,  was  already  in  the 
height  of  power  and  opulence,  and  when  the  populousness, 
which  caused  large  colonies  to  be  sent  in  the  course  of  the 
two  following  centuries  to  Syracuse,  Corcyra,  Epirus,  and 
Acarnania,  was  extremely  favourable  to  the  erection  of  great 
monuments.  To  sfri  earlier  time  the  temple  can  hardly  be 
attributed  consistently  \vith  the  supposition,  that  the  inven- 
tion of  the  Doric  order  was  not  in  progress  until  after  the 
return  of  the  Heracleidse. 

An  objection  to  the  high  antiquity  here  assigned  to  the 
Corinthian  temple  may,  perhaps,  arise  on  comparing  it  with 
the  oldest  hexastyles  of  Paestum  and  Sicily ;  in  all  which, 
although  none  of  them  are  probably  older  than  the  sixth  cen- 
tury before  .i.e.,  we  find  proportions  only  a  little  lighter  than 
those  of  Corinth,  and  diifering  from  that  specimen  chiefly  in 
having  shafts  formed  of  several  pieces  instead  of  one.  I  am 
inclined  to  attribute  the  resemblance  to  that  common  practice 
among  colonies  of  adhering  to  metropolitan  customs  after  they 
have  become  obsolete  in  the  mother  country,  and  which  is 
found  to  prevail  even  in  regard  to  language.  The  western 
colonists  appear  not  to  have  diverged  for  a  long  time  from  the 
proportions  which  they  brought  with  them  at  the  time  of 
their  migration^  and  \\hich  were  naturally  not  very  different 
from  those  of  the  extant  columns  at  Corinth.  Corinth  was 
at  that  time  the  principal  seat  of  the  arts  in  Greece,  and  con- 
sequently furnished,  as  well  to  her  own  colonies  as  to  those 
from  other  parts  of  Greece,  both  models  of  Doric  archi- 
tecture and  a  great  portion  of  the  artists,  who  were  some  of 
the  most  important  members  of  the  new  settlements.  The 
changes  which  subsequent  architects  thought  proper  to  make 
in  the  models  originally  taken  from  Greece,  seem  not  to  have 
been   imitations  of  the    contemporary  improvements  of  the 

TO    CHAPTf:R    XXVIII.  277 

mother  country,  but  to  have  arisen  from  the  views  of  taste 
and  expediency  entertained  by  the  colonial  artists  themselves. 
Hence  arose  a  style  of  colonial  Doric  different  from  that  of 
Greece  Proper,  and  of  Avhich  in  general  the  characteristics 
are,  a  shorter  and  more  tapering  column,  a  more  spreading 
echinus,  a  smaller  intercolumniation,  a  greater  entasis,  and  a 
higher  entablature. 

I  shall  subjoin,  in  justification  of  these  remarks  and  for 
the  reader's  convenience,  a  short  statement  of  the  proportions 
of  the  principal  hexastyles  of  the  western  colonies,  with  the 
probable  dates  of  each. 

Fcestnm.  The  hexastyle  at  Psestum,  commonly  called  the 
temple  of  Neptune,  is  of  the  larger  class  * :  its  breadth  is 
nearly  equal  to  that  of  four  other  hexastyles  at  Selinus, 
but  it  is  shorter  than  three  of  them.  The  height  of  the 
column,  including  the  capital,  is  4-15  times  the  lower  dia- 
meter of  the  shaft;  the  intercolumniation,  1-1  ;  the  diminu- 
tion of  the  shaft  up\\'ards,  or  the  difference  between  its  upper 
and  lower  diameter,  is  one-thirteenth  of  the  height  of  the 
shaft ;  the  height  of  the  entablature  is  to  that  of  the  column, 
including  the  capital,  as  1  to  2-4. 

Posidonia,  or  Psestum,  having  been  scarcely  noticed  by 
history,  the  evidence  of  its  importance,  like  that  of  many 
other  Greek  cities,  is  to  be  derived  only  from  its  ruins  and 
its  coins.  It  was  already  a  place  of  importance  in  the  year 
535  B.C.,  Vihen  the  neighbouring  town  of  Hyela  was  first 
built ''.  It  was  probably  founded  about  the  year  700  b.c, 
not  long  after  Sybaris  had  received  a  mixed  colony  of  Achaians 
and  Troczenians,  who  not  having  agreed  together,  the  Troe- 
zenians  sought  a  new  settlement  on  the  shore  of  the  Psestan 
bay*^,  and  gave  to  it  the  name  of  Posidonia,  which  was  the 

"  The  largest  hexastyle,   of  which  to  above,   are  from  fifteen  to  twenty- 

tlie    dimensions    are   known,    is    the  five  feet  below  that  breadth, 
temple  of  Jupiter  at  Olympia.      Its  ^  Herodot.  1.  1.  c.  167. 

breadth   was  near  one  hundred  feet.  "^  Aristot.    Polit.    1.    5.    c.  3,  — 

The  large  elass  of  hexastyk's  alluded  Strabo,  p.  251. 


more  ancient  appellation  of  Troezen  *.     The  great  hexastyle 
was  probably  built  about  the  year  (500  B.C. 

Syracuse.  Among  the  hexastyles  of  the  western  states 
still  existing,  the  most  interesting  to  compare  with  the  tem- 
ple of  Corinth  is  that  of  Syracuse,  this  city  having  been  the 
greatest  and  most  illustrious  of  the  Corinthian  colonies.  Its 
remains  now  form  part  of  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  delle 
Colonne,  in  the  Piazza  of  Syracuse.  It  was  nearly  of  the 
same  dimensions  as  the  other  great  hexastyles  of  the  western 
colonies  ;  but  the  proportions  were  a  little  lighter  than  those 
of  the  temples  of  Paestum  and  Egesta,  and,  consequently, 
it  did  not  so  nearly  approach  those  of  the  temple  of  Corinth. 
The  heiglit  of  the  columns  is  4-4  times  the  lower  diameter ; 
the  intercolumniation  11  ;  the  diminution  of  the  shaft  up- 
wards one-nineteenth  of  its  height ;  the  height  of  the  enta- 
blature is  to  that  of  the  column  as  about  1  to  2}^  .^. 

Diodorus  informs  us,  that  the  temple  of  Minerva  at  Syra- 
cuse was  erected  under  the  aristocracy  of  the  Gamori,  or 
Geomori,  by  an  architect  named  Agathocles,  who  was  said  to 
have  been  punished  by  the  goddess  for  purloining  some  of  the 
best  pieces  of  stone  intended  for  the  building,  and  converting 
them  to  the  construction  of  a  private  dwelling  for  himself  '^. 
It  is  the  received  opinion  of  the  modern  Syracusans,  that  the 
existing  temple  was  dedicated  to  Minerva ;  and,  independ- 
ently of  the  tradition,  which  may  be  allowed  to  have  some 
degree  of  weight,  there  are  good  reasons  for  the  supposition. 
In  the  island  Ortj'gia,  to  whicli  the  modern  town  of  Syracuse, 
like  the  first  Corinthian  colony,  is  confined,  tliere  were  two 
principal  temples,  one  dedicated  to  Diana,  the  other  to  jMi- 
nerva  ^.  The  temple  of  JMinerva,  who,  as  usual,  was  the  guar- 

^  Strabo,  p.  373. —  Pausan.  1. 2.  c.  other  examples. 
30.  "  Excerpt,  de  Virt.  et  Vit.  p.  5i9. 

''  The  cornice  being  deficient,  its  Ed.  Wesscl. 
proportion  to  the  two  lower  members  "^  Cicero  in  Verreni,  act.  2.  1.  4.  c. 

of  llie   entablature   is   deduced  from  53. 

TO    CHAPTER    XXVIII.  279 

dian  of  the  citadel,  and  was  supposed  to  preside  over  the  coun- 
cils and  arms  of  the  state,  stood  in  a  lofty  and  conspicuous  situ- 
ation :  for  it  was  a  custom  among  the  Syracusan  seamen  to 
offer  sacrifices  to  the  goddess  at  the  moment  when  a  shield  on 
the  summit  of  her  temple  disajipeared  from  their  sight  in  sail- 
ing away  from  the  island  '■".  The  church  of  Santa  IVf aria,  in 
the  Piazza,  stands  exactly  in  the  central  and  highest  part  of 
Ortygia.  Near  the  harbour,  on  the  northern  side  of  the  is- 
land, there  are  some  vestiges  of  another  temple,  which  appa- 
rently was  of  larger  dimensions  :  this  probably  was  the  temple 
of  Diana ;  for  as  we  learn  from  the  ancient  authors,  that  all 
Ortygia  was  sacred  to  the  latter  goddess  '^  and  that  a  festival 
of  three  days  Avas  held  in  her  honour  '^,  it  is  easy  to  conceive, 
that  lier  temple  may  have  been  larger  than  that  of  Minerva, 
though  not  perhaps  so  splendid. 

The  Gamori  were  the  nobles,  who  inherited  the  lands  di- 
vided among  the  original  colonists  who  accompanied  Archias 
from  Corinth.  They  obtained  the  government  in  the  year 
596  B.C.,  (the  same  year,  according  to  the  Parian  Chronicle, 
in  which  Sappho  fled  from  IMytilene  to  Syracuse ;)  and  they 
were  expelled  by  the  lower  orders  not  long  before  the  time 
when  Gelo  made  himself  master  of  Syracuse  under  pretence 
of  re-establishing  the  Gamori.  The  latter  event  took  place 
in  the  year  494  b.c.  '^  The  temple,  therefore,  may  be  consi- 
dered a  work  of  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century  B.C. 

Egciia,  or  Scgesla,  one  of  the  most  ancient  of  the  Greek 
settlements  in  Sicily,  was  unfortunate  in  having  been  less 
favourably  situated  for  commerce  than  any  of  its  neighbours, 
and  in  having  been  constantly  in  a  state  of  hostility  with  one 
or  other  of  them  concerning  its  boundaries,  that  incessant 
subject  of  dispute  among  the  Greek  republics.  It  was  parti- 
cularly with  Selinus  that  Egesta  quarrelled  on  this  subject, 

■'   Polemo  ap.  Allien.  1.  11.  c.  2.  "  T.  Livii  Hist.  1.  25.  c.  23. 

^  Pindar.  P)  Ih.   Od.  ^.  —  Diodor.  '^  Hcrodot.  1.  7.  c.  155.— Dionys. 

1  o.  c.  2.  Antitj.  Rom.  1.  6.  c.  62. 


and  Sclinus  having  been  much  the  richer  state  in  consequence 
of  its  commercial  advantages,  the  game  was  a  losing  one  for 
the  Egestsoi,  who  were  at  length  so  much  distressed  in  con- 
sequence, that  they  implored  the  assistance  of  the  Athenians 
in  the  year  416  b.c,  and  gave  rise  to  their  Sicilian  expedi- 
tion ^.  When  the  Athenian  fleet  arrived,  however,  the  Eges- 
tsoi  were  unable  to  produce  more  than  thirty  talents  towards 
the  expenses  of  their  allies ''.  Not  long  afterwards  they  in- 
vited that  fatal  intervention  of  the  Carthaginians  which  put 
an  end  to  all  Avorks  of  peace  in  the  western  part  of  Sicily- 
Of  the  inferiority  of  the  Egestaei  in  wealth  to  the  other  Sici- 
lian republics,  in  the  most  flourishing  period  of  Sicilian  his- 
tory, there  is  some  appearance  in  their  extant  monuments. 
The  theatre  is  very  small,  and  there  are  no  remains  of  more 
than  one  temple,  which,  although  of  such  large  dimensions  as 
testify  great  power  in  the  republic  at  the  time  when  it  was  un- 
dertaken, indicates,  by  its  unfluted  columns,  that  it  was  never 
completed  according  to  the  original  intention  of  the  architect. 
As  it  appears  from  Diodorus,  that  the  wars  of  the  Egestaei  and 
Selinusii  commenced  as  early  as  the  50th  Olympiads  B.C.  580, 
it  is  not  impossible  that  the  completion  of  the  temple  may  have 
been  interrupted  at  that  early  period,  for  it  has  an  appear- 
ance of  one  of  the  most  ancient  Doric  buildings  in  existence. 
Like  the  two  great  hexastyles  at  Syracuse  and  Pa;stum,  it 
has  fourteen  columns  on  the  sides.  Its  dimensions  are  very 
nearly  those  of  the  temple  at  Paestum  ;  but  the  columns  were 
rather  smaller  and  less  tapering,  and  the  intercolumniation 
greater.  The  entablature  is  nearly  half  the  height  of  the 
column,  Avhich  is  a  greater  proportion  than  occurs  in  any 
known  example  of  the  Doric  order,  except  the  temple  at 

Selinm,     The  labours  of  ^IMessrs.  Angell  and  Harris,  who 
devoted  an  entire  year  to  the  examination  of  the  ruins  of  Sc- 

"  J'hiKvd.  1.  (3.  c.  0.         ''  Diodur.  1.  "lo,  c.  1.  *■'  Diodor.  1.3.  c.  9. 

TO    CHAPTER    XXVIII.  281 

liims;  and  who,  at  the  expense  of  the  life  of  the  latter  gentle- 
man, obtained  for  the  first  time  accurate  measurements  of  six 
temples  at  that  place,  have  thus  acquired  a  most  important 
addition  to  the  existing  knowledge  of  Doric  architecture.  The 
details  of  the  several  temples  not  having  been  yet  published, 
it  can  only  be  here  remarked,  that  two  of  them  appear  to 
furnish  a  remarkable  exception  to  the  other  examples  of  colo- 
nial Doric,  in  having  a  wider  intercolumniation,  a  lighter 
entablature,  and  a  more  slender  shaft,  though  an  equally 
spreading  echinus  in  the  capital ;  while  the  others  have  pro- 
portions not  very  different  from  those  already  quoted  of  the 
hexastyles  of  Paestum  and  Syracuse. 

Selinus  was  founded,  by  a  colony  from  Hybla,  about  the 
year  636  b.c.^  and  in  410  was  taken  by  the  Carthaginians'^. 
It  continued,  indeed,  to  be  inhabited  by  a  mixed  popu- 
lation of  Selinusii,  Himeraji,  and  others'^,  until  the  year 
268  B.C.,  when  it  was  destroyed  by  the  Carthaginians,  and 
the  inhabitants  removed  to  Lilybseum  •* ;  but  there  cannot  be 
a  question,  that  all  the  great  buildings  of  which  the  remains 
are  still  preserved  are  the  productions  of  the  earlier  and  only 
flourishing  period  of  the  republic.  The  ancient  history  of 
Sicily  is  so  little  known  to  us,  that  we  have  difficulty  in 
understanding  by  what  extraordinary  means  it  was,  that  a 
territory  of  small  dimensions,  and  a  city  not  enjoying  much 
advantage  of  situation,  were  enabled  to  raise  so  many  magni- 
ficent temples  in  so  short  a  space  of  time.  Four  of  them 
were  of  the  larger  class  of  hexastyles ;  a  fifth  was  an  octa- 
style,  which  in  magnitude  and  beauty  of  design  was  exceed- 
ed by  very  few  of  the  buildings  of  antiquity;  and  the  sixth, 
allliough  of  the  smaller  class  of  hexastyles,  was  larger  than 
either  of  the  three  existing  hexastyles  of  Greece  Proper  at 
^gina,  Athens,  and  Phigaleia.     Three  of  the  temples  of  Sc- 

■■»  Tlmcyd.  1.  6.  c.  4..--V.  Raoul  "  Diodor.  1.  13.  c,  56. 

Roclicttellist.desColonnesGiecquus,  "  Id.  1.  13.  c.  63  ;  1.14.  c.  17. 

tome  3.  f.  3  et  18.  ^  Id.  Excerpt.  1.  2  k 


linusj  of  which  the  octastyle  is  one,  stood,  in  the  city  ;  the 
other  three,  of  which  the  small  hexastylc  is  one,  stood  on  the 
western  height,  which  was  anciently  the  Acropolis.  The 
latter  situation  being  that  in  which  the  earliest  temple  was 
probably  built,  and  the  middle  temple  on  the  western  height 
having  been  apparently  more  ancient  than  the  other  great  hexa- 
style  on  that  hill,  we  may  presume  that  it  is  the  most  ancient 
of  the  four  great  hexastyles  of  Selinus.  As  the  Hybla^an  colo- 
ny must  have  arisen  to  power  and  opulence  with  great  rapidity, 
it  may  easily  be  conceived,  that  this  temple  was  commenced 
at  least  as  early  as  the  year  600  b.c.  Its  eastern  front  was 
adorned  with  sculptured  metopes,  three  of  which,  in  tolerable 
preservation,  were  discovered,  together  with  fragments  of 
some  of  the  others,  by  the  English  architects,  the  survivor 
of  whom  has  published  the  drawings  of  them.  One  of  the 
three  metopes  represents  three  human  figures  and  a  quadriga ; 
the  subject  of  a  second  is  the  common  fable  of  the  Gorgotomia, 
or  Perseus  cutting  off  the  head  of  IMedusa;  that  of  the  third  is 
Hercules  carrying  off  the  Cercopes  on  his  shoulders.  Although 
these  works  betray  the  unskilfuluess  of  an  inferior  order  of  ar- 
tists, as  well  as  the  rudeness  of  archaic  art,  they  resemble  in 
manner  the  statues  of  the  Panhellenium,  with  which  they  ap- 
pear, from  what  I  have  just  stated  as  to  the  date  of  the  temple, 
to  have  been  nearly  coeval.  Their  inferiority  of  style  is  easily 
accounted  for,  the  statues  of  .^gina  having  been  produced 
in  one  of  the  best  schools  of  Greek  art,  those  of  Selinus  in  a 
very  distant  colony.  A  similar  difference  and  the  same  kind 
of  inferiority  are  found  in  the  reliefs  of  the  temple  of  Phiga- 
leia  compared  with  those  of  the  Parthenon,  although  the 
temples  were  built  by  the  same  architect. 

Two  of  the  other  large  hexastyles  of  Selinus  Avcre  decorated 
with  sculptures.  In  the  middle  temple  of  tlic  eastern  hill 
the  decoration  was  confined,  as  in  the  middle  temple  of  the 
western  hill,  to  the  metopes  of  the  eastern  front ;  in  the 
southern  temple  of  the  eastern  hill  it  was  confined  to  the  mc- 

TO    CHAPTER    XXVIII.  283 

topes  of  the  pronaos  and  posticum.  Some  fragments  only  of 
these  sculptures  have  been  discovered ;  but  those  whicli  be- 
longed to  the  middle  temple  are  sufficient  to  shew,  that  the 
sculptures  related  to  the  exploits  of  jMinerva,  that  the  style 
is  that  which  the  ancients  called  the  iEginetan,  but  that  it  is 
of  a  less  remote  antiquity  than  that  of  the  metopes  of  the 
middle  temple  of  the  western  hill, — a  circumstance  which 
agrees  with  the  comparative  construction  of  the  two  temples : 
the  columns  being  more  slender,  the  intercolumniation  greater 
in  proportion  to  the  lower  diameter  of  the  column,  and  the 
peristyle  wider  in  the  eastern  than  in  the  western  temple. 

The  octastyle  temple  of  Selinus  having,  like  many  such 
great  undertakings,  never  been  completed,  may  from  this 
circumstance  be  regarded  as  the  most  recent  of  the  Selinusian 
edifices  ^  It  was  probably  a  contemporary  and  rival  of  the 
temple  of  Jupiter  Olympius  in  the  neighbouring  city  of  Acra- 
gas,  and  dedicated  to  the  same  deity ;  for  Herodotus  shews, 
that  there  was  a  sanctuary  of  Jupiter  in  the  Agora  of  Selinus''; 
and,  by  alluding  to  an  altar  only,  and  not  to  a  temple,  he  af- 
fords a  strong  argument,  that  the  great  octastyle  was  not  be- 
gun at  tlie  time  of  which  he  speaks,  or  about  500  B.C.  The 
date  of  the  Acragantine  temple  is  better  known  than  that  of 
any  Doric  building,  except  those  of  Athens  and  Phigaleia.  It 
was  commenced  by  Theron,  who  died  in  the  year  472  B.C., 
after  a  reign  of  ten  years,  and  it  appears  to  have  been  under- 
taken almost  immediately  after  he  ascended  the  throne ;  for 

a  The  following  numbers  serve  to  non,  as  1  to  5"54 ;  in  the  octastyle 

compare  the  proportions  of  this  torn-  at  Selinus,  as  1  to  6"3.     The  same 

pie  with  those  of  the  great  Athenian  diameter  to  the  intercolumniation  at 

octastyle,  the  Parthenon,  which  was  Athens,  as  1    to  l'29-l' ;  at   Selinus, 

nearly  of  the  same  date.  In  the  Par-  as  1  to  r2.  The  diminution  upwards, 

thenon  the  proportion  of  the  height  or  proportion  which  the  dilierence  be- 

of   the   entablature    to    that  of   the  tween  the  lower  and  upper  diameter 

column,  including  the  capital,  was  1  of  the  shaft  bears  to  the  height  of  the 

to  3,  nearly;  in  the  Selinusian  octa-  sliaft  at  Athens,  1  to  21 ;  at  Selinus, 

style,  about  1  to  2^-.  The  diameter  of  1  to  13. 
the  column  at  the  base  to  its  heigiit,  ^  Herodot.  1.  5.  c.  47. 

including  the  capital,  in  the  Parthe- 


Diodorus  informs  us,  that  the  Carthaginian  captives,  wlio 
were  taken  at  Himera  in  the  year  480,  were  employed  at 
Acragas  in  cutting  stones  "  for  the  construction,  among  other 
purposes,  of  the  greatest  temples  of  the  gods."  ^  As  the  his- 
torian has  elsewhere  given  a  particular  description  of  the 
Olympium,  and  descanted  upon  its  magnitude  ^  we  cannot 
doubt  that  he  alluded  to  that  temple.  "When  the  Carthagi- 
nians captured  and  demolished  Acragas,  in  the  year  405,  the 
temple  still  wanted  the  roof,  and  had,  therefore,  been  more 
than  seventy-five  years  in  progress. 

'  Acragas.  The  two  hexastyles  at  Acragas,  commonly  called 
the  temples  of  Juno  and  Concord,  resemble  each  other  so 
nearly,  as  well  in  dimensions  as  in  other  respects,  that  one 
cannot  but  feel  inclined  to  ascribe  them  to  the  same  age. 
They  are  nearly  of  the  same  size  as  the  small  hexastyle  of 
Selinus :  the  columns  are  4*7  diameters  in  height. 

As  these  temples  are  lighter  in  their  proportions  than  the 
temples  of  Paestum,  Syracuse,  Egesta,  and  Selinus,  they 
may  be  supposed  not  earlier  than  the  year  500 ;  but  probably 
not  much  later,  as  the  architects  of  JMagna  Greecia  appear  in 
the  fifth  century  to  have  begun  to  despise  that  simplicity  and 
uniformity  of  design  which  are  still  remarkable  in  the  two 
Acragantine  temples.  This  deviation  is  very  conspicuous  in 
the  plan  and  details  of  the  heptastyle  of  Jupiter  Olympius  at 
Acragas,  and  in  the  enneastyle  at  Psestum.  The  florid  orna- 
ments under  the  capitals  of  the  columns  in  the  latter  temple, 
as  well  as  in  the  smaller  hexastyle  at  the  same  place,  indicate  a 
similar  deviation.  These,  however,  were  elegant  innovations ; 
but  the  architect  seems  to  have  been  deficient  in  the  good 
taste  of  Sicily  when  he  made  the  entasis,  or  swelling  of  the 
columns,  so  apparent  that  they  look  like  a  caricature  of  the 
Doric  order.  At  Athens  the  entasis  is  so  small,  that  its  ex- 
istence has  only  been  recently  ascertained. 

«'   XfV&iv   .   .   .  s|  6ii»  o'l  /jiiytaroi  tZv        1.  11.  C.  25. 
6ia\i  vKoi  KOiTiaKiuda^naav,     Diodor.  ''  Diodoi'.  1.  13.  c,  S'l. 


HiERUM  of  the  Isthmus. — Ancient  attempts  to  make  a  Canal 
through   the   Isthmus. — Ancient  fortifications  across  the 


NESus,  Rheitus. —  Ports  PEiRiEus,  Anthedon,  and 
Bucephaleia. — Capes  Her^um  and  Olmi^e. — CEnoe, 
Peir^um,  Therma. — Tenea. 

April  23.  I  ride  this  afternoon  to  Kalamaki,  a 
harbour  in  the  Saronic  Gulf,  from  the  head  of 
which,  to  the  shore  of  the  Bay  of  Corinth,  the 
isthmus  is  narrowest.  Having  traversed  for 
twenty  minutes  the  flat  summit  on  the  eastern 
side  of  Corinth,  where  a  thin  stratum  of  soil 
covers  the  rock,  I  then  cross  by  a  bridge  a  stream 
flowing  from  the  opening  between  the  Acro- 
Corinthus  and  the  rocky  ridge  of  nearly  equal 
height,  which  extends  from  thence  to  the  shore 
of  the  Saronic  Gulf,  and  there  terminates  on  the 
southern  side  of  Kekhries.  We  then  pass  over 
a  cultivated  level  to  HexamiH,  a  small  village 
with  a  large  tower,  belonging  to  Nuri  Bey. 
Beyond  this  the  rock  makes  its  appearance  in 
many  places  above  the  soil.  It  was  from  hence 
that  the  ancient  Corinthians  obtained  their  stone 


for  building;  for  I  observe  that  all  tliese  rocks 
have  been  quarried. 

At  Hexamili  the  road  to  Kekhries  {Cenclireicv) 
branches  off  to  the  right :  we  continue  to  pass 
among  quarries  and  open  pastures,  where  are 
large  flocks  of  sheep  and  goats;  and  in  one  hour 
and  forty  minutes  from  Corinth  arrive  at  the 
Posidonium,  or  Isthmic  Hierum,  near  the  har- 
bour anciently  called  Schocnus*,  and  now  Kala- 
maki.  Here  I  find  the  vestiges  of  a  theatre, 
and  a  stadium.  Of  the  former  there  remain 
only  the  substruction  of  the  cavea,  and  some 
traces  of  the  proscenium,  of  the  latter  some 
foundations  of  the  wall  which  supported  the 
rectilinear  end ;  the  circular  end  has  been  ruined 
by  a  torrent  which  has  broken  through  it.  From 
the  upper  end  to  the  remains  of  the  wall  I 
measured  650  feet. 

At  about  fifty  yards  from  this  wall,  to  the 
northward,  and  about  double  that  distance  east- 
ward of  the  theatre,  are  the  remains  of  an  ancient 
enclosure,  which  was  undoubtedly  the  peribolus 
of  the  temple  of  Neptune.  The  wall  which 
surrounded  the  sacred  ground  is  now  a  heap  of 
ruins  ;  it  was  of  the  most  regular  kind  of  Hel- 
lenic masonry  externally,  but  filled  up  with 
rubble  between  the  casings.  It  was  flanked 
with  square  towers  ;  the  northern  side  formed 
«  Strabo,  p.  380. 


part  of  a  line  of  fortification,  which  stretched 
across  the  isthmus.     Among  the  stones  of  the 
peribolus  I  find  a  few  fragments  of  a  large  Doric 
edifice,  particidarly  that  of  a  column,  of  which 
the  chord  of  the  fluting  is    ten   inches  and  a 
half  in  length ;  this  is  the  only  measurable  di- 
mension, but  it  is  sufficient,  I  think,  to  shew 
that  the  column  belonged  to  the   Temple  of 
Neptune,  though  I  could  not  find  a  vestige  of 
the  foundations  of  that  building.     The  inclosed 
space  is  now  a  level  pasture.     The  northern  wall 
of  the  peribolus,  or  Isthmic  wall,  takes  a  south- 
erly direction  eastward  of  the  peribolus,  and  is 
traced  as  far  as  a  brow  which  overhangs,  on 
the  northern  side,  a  small  torrent  bed,  terminat- 
ing in  a  level  at  the  head  of  the  Bay  of  Kala- 
maki.    Another  wall  crossed  from  the  same  brow 
to  a  height  on  the   southern  side  of  the  level, 
where  probably  stood  a  small  fortress,  forming 
part  of  a  plan  of  defence  towards  the  sea ;  all 
these  walls   were  flanked  with   square  towers. 
Westward  of  the  peribolus  the  Isthmic  wall  is 
traced,  for  about  300  yards,  to  the  foundations 
of  another   small   fortress ;    and   from   thence, 
westward  across  the  isthmus,  as  far  as  the  bay 
of  Lechaeum,  and  thus  the  whole  appears  clearly 
to  have  been  a  connected  system  of  permanent 
fortification  for  the  defence  of  the  isthmus,  as 
well  as  for  the  safety  of  the  hierum.    The  level 

288  ISTIIMIC    IIIERUM.        [ciIAr.  XXIX. 

of  Kalamaki  terminates  to  the  westward  in 
eminences  of  a  soft  kind  of  rock,  which  are 
covered  with  small  shrubs  ;  these  heights, 
though  not  many  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
sea,  are  sufficiently  so  to  require  an  immense 
labour  in  cutting  through  them,  to  unite  the  two 
gulfs:  they  are  the  last  falls  of  the  Oneia,  which 
rise  gradually  from  this  point  to  the  great  sum- 
mit, anciently  called  Geraneia. 

The  ruins  of  the  Isthmic  Hierum  seem  to 
have  suffered  great  dilapidation  since  Wheler's 
visit  in  I676.  He  says,  "  There  are  yet  to  be 
seen  the  ruins,  not  only  of  the  town,  old  walls, 
and  several  old  churches,  but  also  the  remains 
of  the  Isthmian  Theater  ^  Here  were  many 
more  temples,  and  excellent  edifices,  mentioned 
by  Pausanias,  and  many  more  he  gives  no  ac- 
count of,  as  we  learned  from  a  very  fine  inscrip- 
tion we  found  halfway  in  the  ground,  by  a  little 
ruined  church,  which  speaks  of  many  temples, 
gardens  and  porticos,  repaired  by  one  Publius 
Licinius  Priscus  Juventianus.  There  are  yet 
remaining  in  several  places  foundations  of  the 
walls  that  were  built  by  the  Lacedaemonians 
from  one  sea  to  the  other,  to  secure  their  pe- 
ninsula from  the  incursions  of  their  enemies ; 

*  Spon  says,  "  Les  beaux      travellers   mentions  the  sta- 
restes  d'un  theatre  de  pierre      dium. 
blanche."       Neither    of    the 

CHAP.   \XIX,]  ISTHMIC    HIERUM.  289 

which  the  Venetians  repaired,  when  they  had 
in  possession  the  kini^dom  of  Morea,  and  were 
lords  of  it."  Chandler  in  1766  searched  in  vain 
for  the  inscription  mentioned  by  Wheler,  and 
found,  upon  inquiry,  that  it  had  been  removed 
to  the  Museum  of  Verona. 

Pausanias  has  given  the  following  description 
of  the  Isthmic  Hierum*.  "  Farther  on^  a  pine 
tree  is  still  seen,  growing  by  the  sea-side  ;  here 
was'  the  altar  of  Melicertes '' :  it  is  said  that  the 
dolphin  brought  the  boy  [Melicertes  or  Palae- 
mon]  to  this  place,  and  that  Sisyphus,  finding 
the  body,  buried  it  in  the  Isthmus,  and  established 
the  contest  of  the  Isthmia  in  his  honour.  At 
the  beginning  of  the  isthmus  is  the  place  where 
the  robber  Sinis  &c.  *  *  #  #  'j_^{^g  Qq_ 
rinthians  say  that  Neptune  contended  with  the 
Sun  for  this  country ;  that  Briareus,  being  um- 
pire of  the  dispute,  assigned  the  Isthmus  to  Nep- 
tune, and  to  the  Sun  the  hill  above  the  city  of 
Corinth  ;  and  that  hence  the  Isthmus  became 
sacred  to  Neptune.  The  remarkable  objects 
here  are  a  theatre  and  a  stadium,  both  constructed 

^  Pausan.  Corinth,  c.  1.  the  sow  Ph»a,  destroyed  by 

''  vpo'iova-i.  Theseus  at   Cromyon,  vvliich 

'  riv.  place  was  more  than  ten  miles 

•*  The  situation  of  the  altar  distant    from    the    Isthmus, 

of  ]Melicertes  is  very  uncer-  The  altar  therefore  may  have 

tain,  for  the  paragraph  imme-  been  on  any  part  of  the  inter- 

(liately  preceding    relates   to  mediate  coast. 

VOL.    III.  U 


of  white  marble.  In  approaching  the  temple 
of  Neptune,  there  are  on  one  side  statues  of 
athletae,  who  have  been  victorious  in  the  Isthmia, 
and  on  the  other  pine  trees, ^^lanted  for  the  most 
part  in  a  straight  line\  Upon  the  temple,  which 
is  not  very  large'',  stand  Tritons;  in  the  pronaos 
are  two  statues  of  Neptune,  one  of  Amphitrite, 
and  a  fourth  of  the  Sea'' :  all  these  figures  are  in 
brass.  The  dedications  within  the  temple  were 
made  in  my  time,  by  Herodes  the  Athenian. 
They  consist  of  four  horses,  all  gilded  ^,  except 
the  hoofs,  which  are  of  ivory :  two  Tritons  stand 
by  the  horses,  golden  "  as  far  down  as  the  loins, 
and  of  ivory  below.  Amphitrite  and  Neptune 
are  standing  in  the  chariot,  and  the  boy  Paljemon 
stands  upright  upon  a  dolphin :  these  figures 
also  are  of  ivory  and  gold  ^  On  the  basis  which 
supports  the  chariot  there  is  a  sculpture  in  relief. 
In  the  middle  Thalassa  supports  Venus,  who  isre- 

*  '!mvuv  ^sV^^a  'TTi'PvTiviA.ti/a,  and  goddess  were  of  colossal 

Itti    aTQ'ix,ov,  ra.  iroWa,  U  iv^v  dimensions ;   d^tova-9u   S)  \6yov 

avTuiv  oc.]/y)KoiiTa,.  ^  ....  kkI  rot,    la^^oi  ccya.', 

Strabo  says^  of  thi^s   place  ^Ve  7w  'la^^iov  KoXoaali;  kuI  o 

only,  'E'^ri  Si  ru   'laBfxu,  xc/ajo  ^^j  'Ap,<piT^lT-/3?  -ra  ocXXa  uv 

rov  'Jo-^imIov  UoanSmoq  U^cv  aX-  ^^  Jf^^v  h^TrXnaiv  QHerodes]  ovt\ 

a-H  ■rnrvu'Sii,  a-vvn^i/pk-    p-  3o0.  t-o\  roii  MeXijce'^tou  tto.^sXQoiv  §eP\.~ 

b  T^  .a?  ^i  ovT*  /^EyEGo;   06  ^~^^_    Philostr.  in  vita  Herod. 

^E.ton  E^E^T^X«a^  T^iTO^.E,,   &C.  ^       ^  rj,^^      ^^^^^     ^^^^^^^      .^ 

J  ,         /  may  be  interred,  were  also  co- 

e  ypvao'i:  lossal,  and,  with  the  exception 

f  Philostratus  informs   us  of  the  ivory  hoofs,   seem  to 

that  the  statues  of  the  god  have    been   made  entirely  of 



presented  as  a  child:  on  either  side  are  the  nymphs 
called  Nereides.     On   the  same  basis  are  seen 
the  sons  of  Neptune  and  of  Tyndarus,  for  these 
also  are  considered  salutary  to  ships  and  seamen. 
The  other  dedications  in  the  temple  are  statues 
of  Calm,  and  of  the  Sea%  a  horse  formed  like  a 
whale  below  the  chest,  Ino,  Bellerophontes,  and 
the  horse  Pegasus.     Within  the  sacred  inclosure 
to  the  left,  is  the  temple  of  Palsemon,  containing 
statues  of  Neptune,  Leucothea,  and  Palsemon; 
there  is  another  sacred  place  called  the  Adytum^, 
which  has  a  subterraneous  entrance*^,  and  where 
Palajmon  is  said  to  be  concealed.     There  is  also 
an  ancient  sanctuary,  called  the  altar  of  the  Cy- 
clopes, where  sacrifices  are  made  to  them.     As 
to  the  tombs  of  Sisyphus  and  Neleus,  it  would 

gilded  brass.  The  other 
figures  were  chryselephan- 

See  the  ingenious  remarks 
of  M.  Quatremere  on  this 
groupe  [| Jupiter  Olympien^  p. 
372.]  I  cannot  agree  with 
him,  however,  in  thinking 
that  the  Galene,  Thalassa, 
&c.  were  in  relief  upon  the 
basis  of  the  chariot:  the  words 
of  Pausanias,  after  having  de- 
scribed the  base,  arc  these  ; 

T«  OS  aXAa  uvccKaToct  TaXyiVYiq 
a.y»\jjt.xrot  y.ut  QccXaacrri^ 
tTTro?  i\kol<7^hvo^  x>3te;  to.  jusra 
TO  (TTt^vov,' Ivw,  &C.J  where  T» 

^;  a'xAo.  indicate  a  change  in 
the  subject,  and  where  ai-a- 
y.m:ot.i  shews  that  the  works 
were  separate  statues,  having 
no  connection  with  the  chariot 
of  Neptune,  further  than  that 
they  were  in  the  same  apart- 
ment, and  had  all  been  dedi- 
cated by  Herodes.  M.  Qua- 
tremere erroneously  supposes 
that  the  temple  which  con- 
tained these  offerings  was  in 
the  city  of  Corinth. 

U  2 


not  be  possible  for  any  person  to  find  them, 
even  though  he  had  read  the  verses  of  Eu- 
mehis  ^.  *  *  *  *  The  celebration  of  the 
Isthmic  games  ^  did  not  cease,  even  after  the 
destruction  of  Corinth  by  Mummius,  but  the 
Sicyonii  had  the  care  of  them  ;  and,  on  the 
restoration  of  the  city,  the  honour  reverted  to 
the  new  inhabitants.'' 

The  situation  of  the  sacred  Trep/ySoXos,  or  in- 
closure,  which  contained  the  Temple  of  Nep- 
tune and  some  other  sanctuaries,  the  manner 
in  which  its  inclosure  was  connected  with  the 
Isthmic  wall,  as  well  as  the  relative  position  of 
the  stadium  and  theatre,  are  described  in  the 
plan  of  the  Sacred  Grove,  which  accompanies 
this  volume. 

The  ground  inclosed  by  the  peribolus  was 
about  640  feet  in  length ;  at  the  southern  end  it 
had  a  breadth  of  300  feet,  which  expanded  at  the 
northern  end,  by  means  of  an  oblique  wall  facing 
the  south-east,  to  a  breadth  of  600  feet.  I  have 
already  remarked,  that  I  found,  among  the  ruins 
of  the  peribolus,  a  part  of  a  fluted  Doric  shaft, 
of  which  the  chord  of  the  fluting  measured  ten 

*   A   part  of  these  verses  Eumelus,  one  of  the  ancient 

was  entitled  i>  Ko§»v9/a  a-vyy^a.-  Bacchiadse,  to  whom  it  was 

9*),  or  a  description  of  Corinth ;  ascribed.  —  Pausan.  Corinth, 

but  Pausanias  doubts  whether  c.  1. 
it  was  really  written  by  the  ^  'Io-S/a»xo?  dyuv. 


inches  and  a  half,  which  is  the  same  as  the  chord 
of  the  fluting  at  the  base  of  the  extant  columns 
at  Corinth.  If  we  suppose  the  number  of  the 
flutings  to  have  been  twenty,  as  in  the  columns 
at  Corinth,  the  Parthenon,  the  Theseium,  and 
the  far  greater  number  of  Doric  specimens, 
it  will  follow,  that  the  part  of  the  shaft  to 
which  the  fluting  belonged  was  the  same  as 
that  of  the  columns  of  Corinth  at  the  base  ; 
but  as  it  is  more  likely  that  the  fluting  was 
not  exactly  from  the  base,  the  columns  were 
probably  rather  larger  than  those  of  Corinth. 
As  Pausanias  represents  the  Isthmic  Posi- 
donium  not  to  have  been  of  the  larger  class 
of  temples  (ytieye^os-  ov  fxei^ovi),  we  may  infer  that 
it  was  a  hexastyle,  for  an  octastyle  with  such 
columns  would  have  been  not  less  than  ninety 
feet  in  breadth.  It  was  consequently  not  very 
different  in  dimensions  from  the  hexastyle  of 
Corinth,  or  about  sixty-five  feet  in  breadth. 
The  southern  part  of  the  space  inclosed  by  the 
peribolus  seems  to  be  exactly  adapted  to  the 
reception  of  such  a  temple,  for  there  would  re- 
main between  it  and  the  peribolus  on  three 
sides  a  breadth  something  greater  than  that  of 
the  temple,  including  its  stylobate,  or  basis. 
The  angular  portion  of  the  inclosure  to  the 
eastward  we  may  suppose  to  have  been  occupied 
by  the  Palaemonium,  which  Pausanias  describes, 


as  being  within  the  peribolus  to  the  left*.  In 
this  angle,  also,  were  probably  the  Adytum  of  Pa- 
laemon,  and  the  temple  of  the  Cyclopes.  The  re- 
maining space  within  the  peribolus,  eastward  of 
the  Palaemonium,  and  northward  of  the  Posido- 
nium,  seems  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  avenue 
which  was  formed,  according  to  Pausanias,  on  one 
side  by  statues  of  victors  in  the  Isthmic  contest, 
on  the  other  by  a  row  of  pine  trees  ''.  I  should 
infer  also  from  Strabo,  that  a  grove  of  these  trees 
occupied  all  the  vacant  spaces  around  the  stadium 
and  theatre,  as  well  as  the  sacred  inclosure  j 
so  that,  in  this  instance,  the  word  aXaos  appears 
not  to  have  been  applied,  as  in  some  others,  to 
a  mere  nominal  grove.  From  the  inscription, 
copied  by  Wheler  and  Spon,  now  in  the  Maffei 
collection  at  Verona,  it  appears  that  there  were 
several  buildings  at  the  Isthmic  Posidonium, 
besides  those  which  Pausanias  mentions'".  The 
inscription  records  some  erections  and  repairs, 
executed  here  by  Publius  Licinius  Priscus 
Juventianus,  who  held  the  office  of  high  priest 

^   ToD  ^Ep^^o^otl  ^£  Etrriv    Ivtoj  xal  to  na^atjuovtoi/ o■I;^  toi'j  tt^oit- 

HaXa.ifji.ovoi  Iv  a^iaTe^cc.  vuog.  y^O(Tj^yiij>.aaiv    y.oa    to   hocyKj-ryi^iov 

^   ir^TVuv.  x^tx-'  Tvv  ii^ocv  naooov  rov^  tuv 

^  ©EoT?  n«TPioK  "«*  T»j  TlccT-  7r«T^jwv  diuii  QujJ.ovg  aw  riii  Tvi^t- 

vloi;,  Alf^iXiee.,  npHa-x-Oi;    lovovii/-  Tn^iovg  o\xovg  x.cct   toD   HXiov  zov 

Ttai'O?    ocpv^spivi;    ^la    Siov    Taj  vccov  %va    to  iv  cn-vru  UyocXf^oe.  kx) 

nctTotXvcrug  ro7i;  ol'^ro  Tyjg  o\KOVixiii7]<;  tov 'irs^iQoXov.      Tod   Si   "tti^ISoXov 

iw)    ra.  "la^fjucc    '!Tcc^a,yivoyLiiiOK;  t?j   li^oig'i^a.'iTni  nctiTuvgh  ccinri 

a9A»TaTf   Aaiiay-ivcca-i]/'   i   avro(  loiovg    AjjjuyjT^oj    xa«    K6^)i?    x«t 


for  life,  and  was  probably  a  wealthy  Roman 
colonist  of  Corinth.  He  built  lodgings  for  the  use 
of  the  athletiE,  who  assembled  here  from  every 
part  of  the  world,  for  the  Isthmic  contest.  He 
restored  also  the  following  buildings :  the  Pa- 
laemonium,  with  its  decorations  ;  the  sanctuary 
of  Palsemon,  and  its  sacred  avenue  j  the  altars 
of  the  patriote  deities,  with  their  peribolus  audi 
pronaos  ;  the  houses  in  which  the  athletse  were 
examined,  and  in  which  the  adjudication  of  the 
contests  took  place ;  the  temple  of  the  Sun,  to- 
gether with  its  statue  and  peribolus.  He  erected, 
moreover,  at  his  own  expense,  the  peribolus  of 
the  Sacred  Grove,  and  within  it  temples  of 
Ceres,  Proserpine,  Bacchus,  and  Diana,  together 
with  their  statues  and  decorations,  and  pronai. 
He  repaired  the  temples  of  Abundance  and 
Proserpine,  and  the  temple  of  Pluto,  and  the 
steps  and  substructions,  which  had  been  dila- 
pidated by  the  effect  of  earthquakes  or  antiquity ; 
and  he  dedicated  a  portico  at  tlie  Stadium,  as 
well  as  arched  apartments,  and  their  decorations, 
for  the  use  of  the  superintendant  of  the  Agora. 

Aiovvaov  Kcii  Apnuioo:;  aw  'ioi<;  KyjixfAara.v-oana-fjLoJvy.cci  tvoc'Kccio- 
tv  avroiq  ocyccT^jj.a.a'ni  x.a,i,  TTpoaxoa-  tvjto,-  dixMAVjji.ii/oc.  iinaKivaa-i]!''iv  y.a,i  Trpovaoii;  ek  tuiv  ld>itiv  o  ocvto;  xott  rriv  aroocv  Trjn  ttpoj 
£7ro/ti<r£v'  Kctl  rohz  »c/,ovg  "EveTyi^taq  tu  STadiiw  aw  to??  )iSKXiA,o(,puui- 
aoci  xrii;  Koprji  KO<,i  to  YVhovTutiiiOv  voK  ouoij  y.ui  'trpoaKoaiJi.iiuoiaiv 
xoa  Ta;   a,i/othxain;    x.oc,\   tx  uvcc-       oi.'yo^cciioi/.la,<;  oi,viQr)KSv. 

Y'^Toa^ean;  Ti,  Aixtnou  Tlpaaxov 

"EiXti  fxoi  T.biXyia-fiTi  Tng  aMT^ovnivnc  PriyMcx.   .... 

Maffei  Mus.  Veron.  torn.  i.  p.  137- 


Of  the  places  here  mentioned,  the  Palaemo- 
nium  and  Stadium  are  noticed  under  those 
names  by  Pausanias.  The  dyta-r^piov  and  its 
lepa  e'laoBos  are  evidently  the  same  as  the  secret 
sanctuary^  of  Palaemon  and  its  subterraneous  en- 
trance ",  mentioned  by  Pausanias.  That  which 
the  latter  describes  as  a  sanctuary  containing 
altars  of  the  Cyclopes,  accords  perfectly  also 
with  that  which  in  the  inscription  is  designated 
as  the  altars  of  local  deities,  having  a  pronaos 
and  peribolus.  As  to  the  other  buildings  which 
were  repaired  by  Juventianus,  namely,  the  tem- 
ples of  the  Sun,  of  Abundance,  of  Proserpine, 
and  of  Pluto,  the  silence  of  Pausanias  concern- 
ing them  may  be  ascribed,  perhaps,  to  their 
ruinous  condition  when  he  visited  the  Isthmus. 
The  temples  of  Ceres,  Proserpine,  Bacchus, 
and  Diana,  as  well  as  the  wall  which  surrounded 
the  whole  Sacred  Grove,  comprehending  proba- 
bly the  Hierum,  Theatre,  and  Stadium,  we  may 
conchide  to  have  been  erected  for  the  first  time 
by  Juventianus,  who  appears,  therefore,  to  have 
lived,  or  at  least  to  have  executed  these  works, 
after  the  time  of  Pausanias. 

The  Isthmus,  a  word  of  uncertain  origin,  and 
which,  from  being  the  proper  name  of  this  place, 
has  been  adopted  as  a  general  term  for  the  neck 


of  a  peninsula,  comprehended  in  its  more  ex- 
tended sense  the  whole  Corinthian  plain  lying 
between  the  two  seas:  the  narrowest  part,  from 
Schoenus  to  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  bay  of 
Lechasum,  was  distinguished  as  the  Diolcus,  or 
place  where  vessels  were  dragged  across*.  By 
Diodorus,  Strabo,  and  Scylax,  the  breadth  of  the 
Istlimus  is  stated  at  forty  stades,  by  Pliny  at  five 
miles,  and  by  Lucian  at  twenty  stades ",  which 
is  as  much  below  the  truth  as  the  former  distance 
is  above  it,  the  real  breadth  being  about  three 
English  miles  and  a  half  in  direct  distance.  Mela, 
therefore,  is  correct  in  estimating  the  isthmus  as 
four  Roman  miles  in  breadth,  if  we  take  it  as 
road  distance. 

As  nothing  can  be  more  obvious  and  natural 
than  the  project  of  erecting  works  of  defence 
across  the  Isthmus,  for  the  protection  of  the 
peninsula,  or  than  the  more  important  design 
of  cutting  a  canal  through  it,  by  which  its  de- 
fensive strength  would  be  increased,  at  the  same 
time  that  a  circuitous  and  often  a  dangerous 
navigation  round  the  southern  end  of  the  penin- 
sula would  be  avoided ;  so  we  find,  that  both 
these  operations  are  often  alluded  to  in  ancient 

*  Strabo,  p.  380.  Pi)uipoii.  Strabo,  p.  334,  335. — Scylax 

Mel.  1.  2.  c.  3.— Hesych.   in  in  Polopon.— Pliii.  Hist.  Nat. 

A'.oXy.or.  I.  4.  c.  4. — Lucian.  Nero,  sou 

^  Diodor.  1.   11.  c.   IG. —  cle  Foss.  Istlimi. 



[chap.  XXIX. 

history.  The  latter,  partly  owing  to  the  real 
difficulty  of  the  undertaking,  and  partly  to  the 
facility  with  which  vessels  so  small  as  those  em- 
ployed by  the  ancients  were  dragged  across* 
the  Isthmus,  has  never  been  effected.  Of  all 
the  persons  who  entertained  the  project  of  cut- 
ting through  the  Isthmus,  the  Roman  emperor 
Nero  seems  to  have  been  the  only  one  who  ever 
really  made  the  attempt.  Neither  Periander ", 
nor  Demetrius  Poliorcetes ",  nor  Julius  Caesar  ^, 
nor  Caligula  %  nor  Atticus  Herodes  ^,  appear 
to  have  done  more  than  meditate  such  an  ope- 

^  The  frequency  of  this 
practice  is  shewn  by  the  em- 
ployment of  a  verb  to  express 

it:    Snc7(ifji.t'iv,  duabfj.ovta'a.i. 

^  vjOfXe  [Periander^  ^£  x«i 
T&y     lo-By.ov    Sio^v^oLi.      Diogen. 

Laert.  1.  1.  segm.  99. 

*=  (pr,cr)  ya.^  [Eratostheucs] 

xa*  Ai)jU,>;T§tov  onxx-STrrtit/  E7r»;;^£i- 
^rjiToci  Toii  riSv  YlsTi.ovovvyia-luv   lo-S- 

//.OV,    TTfOf    TO   -TCCi^CCa^l'i'v    dHX.7r>yOVI/ 

TOJJ    0-ToAotf*    HwAt-G^caj    S     vtto 

xa<  uTruyyiiAccvrii}!/  p,£T£i;foTEP«v 
T»!v  Iv  TO)  Kopiv^iocKui  y.oXiT'ji  9a- 
Xarrav  t??  v.a.'xa.  KE'ypfjgsaf  tlvM. 

Strabo,  p.  54. 

^  .  .  .  Ta  T£  sX»  oi  [Csesari] 

Tcc  YlovTivcc  yuaa.^  xa*  tov  'laS- 
^ov  xov  tJj?  niXoTOH/JJCTOf   otogv^ui 

7rpoc7-e'T«|av  [^Romani^.    Dion. 

Cass.  1.  44.  C.  5. — Ai«  f^saov  ^e 

T??    (7TPaT£»«?    TOV     T£     K.OpnQlUV 

Plutarch,  in  J.  Cees. —  .... 
perfodere  Isthmuni,  Dacos 
coercerCj,  &c.  Talia  agentem 
atque  meditantem  mors  prae- 
venit.  Sueton.  in  J.  Caesar. 
c.  44. 

®  Destinaverat  et  .  .  .  ante 
omnia  Isthmum  in  Achaja 
perfodere  :  miseratque  jam  ad 
demetiendum  opus  primipi- 
larem.  Sueton.  in  vit.  Cali- 
gulae,  c.  21. 

...  ijLiya,ovdiv  tipya.'j'iccnoiTo 
[^Herodes]  ettej  jh»)  to^  '\a^ 
e'te/^e.  Philostrat.inv.  Sophist. 
1.  2.  c.  6.  — "  perfodere  na- 
vigabili  alveo  angustias  ten- 
tavere  Demetrius  rex,  dic- 
tator Caesar,  Cains  Princeps, 
Domitius  Nero,  infausto  ut 
omnium  patuit  exitu  incep- 
to."  Plin.  Hist.  Nat.  I.  4. 

CHAP.  XXIX.]  ISTHMUS,  299' 

ration.  Nero,  on  the  contrary,  really  began 
the  work,  superintended  it  in  person,  and,  for 
the  sake  of  example,  assisted  in  the  labour ; 
but  he  had  only  wrought  five  or  six  days,  and 
advanced  four  stades,  when  the  report  of  con- 
spiracies at  Rome,  and  the  intelligence  of  those 
disatiections  in  the  Roman  army  in  Gaul  which 
soon  afterwards  broke  out  in  the  rebellion  of 
Vindex,  obliged  him  to  abandon  the  attempt, 
under  the  same  pretext,  of  an  inequality  of 
level  in  the  two  seas  %  which  had  before  served 
as  an  excuse  to  Demetrius ''.  The  words  of  Dion 
Cassius,  Suetonius,  and  Lucian,  but  especially 
those  of  the  last  author,  clearly  shew,  that  the 
canal  of  Nero  was  begun  at  the  Diolcus,  or  nar- 
rowest part  of  the  Isthmus,  and  not  at  Le- 
chaeum,  as  Dr.  Chandler  supposed.  Philo- 
stratus,  indeed,  uses  the  words  airo  rov  Aexatov : 
but  it  was  customary  to  call  the  part  of  the  Sa- 
ronic  gulf  bordering  on  the  eastern  shore  of 
the  Isthmus,  the  sea  of  Cenchrei^e,  and  the 
Corinthian  bay,  on  the  opposite  shore,  the  sea 

^pvarjv  ^ixiXhctv  rotJ  Tfiv  EXXctocc  avvTvy^uv,  otXK   i-^/'n'Ko'ripix.v  hyov- 

ii^i  I^Nero]]  ....  ro7i  t\  tw  t>!  Alymri   SiSoimvai.      Lucian. 

u^X/iv  viTTia-TiVf/.tvoK;  'rra.^a.y.iKi'j-  (Je  Foss.  Isthmi. — V.  et   Phi- 

o-i,x»05    l^fxTTovw?    «7rTEc70a.  Tov  j^^j^   j^   Apollou.    Tyail.   1.  4. 

'i^yov,  ccvriH  EJ?  T>!v  K&^tv9oi'  .    .    .  g  j 

Trainee,  rr„  h.^l^,  GaA«acr«,  **  Strabo,  p.  o4.  Vide  supra. 

300  -  ISTHMUS.  [chap.  XXIX. 

of  Lechaeum,  as  appears  from  passages  of  Pau- 
sanias  and  Strabo  cited  below  *,  as  well  as  from 
Diodorus'',  who,  in  speaking  of  the  wall  erected 
by  the  Peloponnesians  against  Xerxes,  calls  it 
the  wall  from  Lechaeum  to  Cenchreiae,  though 
the  length  of  forty  stades,  which  he  ascribes  to 
it,  added  to  the  evidence  of  Herodotus",  are 
decisive,  that  he  meant,  not  a  line  between  the 
harbours  of  Lechaeum  and  Cenchreiae,  but  the 
Diolcus.  There  remains  little  doubt,  therefore, 
that  the  canal  of  which  some  vestiges  are  still 
to  be  seen  in  the  narrowest  part  of  the  Isthmus, 
near  the  shore  of  the  bay  o^  Lechceum,  was  the 
work  of  Nero.  The  excavation  has  now  little 
depth  ;  but  it  is  200  feet  wide,  and  is  traceable 
for  about  1200  yards,  in  a  direction  at  right 
angles  to  the  shore,  crossing  the  greater  part  of 
the  level  ground  which  here  borders  the  sea 
and  extends  not  much  farther  than  the  end  of 
the  trench  ;  the  remainder  of  the  Diolcus  con- 
sists of  a  valley  somewhat  elevated  above  the 
sea,  and  bordered  to  the  south  bj^  a  range  of 

*   Ka9^>:£i    ^E    0  1U1V  Ko^tvS/wv  nn^  x.ot,]  vvvvviuo:  ui.    Pau- 

'la^fx-oi    r^    fAv   Ig  t»jv    Itt)  Kiy-  san.  1.  2.  C.  1. —  ^t*!!/ SaXacrc-ai'] 

X^'^^^  ''■''   ^^  ^?    ''"''''    ^'*''    A.£%aiw  T>)v     Kctra,   to   Af;^a»ov    y.ct)    r^iv 

^a.>M(7(Tv.y '     Toiiro     yx^    Wei^ok  Trspt  Ksyxpia.(;.    Strabo,  p.  56. 
-TTOis'i  T>jv   si/Toj   X'^?'^'"   °^   °^   ^'^^'  "'  A*"  riiXo7rot/i/>ia-ioi  u^vpovv 

;^Ei'^>;£rE    Ylef^oirovvrjaov    l^yctQiaQxi  to  te'i'^^^o?    diaTEi'voi'  ett*    araSiovi 

i/yio'O'j  TrpodTriXiTre  dio^vo-aciiv    Io"9-  rtTra.^o(,y.oiira,  c/.'tto  Aeyctiov  /ajvo* 

l^ov*  xai  oSev  p-EV  iJto^t,V<7£ii' 55^|«*TO  Ksyxt^i^v.      Diod.  Sicul.  1.  1 1. 

^yjXo)/  ivriVy  e;  d's   to  ttet^wos?  c/v  q^  JQ. 
-^oi^ufna-uv  ufx^.v    i^aii  ^\  u^  c  Herodot.  1.  8.  c.  71- 

CHAP.   XXIX.]  ISTHMUS.  301 

low  cliffs.  The  rising  ground,  of  which  the 
cliffs  are  the  termination,  becomes  blended, 
towards  the  Posidoniumy  with  tlie  heights  which, 
branching  from  the  foot  of  the  Ofieia,  follow  the 
shore  of  the  Saronic  gulf  as  far  as  Cenchreice, 
leaving  only,  at  the  head  of  Port  Schcenus,  a  small 
plain  nearly  on  a  level  with  the  sea.  The  length 
of  the  trench,  as  just  stated,  is  not  very  different 
from  the  four  stades  to  which  Dio  limits  the  extent 
of  Nero's  progress,  while  its  termination  where  the 
ground  begins  to  rise  is  precisely  in  conformity 
with  the  words  of  Pausanias  *,  who  evidently 
alludes  to  this  attempt  of  Nero,  though  he  has 
not  named  the  emperor.  "He  who  attempted", 
says  the  Greek  traveller,  "  to  make  the  Pelo- 
ponnesus an  island,  by  digging  a  trench  through 
the  Isthmus,  was  obliged  to  desist  from  the 
operation.  Where  they  began  to  excavate  is 
still  manifest ;  but  they  did  not  carry  forward 
the  work  to  the  rocky  ground,  so  that  the  Pe- 
loponnesus remains  as  before  a  part  of  the  con- 
tinent." ^  Dr.  Chandler,  indeed,  thought  he 
had  actually  traced  the  beginning  of  Nero's 
canal  near  Lechaeum,  where  are  some  appear- 
ances of  an  excavation;  but  Nero  himself  could 
hardly  have  been  so  absurd  as  to  attempt  an 
excavation  of  seven  miles,  when  one  of  half  that 
distance  would  have  attained  his  object  much 

■  Pausan.  Corinth,  c.  1.  ^  xaJ  vvv  Wnpo^  uy. 

302  ISTHMUS.  [chap.  XXIX. 

better.  It  is  evident,  from  what  has  already  been 
said  as  to  the  nature  of  the  ground,  that  the 
defossion  of  the  Isthmus  would  be  a  work  suffi- 
ciently difficult  in  the  narrow^est  part. 

To   fortify  it    is    a    much   easier   operation, 
and    accordingly  we  still  trace,   as  I  have  al- 
ready  remarked,    the    remains    of  a   Hellenic 
wall,    flanked   with    towers    from    the   bay   of 
Schoenus  to  that  of  Lechaeum.     Wheler,  who 
observed  this  fortification,  supposed  it  to  have 
been  the  work  of  the  Lacedaemonians.     The 
only  authority  that  I  can  find  to  countenance 
this  supposition  is   Diodorus,  who  states,  that 
the  Peloponnesians,  at  the  time  of  the  Persian 
invasion,  strengthened  the  wall*  across  the  Isth- 
mus ;  which  seems  as  if  some  permanent  work 
had  previously  existed.  The  far  better  evidence 
of  Herodotus  ^,  however,  speaks  only,  on  that 
occasion,   of  one  of  those  field  works  often  ex- 
ecuted in  the  wars  of  Greece  for  temporary  pur- 
poses, and  which  were  composed  of  rude  stones, 
bricks,  timber,  and  earth.    Neither  Thucydides 
nor  Xenophon  allude  to  any  lines  of  defence, 
as  having  formed  an  obstacle  on  any  of  the  oc- 
casions on  which  they  describe  the  hostile  pro- 

*  uyy^ovi  TO  titypc.  divx  ^oovov  ol  ^oYidriactvrn;  loyx- 

xal    ^vha.     y.a.)    (popjj.o't^  -^^[x-ixov        Herodot.  1.  8.  C.  71. 


gress  of  troops  through  the  Isthmus  ;  and  Dio- 
dorus  describes  that  which  was  erected  when 
Athens,  Sparta,  and  Corinth  endeavoured  to 
defend  the  Isthmus  against  the  Boeotians  % 
[B.C.  368,]  as  nothing  more  than  a  ditch  and 

Nevertheless,  it  is  certain,  that  there  was  at 
one  time  a  permanent  fortification,  since  its  re- 
mains, built  in  the  manner  of  the  best  times, 
still  attest  the  fact.  It  began  at  the  shore  of 
the  bay  of  Lechaeum,  about  three  quarters  of  a 
mile  southward  of  the  canal  of  Nero,  and  ex- 
tended across  the  narrowest  part  of  the  Isthmus 
to  the  bay  of  Schoenus.  It  was  constructed  of 
a  masonry  rather  regular,  and  such  as  does  not 
seem  to  indicate  a  very  remote  antiquity.  It 
was  flanked  with  square  towers  on  the  northern 
side,  shewing  that  it  was  intended  for  the  pro- 
tection of  the  Isthmus  towards  the  Megaris.  It 
followed  the  crest  of  the  low  cliffs  already  men- 
tioned wherever  this  natural  advantage  offered 
itself;  and  in  some  parts  there  are  traces  of  the 

a  ^p^^,^,,oi  y  uTTo  K£7;^p.c^.  Isthmus.     Xenophon,   [1.   7. 

u.sVpt  Asp^aiot;  o'Ttx.vpuijj.a.a'n/  y.oci  c.  J  .J    It  IS  to  be  observed^ 

faSf'iaK  roi(ppoK;  lnXa.fji.Qccvov  Toy  makes  no  mention  of  this  field 

TOTTov.     Diodor.  Sic.  1.  15.  c.  work,   but  states  the  unsuc- 

68.  The  historian  here  meant,  cessful  resistance  against  Epa- 

as  in  the  former  passage,  not  minondas  on  this  occasion  to 

Cenchreiae  and  Lechaeum,  but  have  been  made  in  the  passes 

the    narrowest   part     of    the  of  the  Oneia. 

S04  ISTHMUS.  [chap.  XXIX. 

wall  having  had  the  additional  defence  of  a  ditch. 
Some  wells  are  visible  also  in  the  line  of  the 
ditch,  which  were,  perhaps,  no  more  than  ex- 
cavations for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the 
nature  of  the  soil  when  the  formation  of  a 
canal  was  intended.  At  the  western  end  the  line 
terminated  in  a  square  fortress,  standingupon  the 
shore  of  the  bay  of  Lechaeum.  Of  this  the  foun- 
dations still  remain,  and  have  served  to  form 
part  of  a  similar  work,  which  in  later  times  has 
been  erected  upon  it ;  and  of  which  the  last 
repairs  were  probably  made  by  the  Venetians*. 
I  have  already  described  the  termination  of  the 
Isthmic  wall  at  the  eastern  end ;  and  thus  no 
doubt  can  remain,  that  a  line  of  permanent  for- 
tification existed  at  some  period  of  ancient  his- 
tory. It  seems  most  probable,  tiiat  it  was  a 
work   of  the  Corinthians,  and  was,  perhaps,  a 

^  The  Hexamili,  or  Diolcus,  completed    when,    Bartholdo 

was    fortified  by  the    Greek  having  been  killed,  and  the 

emperor  Emmanuel  in  1 413 :  Turks    approaching   with    a 

this  fortification  was  destroyed  force  of  80,000  men,  the  Ve- 

by  Amurat  II,  in  1424.     In  netians    abandoned  not   only 

1463,    Loredano,  the  Vene-  the   lines,  but  their  position 

tian  admiral,  and  Bartholdo  also  before  Corinth.     By  the 

d'Este,     commander    of   the  treaty  of  Carlo witz,  in  1699, 

land  forces,  which  were  then  the  line  of  the  old  works  (li 

encamped  before  Corinth,  em-  vestiggj  dell'antica  muraglia) 

ployed  30,000  men  upon  the  was  the  boundary  of  the  pe- 

lines  of  Hexamili  for  fifteen  ninsula,  as  ceded  to  the  Ve- 

days ;  but  they  were  hardly  netians. 

CHAP.    XXIX.]  coniN'THrA.  305 

j)cirt  of  that  system  for  defending  the  Corinthia, 
and  at  the  same  time  for  obtaining  the  command 
of  the  entrance  into  the  Peloponnesus,  which 
the  position  of  Corinth  naturally  suggested,  and 
of  the  existence  of  which  some  proofs  have  al- 
ready been  given  from  ancient  history. 

In  returning  from  the  Isthmus  to  Corinth  late 
in  the  evening,  I  pass  by  the  copious  sources 
of  water  mentioned  by  Wheler,  which  are  a  mile 
and  a  half  from  the  modern  town,  on  the  road 
to  the  western  end  of  the  Isthmus. 

I  shall  now  subjoin  a  few  remarks  on  the  sub- 
ordinate positions  of  the  Corinthia.  By  Pausa- 
nias  this  district  was  considered  a  part  of  the 
Argeia  * ;  and  tliis  he  repeats,  by  remarking, 
in  allusion  to  the  testimony  of  Homer,  that  the 
Corinthians  were  always  subject  in  ancient  times 
to  those  who  ruled  at  Argos  and  Mycenae ". 
Another  reason  for  his  placing  Corinthia  as  well 
as  Sicyonia  under  the  same  division  of  his  work 

'^   H  S\  Kopn-Sia  lUoTfa  ouaa,  author  himself,  for  Stejihanus 

T??  'Afyuctq.  1.  2.  c.  1.  of  Byzantium  refers  constant- 

"  1.  2.  c.  4.  Hence  it  would  ly  t(,  the  books  of  the  TUf^r,yn<7^, 

seem,  that  the  second  book  of  ^"^^  'E>.Xx^,g  by  their  numbers, 

Pausanias   should  have  been  without  any  other  title.     In 

intituled  Argolica,  instead  of  other  respects,  it  is  evident 

Corinthiaca.     It  is  to  be  ob-  that  the  work  of  Pausanias  is 

served,    however,    that    this  arranged  as  he  wrote  it,  and 

and  the  other  provincial  titles  that  it  describes  very  nearly 

were  not  attached  to  the  di-  the  order  of  his  trave'ls. 
visions  of   his   work  by  the 

VOL.  III.  -jr 

S06  CORINTHIA.  [chap.  XXIX. 

as  Argeia  was,  that  Corinth  and  Sicyon  %  as  well 
as  Argos  became  Doric  cities  after  the  return  of 
the  Heracleida;,  and  thus  were  distinguished  by 
dialect  from  Achaia.  The  Corinthia  extended 
twenty  miles  in  one  direction  from  near  Pagae, 
on  the  shore  of  the  north-eastern  arm  of  the 
Corinthiac  gulf,  to  the  borders  of  Epidauria, 
on  the  Saronic  gulf,  and  thirty  in  the  other 
direction,  from  the  confines  of  Phliasia  and 
Argolis  to  those  of  Megaris  at  the  precipitous 
coast  called  the  Scironian  rocks  ". 

In  quitting  Athens,  Pausanias  pursues  the 
direct  route  to  the  Isthmus,  by  Eleusis,  Megara, 
and  the  Scironian  rocks.  He  included  the  Me- 
garis in  his  book  relating  to  Attica,  in  conform- 
ity with  the  ancient  partition,  belore  the  Megaris 
became  Doric,  and  when  Ionia  began  at  the 
Isthmus,  as  the  Isthmic  column  testified  ^  His 
Corinthiacs,  therefore,  open  at  the  boundaries 
of  the  Megaris  and  Corinthia,  at  the  western 
extremity  of  the  Scironides,  near  a  temple  of 

"  1.  2.  c.  6  ad  Jin.  Strabo,  p.  392.    The  inscrip- 

*  TliT^cti    "LKifuvi^ic,     Saxa  tion  on  the  Peloponnesian  side 

Scironia.  of  the  column  was — 
<^  Pausan.  Attic,  c.  .39. — 

On  its  opposite  side  was — 

rllAI».    XXIX.]  CUO.M.MYOX.  HiYJ 

Apollo  Latous.  Here  began  a  succession  of 
narrow  valleys  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains 
Oneia,  extending  twelve  miles  along  the  shore 
of  the  Saronic  gulf,  as  far  as  the  port  Schoenus, 
or  eastern  extremity  of  the  Isthmus  properly  so 
called.  All  this  tract  appears  to  have  been 
called  the  Crommyonia '.  The  only  place  men- 
tioned in  it  by  Pausanias  is  Crommyon;  but  we 
know  from  other  authors,  that  there  was  like- 
wise a  town  or  fortress,  named  Sidus,  between 
Crommyon  and  the  Isthmus".  It  sufficiently 
appears,  from  Thucydides,  Strabo,  and  Pausa- 
nias %  that  Crommyon  itself  was  not  far  from 
the  Scironides,  which,  as  we  have  already  seen, 
were  the  boundary  of  the  Megaris.  Near  Kineta, 
a  village  not  far  from  the  western  termination 
of  the  rocks,  which  is  built  like  Megara  with 

»  Thucyd.  1.  4.  c  42,  et  seq.  anus     and    Artomidorus    to 

—  Strabo,  pp.  380.  39].  prove,  on  h  Ti^oii;  im  Kofi^diuv 

**  rif  a|s  «?  [profectus  a  Co-  Is-rl  y.u)ixn,  and  cites  two  verses 

rintho]]    hyi    sti    M'.ya.^a.    Kotl  of  Nicander  to  shew,  that  it 

dl^H  TT^oaCccXuv  -^T^urov  lAv  X»-  was    famous    for   its   apples. 

^oi'na,    iVf.Ta   o'e   K^^'i^.i^v^va..  ^\^.^q^  jt   is   probable,  grew 

Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  4.  e.  4.—  y^^.^    ^^^^    mountains    above 

'EcTTt  K«<  U<^^  Tw  'Icr^ixcv  yi^«,  gjjjj^^  f^^j.  „«  good  apples  are 

Ko^tve/o.,'  xai  rux'";^  Sio'oD,-  y.a\  produced  in   the    lower   and 

'irf^ov  Tux'^^Kfti^f^vm.  Scylax  hotter  situations  of  Greece, 
in  Corinthia.--In  orfi  portus  <=  .  .  .  I,- Kpo^af/.t'wca  t??  Kc 

Schoenus,  oppida  Sidus,  Crem-  ^jv9/«,-  dxi^ii  ^\  t^;  7ro^£Wf  unovi 

niyon,    Scironia   saxa.     Plin.  xal  v/.xrov  cnu^'.ovc.     Thucyd. 

Hist.  Nat.  1.  4.  c.  7-— Athe-  1.  4.  c.  45. — Strabo,  Pausan,, 

nseus  {\.  3.  c  7-3  quotes  Arei-  uhi  sup. 

X  2 

308  siDus.  [chap.  XXIX, 

flat  roofs,  and  is  situated  in  a  valley  plantedwith 
olives,  there  are  some  vestiges  which  indicate 
that  Crommyon  occupied  nearly  the  same  site. 
Sidus  appears  to  have  been  at  Kassidhi,  midway 
between  Kineta  and  port  Kalamaki,  the  ancient 
Schoenus.  Wheler  makes  no  mention  of  Kas- 
sidhi ;  but  he  remarked  the  ruins  of  a  monu- 
ment about  midway  between  Megara  and  Co- 
rinth, which  is  precisely  the  position  of  Kas- 
sidhi *.  Some  remains  of  Hellenic  buildings 
are  still  to  be  seen  there,  but  the  greater  part 
of  what  Wheler  saw  has  probably  been  long 
since  carried  away  for  the  purpose  of  being  em- 
ployed in  the  erection  of  new  buildings  in  the 
islands  or  on  the  coasts  of  Greece. 

The  topography  of  the  Corinthian  coast  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  Saronic  gulf,  to  the 
south-eastward  of  Cenchreiag,  is  illustrated  by 
some  military  occurrences  in  the  Peloponnesian 
war  ^  We  learn  from  Thucydides,  that,  at  a 
distance  of  about  eight  miles  from  Corinth  and 

^  He  describes  it  as  "  an  an-  man  walking  and  a  horse  pass- 
cient  monument,  raised  three  ing  by  him  the  other  way ; 
or  four  yards  from  the  ground,  another  hath  a  figure  in  a  ly- 
and  eight  feet  square.  About  ing  posture,  but  much  de- 
it  lay  several  large  planks  of  faced."  Wheler's  Travels,  p. 
marble,  some  with  basso  re-  436. 
lievos  upon  them,  and  some  ^  Thucyd.  1.  4.  c  42. 
vtdthout ;  one  of  which  hath  a 


four  from  Cenchreiae,  there  was  a  mountain 
called  Solygius,  of  which,  in  ancient  times,  the 
Dorians  had  taken  possession,  making  w^ar  from 
thence  upon  the  Corinthians  when  the  latter 
were  of  .^olic  race.  In  the  time  of  Thucydides 
it  was  the  position  of  a  town  called  Solygeia  ^, 
In  the  seventh  year  of  the  Peloponnesian  war, 
(b.  c.  425,)  a  body  of  Athenians  disembarked 
from  the  fleet  commanded  by  Nicias  at  a  place 
between  Rheitus  and  Chersonesus,  twelve  stades 
below  Mount  Solygius,  sixty  stades  from  Corinth, 
and  twenty  from  the  Isthmus  ;  by  which  last  ex- 
pression the  historian  probably  meant  the  nearest 
part  of  the  Isthmic  plain  behind  Cenchreise. 
The  distances  fix  the  place  of  debarkation  in  the 
bay  below  Galataki,  about  three  miles  to  the 
southward  of  Kekhries.  Chersonesus  is  evi- 
dently that  peninsula  which  bounds  the  bay 
to  the  north-westward  near  the  tepid  stream, 
which  was  anciently  called  the  Bath  of  He- 
lene.  Rheitus  was  probably  the  harbour  shel- 
tered by  a  small  island,  which  is  situated  at 
three  geographical  miles  and  a  half  in  direct 
distance  to  the  south-east  of  Kekhries. 

The  Corinthians,  who  came  out  of  the  city 

^  The  ancient  cemetery  be-  found,  which  IMr.  Dodwell 
tween  IMertesi  and  Galataki,  procured  at  Corinth,  belonged 
where  a  very  ancient  vase  was      probably  to  Soiygcia. 

810  BATTLE    OF    CHERSONESUS.    [cHAI*.   XXIX. 

to  oppose  the  enemy,  stationed  half  their  forces 
at  Cenchreiae,  in  order  to  succour  Crommyon, 
should  the  Athenians  make  any  sudden  move- 
ment by  sea  against  that  place  ;  and  with  the 
remainder  they  moved  in  two  columns,  one 
to  occupy  Solygeia,  which  was  not  fortified,  the 
other  to  engage  the  Athenians,  who  were  drawn 
up  on  the  sea-shore  in  front  of  the  Chersonesus*. 
The  Corinthians  being  repulsed  after  a  very  vi- 
gorous assault,  retired  a  little  way  up  the  slope; 
then  assailing  the  enemy  from  above  with  stones, 
and  singing  the  paean,  they  rushed  again  to  the 
attack,  and  drove  a  part  of  the  Athenian  right 
to  the  sea.  At  length,  being  once  more  re- 
pulsed, and  having  lost  in  their  retreat  one  of 
their  two  commanders  and  a  great  number  of 
their  men,  they  made  no  further  attempt''. 

Thucydides  accounts  for  the  Corinthians  at 
CenchreiaB  not  having  advanced  immediately  to 
the  assistance  of  their  comrades  by  the  inter- 

■  wpo  r^i  Xsj;3-ovr;3-o! .  to  oppose  the  second  debark- 

*•  PolyBenus  (in  Strateg.  1.  ation    of    Nicias  ;    but    this 

1.  c.  39.)  represents,  that  Ni-  story,  being  so  different  from 

cias  gained  his  advantage  by  the   narrative  of  the   author 

having  phiced   a   part  of  his  who  obtained  his  information 

force  in  ambuscade  in  a  pre-  at   the  time  the   event  took 

vious  landing,  and  that  these  place,    is   not    deserving    of 

fell  upon  the  rear  of  the  Co-  much  credit, 
rinthians  when  thev  advanced 

CHAP.  XXIX.  j  ONEIA.  311 

position   of  the  hill  Oneium,  which  prevented 
them  from  seeing  the  transactions  near  Solygeia; 
as  soon  as  the  dust  which  arose  from  the  scene 
of  action  informed  them  of  what  was  passing, 
they   moved   forward   from    Cenchreise.     The 
Athenians,   finding  that  not  only  these  troops 
were  marching  against  them,  but  also  the  re- 
maining men  of  Corinth,  who  had  before  been 
left  in  the  city  as  having  passed  the   military 
age,  retired  to  their  gallies,  and  crossed  over  to 
the  neighbouring  islands.     It  appears  from  this 
narrative,  that  Thucydides  gives  the  name  of 
Oneium  to  the  ridge  already  often  mentioned, 
which  borders  the   Isthmus  on  the  south-east, 
stretching  from  the  Bath  of  Helene  and  Cen- 
chreiae  to  the  river  on  the  eastern   side  of  the 
Acro-Corinthus.     Polybius  and  Plutarch  assign 
the  same  appellation  to  this  ridge,  when  they 
relate  that  Cleomenes  fortified  with  an  entrench- 
ment, the  ravine  which  separates  this  mountain 
from  the  Acro-Corinthus \      It  appears,  there- 
fore, that  all  the  heights   bordering  upon  the 
Isthmus,  as  well  those  on  the  southern  as  on  the 
northern  side,  were  called  Oneia.  To  the  north- 
ward, according  to  Strabo,  they  comprehended 
all  the  mountains  of  Megaris,  as  far  as  Mount 
Cithgeron.     Undoubtedly  all  the  principal  sum- 

»  SiocXu^m  x"-?^"-^  >««»  I'*?';?'      '^*'^"  ^^h^- 1-  2-  c.  52.     Vide 
Tov  fjLtToc^v  TOTTov  Tov  te'ak^oxo-      ct  Plutarch.  Ill  Cleomen. 

31 'i  PORT    PEIR.tUS.  [chap.  XXIX,. 

mits  of  the  latter  range  had  specific  appellations, 
although  that  of  one  only  has  reached  us,  namely, 

Beyond  the  coast  of  Solygeia,  to  the  south- 
eastward, there  was  a  harbour,  called  Peiraeus  ; 
it  was  the  scene  of  a  remarkable  occurrence  in  the 
twentieth  year  of  the  Peloponnesian  War,  B.Ci 
•JH^.  The  Peloponnesian  fleet,  which  had  sailed 
from  Cenchreige  for  the  purpose  of  crossing  the 
iEgiPan  Sea  to  Chius,  to  assist  the  islanders  in 
their  revolt  against  Athens,  was  chased  by  the 
Athenian  fleet  into  Peiraeus,  where  the  Athenians 
obtained  a  victory,  in  wdiich  Alcamenes,  the 
Peloponnesian  commander,  was  slain.  Twenty 
of  the  Peloponnesian  ships  were  afterwards 
blockaded  in  Peiraeus,  by  an  equal  number  of 
Athenians,  dm'ing  a  great  part  of  the  summer, 
and  until  the  former,  suddenly  advancing  against 
the  blockading  force,  captured  four  ships,  and 
made  good  their  passage  to  Cenchreiae.  The 
historian  informs  us,  that  Peirasus  was  an  unin- 
habited harbour,  near  the  boundaries  of  the 
Corinthia  and  Epidauria  %  and  that,  during  the 
blockade,  the  Athenian  fleet  was  sheltered  by  a 
jieighbouring  island.  The  natural  limit  of  the 
two  districts  is  the  rugged  ridge,  which,  descend- 
ing from  Mount  Araclmceum,  forms  a  cape,  op- 
posite to  which  there  is  a  range  of  small  islands, 
extending  to  ^gina.     There  cannot  therefore 

CHAP.  XXIX.]  PORT    PEIRiEUS.  313 

he  any  doubt  that  Peiraeus  was  the  land-locked 
harbour,  now  called  Frango-Limiona,  and  that 
the  island  opposite  to  the  entrance  of  the  harbour 
was  that  which  sheltered  the  squadron  of  the 
Athenians.  It  is  now  called  Ovrio-nisi,  or  Ovrio- 
kastro,  Jew's  Castle,  which  appellation  is  derived 
from  some  ruins  in  the  island,  but  of  what  date 
or  description  I  am  not  informed.  For  the  other 
places  on  this  part  of  the  Corinthiac  coast,  we 
have  no  better  authorities  than  Pliny  and  Pto- 
lemy, whose  evidence  nearly  agrees  as  to  the 
places  situated  between  Epidaurus  and  Cen- 
chreiae,  but  who,  by  not  having  repeated  any  of 
the  names  of  Thucydides,  have  added  little  or 
nothing  to  his  information.  In  the  place  of  port 
Peiraeus,  they  both  name  a  cape  Spiraeum%  by 
which  they  perhaps  meant  the  projection  of  the 
coast,  at  which  the  harbour  of  Frango-Limiona 
is  situated. 

In  the  part  of  the  Corinthia,  adjacent  to  the 
shore  of  the  Corinthiac  Gulf,  or  Sea  Alcyonis, 
as  Strabo   calls  it ",  there  was  a  fortress  called 

«  Spirfpum  promontoriuni,  a»d  Piraeus  were  one  and  the 

portus  Anthedon  et  Bucepha-  ^^^^]^'  ^"^  Stephanus  (in  'a,- 

lus      Plin   1   4  c  5.  Qyi^uh)    shews  that  there  was 

'EttISxv^oc,     r7r:?«.o.     axfo.,  a  ^'Z^^"  'Av6»,Jov.o,- :  so  that  ^it 

'A^nvoc'.uiv  XifA-riv,  Bov)ii(pacXov  M-  woukl  sccm  that  the  'Al^mx!uii 

I'.riv,  ¥.iyx^^u,i  iTrivHov.    Ptolem.  of  Ptolemy  requires    correc- 

1.  3.  c.  \6.  tion,  rather  than  the  Anthe- 

It  might  be  suspected  that  don  of  Pliny, 
the  liarbour  of  the  Athenians  ^  Strabo,  pp.  336. 393. 400. 

S14  CENOE,    OLMI^.  [chap.  XXIX. 

QEnoe.  Strabo  mentions  it  twice,  and  in  the 
latter  of  the  two  passages  refers  to  the  former  *. 
GEnoe  stood  between  Cape  Ohniae  and  Pagae  of 
the  Megaris,  of  which  phice,  so  often  aUuded 
to  in  the  history  of  Greece,  the  remains  are 
found  at  the  harbour  now  called  Psatho.  There 
may  be  some  doubt  whether  Olmiae  was  the 
promontory  now  called  Melangavi  (Black  Cape) 
upon  which  stood  the  HeriEum,or  temple  of  Juno 
Acrasa,  or  whether  it  was  another  projection  to 
the  north-eastward  of  the  Heraeum,  immediately 
opposite  to  the  small  islands  called  Kala  Nisia, 
and  to  Mount  Korombili,  on  the  Bceotiari  coast. 
The  reasons  for  believing  that  it  was  the  latter 
promontory  are,  1.  That  Plutarch  and  Livy, 
the  latter  of  whom  exactly  describes  the  position 
of  Cape  Melangavi",  give  it  no  other  name  than 
that  of  Heraeum,  or  the  promontory  of  Juno : 

"  'En  ^\  Tf  iJ.iTex.(v  Tov  Ab-  name,  one  of  which  was  only 

X»lov  xoc)  Uxyujj  TO  Tvc  'An^cclxg  twenty  miles  distant  from  the 

//a-TEVo^  "}i^cc<;  v^a^x'  ro^ccXoc^ov  Corinthian  CEnoe.   There  was 

,     ^  .     T  -/      „ ;  /  a  fourth  in  the  opposite  direc- 

7/JflOV   TC/V    )LQh.TrOV     l\l     10     >JT£     ()J^&)7  .  .  J 

\  TT        '     V     »     ~    A/T  ^     '         tioii,  ill  the  Argeia. 
xai  Tlaycci,  ro  fji.iv  -ruv  Miyct^fuv       "       >  & 

(poovt^iov  i,  ^i  ohor,  twv  Ko^ipQlm.  ^  Promontorium     est    ad- 

Strabo,  p.  380 lU  K^i-  versus      Sicyonem     Junonis, 

ovo-uv  .  .  .  .liiTii^rj  hiKocrov  h-  quam     vocant    Acraeam,     in 

xccrt  jw,-  T^,-  axpaj  r:v^  ['o^Ki?]  alium    excurrens  ;    trajectus 

C   ,  ,         '    r"/^         >'       inle  Corinthum  septem  millia 

TOV  y.uXirov  rovTov  o-vu'oilovx.e  rcc^        „  -ni  -i     i 

„      \       ^  n  ^  ^     ^'  '  ferme  passuum  :  eo  Philocles 

U.r.yct,q    xiicracil    xai     Tv-;v     OhioyiH,  « 

TT^el  v^    H^y,y.x(^'^^.     Strabo,   p.  regius  et  ipse  preefectus,  mille 

409.     CEnoe  was  a  very  com-  et  quingentosmilites  Bceotiam 

mon  name  in  Greece.     There  duxit;  preesto  fuere  ab  Corin- 

were  two  Attic  demi  of  that  tho  lembi.  qui  praesidium  id 

CHAP.  XXIX. 3       CENOE,    PEIRiEUM.  3X5 

2.  that  supposing  Strabo  to  have  written  ^OXfiias 
in  the  doubtful  passage  cited  in  the  note,  the  dis- 
tance of  120  stades  from  Creusis,  now  l^ivddostrOt 
toOlmiae,  will  agree  much  better  with  the  reality, 
on  the  supposition  that  Olmiae  was  the  north- 
eastern of  the  two  capes :  3.  that  the  promontory 
of  Juno  would  be  more  correctly  described,  as 
forming,  together  with  Sicyon,  the  entrance  of 
the  bay  of  Corinth,  than  as  forming,  together 
with  Creusis,  the  inner  branch  of  the  sea  Al- 
cyonis,  in  which  Vagsd  was  situated ;  the  latter 
being  the  description  which  Strabo  gives  of  Ol- 
miae. In  either  case  it  is  probable  ihcXt  CEnoe  stood 
near  Bissia  ;  that  place  being  situated,  as  Strabo 
describes  QEnoe,  towards  the  innermost  part 
of  the  gulf%  whereas  the  coast  between  the  two 
capes,  or  below  Perakhora,  will  not  well  answer 
to  such  a  description,  and  was,  moreover,  in  all 
probability,  the  district  of  another  ancient  place, 
which  stood  on  or  near  the  site  of  Perakhora, 
That  place  was  Feirwumy  a  town  or  fortress  of 
the  Corinthia,  which  was  the  scene  of  an  exploit 
of  Agesilaus",  soon  after  the  attack  which  he 
and  his  brother  Teleutias  made  upon  Corinth 
by  land  and  sea,  in  the  year  b.c.  393.     The 

acceptum   Lechaeum    trajice-  ''  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1. 4.  c  5. 

rent.     Tit.  Liv.  Hist.  1.32.      Xenoph.     et     Plutarch,     in 
c  2^^.  Agesil.- 

3l6  PEIR^UM.  [chap,  XXI\'. 

modern  name,  indeed,  seems  only  to  be  a  mo- 
dification of  the  ancient  with  the  same  meaning, 
both  of  them  being  derived  from  the  position  of 
this  part  of  the  Corinthia  over  against  Corinth, 
or  beyond  the  bay  of  Lechaeum  ^. 

Agesilaus,  whose  forces  were  in  possession  of 
Lechaeum,  having  received  inteUigence  at  Sparta 
that  Peirasum  was  extremely  useful  to  the  Co- 
rinthians, that  many  persons  were  subsisted 
there,  and  that  the  cattle  which  supplied  the 
city  with  provision  was  there  chiefly  collected, 
resolved  upon  another  expedition  to  Corinth, 
for  the  sake  of  attacking  Peiraeum.  As  it  hap- 
pened to  be  the  period  of  the  Isthmic  festival, 
of  which  the  Argives  in  Corinth  had  usurped 
the  management,  Agesilaus  first  marched  to  the 
Isthmus.  On  his  approach  the  Argives  retreated 
into  Corinth,  by  the  way  of  Cenchreiae  ;  the 
Corinthian  refugees  then  completed  the  sacri- 
fices and  games  in  the  presence  of  the  Lacedaj- 
monians,  and  on  the  fourth  day  the  king  pro- 
ceeded towards  Peireeum.  Finding  that  the 
place  was  strongly  garrisoned,  he  made  a  sudden 
counter-march  towards  Corinth,  which  induced 
the  Corinthians  to  recal  Iphicrates  from  Peiraeum, 
with  the  greater  part  of  the  peltastse.     As  soon 

^  Thucydides  uses  h  Uh-  the  Oropian  frontier  of  At- 
f  aix>)  or  ri  TTE^av  yn  indifferent-  tica.  Thucyd.  1.  2.  c,  23.  1. 
ly,  as  applied  to  a  district  on      3.  c.  91. 

CHAP.  XXIX.]  PEIR^UM.  317 

as  Agesilaus  learnt  that  these  troops  had  crossed 
over  in  the  night  to  Corinth  %  he  moved  again 
towards  Peiraeum,  and  encamped  that  evening 
at  the  Therma,  or  Warm  Sources,  sending  for- 
ward the  mora  which  accompanied  him,  to  oc- 
cupy the  summit  of  the  mountain  above  the 
Therma.  Here,  being  in  their  summer  dresses, 
they  suffered  greatly  from  the  cold,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  height  of  the  hill,  and  a  recent  fall  of 
rain  and  hail.  Toremedy  the  inconvenience,  Age- 
silaus sent  up  to  them  several  earthen  vessels, 
containing  fire  ;  and  wood  being  abundant  on 
the  mountain,  they  were  thus  enabled  to  make 
large  fires,  and  to  dress  their  suppers.  While 
thus  employed,  they  beheld  at  a  distance  the 
conflagration  of  the  Temple  of  Neptune,  at  the 
Isthmus,  which  was  burnt  that  night,  it  was  not 
known  by  what  means.  As  soon  as  the  Co- 
rinthians at  Peiraeum  ascertained  that  the  heights 
were  in  possession  of  the  Lacedaemonians,  they 
retired  to  the  Herseum,  with  their  women, 
slaves,  and  cattle.  While  Agesilaus  marched 
thither  along  the  shore,  the  mora  descended 
from  the  heights,  and  captured  the  fortress 
GEnoe,  together  with  all  the  stores  which  it 
contained.  On  the  approach  of  Agesilaus,  those 
who  were  in  the  Heraeum  surrendered  at  dis- 
cretion.    Very  soon  afterwards,  while  the  king 

318  PEIU^UM.  [c  HAP.   XXIX. 

was  seated  at  a  round  building,  near  the  shore 
of  the  harbour  *,  examining  the  spoil  and  cap- 
tives which  were  brought  out  of  the  Heraeum, 
a  horseman  arrived  in  great  haste  to  inform  him 
that  the  Amyclasan  mora,  which  had  marched 
out  from  Lechaeum  towards  Sicyon,  on  its  re- 
turn to  Sparta,  to  attend  the  Hyacinthian  fes- 
tival at  Amyclse,  had  been  followed  by  a  body 
of  peltastae,  under  Iphicrates,  and  had  lost  250 
men''.  Agesilaus,  with  some  of  his  officers,  set 
out  immediately  towards  Lechasum,  leaving 
orders  for  the  troops  to  follow  as  soon  as  they 
had  dined.  When  he  had  passed  the  Therma, 
and  had  arrived  in  the  plain  of  Lechaeum,  a 
messenger  met  him,  announcing  that  the  mora 
had  been  succoured,  and  had  re-entered  Le- 
chaeum, and  that  the  dead  bodies  had  been 
brought  off.  After  a  short  halt,  therefore,  he 
returned  to  the  Heraeum. 

On  the  next  day  the  captives  were  sold  ;  on 
the  following,  Agesilaus  marched  to  the  place 
between  Lechaeum  and  Sicyon,  where  the  Amy- 
claei  had  been  defeated,  cutting  down  and  burn- 
ing the  trees  as  a  defiance  to  the  Corinthians, 

»  Inl  rov  TTEfi  Tov  XtfAEva  nv-  to  oppose  to  the  peltastee  of 

xXoTSfoC^-  ol-M^ofj.Y,^.a.'Toi;.  Iphicrates,  so  that  they  could 

•>  Their  loss  had  been  oc-  not  pursue  the   lighter   pel- 

casioned   by  their  consisting  tastae,  nor  avoid  the  effects  of 

entirely  of  hoplitaej    and  by  the  missiles  of  the  latter  on 

their  having  no  light  armed  their  right  or  unshielded  side. 

CHAP.   XXIX.]       THERMA,   HER.ELM.  319 

but  not  disturbing  the  trophy  which  had  been 
erected  by  Iphicrates.  After  these  transactions 
he  sent  back  to  Creusis  some  Boeotian  deputies 
whom  he  had  found  at  the  Heraeum,  whither 
they  had  been  sent  to  treat  for  peace,  and  re- 
turned to  Sparta  with  the  remains  of  the  de- 
feated mora,  leaving  another  in  garrison  at 
Lechaeum.  Not  long  afterwards  Iphicrates 
retook  Crommyon,  Sidus,  and  CEnoe. 

The  Therma,  or  Warm  Sources,  at  which 
Agesilaus  encamped  on  the  night  before  the 
capture  of  GEnoe  and  the  Heragum,  are  found 
at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  of  Perakhora,  on 
the  coast  of  the  Corinthian  bay,  immediately 
opposite  to  Lechffium.  The  harbour  of  the 
Hera^um,  on  the  shore  of  which  stood  the  cir- 
cular building,  appears  to  be  that  on  the  east- 
ern side  of  the  cape,  now  called  Agrio,  where 
vessels  often  seek  shelter  from  the  westerly 
winds,  to  which  the  roadsted  of  Lechaeum  is 
much  exposed. 

I  have  been  the  more  particular  in  fol- 
lowing the  expressions  of  Xenophon  in  the  pre- 
ceding narrative,  because  some  readers  may  be 
inclined  to  apply  the  transaction  to  the  harbour 
Peiraeus,  in  the  Saronic  Gulf,  and  this  is  the  more 
likely  to  happen  as,  besides  the  similarity  of 
name,  there  are  some  other  coincidences  in  the 
two  districts.  The  Warm  Sources  near  Cenchreiae, 

320  TENEA.  [chap.  XXIX._ 

anciently  called  the  Bath  of  Helene,  corre- 
spond to  the  Lutra  ;  the  mountain  above  the 
Bath  of  Helene  is  similar  to  that  which  was 
occupied  by  the  Lacedagmonian  mora  between 
the  Lutra  and  Perakhora ;  and  in  both  places 
the  road  beyond  the  Warm  Sources  led  along  the 
seashore.  The  mention,  however,  which  Xeno- 
phon  makes  of  Lechasum  and  its  plain,  as  well 
as  of  the  Hereeum,  of  CEnoe,  and  of  Creusis, 
leave  no  doubt,  that  the  district  of  Perakhora 
was  the  scene  of  the  transactions  which  he  has 

Of  all  the  subordinate  places  of  the  Corin- 
thia,  the  most  important  was  Tenea.  Strabo 
thus  speaks  of  it^ :  "  To  the  Corinthia  also  be- 
longs the  town  ^  Tenea,  where  is  the  temple  of 
Apollo  Teneates.  It  is  said,  that  the  greater 
part  of  the  followers  of  Archias,  when  he  was 
sent  to  found  the  colony  of  Syracuse,  were  of 
Tenea ;  that  the  place  w^as  afterwards  the  most 
prosperous  of  any  of  the  towns  of  the  Corinthia  ; 
and  that,  having  joined  the  Romans  against  the 
Corinthians,  it  subsisted  when  its  capital  was  de- 
stroyed." "  Strabo  adds,  that  Tenea  and  Tenedos 
had  a  common  origin  in  Tennus  the  son  of  Cy- 
cnus,    and    cites   Aristotle  in   support   of  this 

«  Strabo,  p.  380.  "  y.ujxn. 

'^  Hence  the  oracle  or  proverb 

CHAP.   XXIX.]  TENEA.  321 

opinion.  It  was  at  Tenea  that  Polybus,  king 
of  Corinth,  was  said  to  have  nourished  CEdipus, 
the  king's  shepherds  having  found  him  on  Mount 
Cithaeron,  where  he  had  been  exposed  by  his 
father  Laius  ^. 

Pausanias  bestows  only  a  few  words  on  Te- 
nea :  "  on  the  side  of  the  Acro-Corinthus,"  ^ 
he  savs,  "  towards  the  mountains  are  the  Te- 
neatic  gate,  and  a  temple  of  Lucina,  about 
sixty  stades  beyond  which  is  the  place  called 
Tenea.  The  natives  say  that  they  are  originally 
Trojans,  that  they  were  brought  from  Troy  by 
the  Greeks  as  prisoners ;  that  Agamemnon  gave 
them  this  place  for  a  habitation;  and  that,  in 
consequence  of  their  origin  from  Troy,  they 
worship  Apollo  beyond  the  other  gods."  It 
can  hardly  be  doubted,  I  think,  from  the 
former  part  of  this  passage,  that  Tenea  occu- 
pied the  valley  watered  by  the  river  which  issues 
through  the  opening  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
Acro-Corinthus  into  the  Isthmic  plain  ;  and  this 
locality  is  confirmed  by  Stephanus,  who  de- 
scribes Tenea  as  situated  between  Corinth  and 
Mycenae ". 

^   Strabo,p.380. — Apollod.  T£>£aTiy.>i    >c«i    ElXn^vix;     li^C:. 

1.  3.  c.  5.  Pausan.  Corinth,  c.  5. 

''  'Ex  $\  rot  'Ajcfoxofi'jfioy  Tga-  '^   Stephan.  in  Tevj'a. 

VOL.  III.  Y 

322  CORINTHIA.  [chap.   XXIX. 

Notwithstanding  the  mihtary  strength  of  the 
Corinthia,    and   the    commanding    position    of 
Corinth,   notwithstanding    the   facihties   which 
the  natural  formation  of  the  territory  offered 
for  the  apphcation  of  artificial  strength  in  the 
most  effectual  manner,  it  does  not  appear  that 
the   Corinthians  ever   controlled  the  affairs  of 
Greece,  in   any  important  crisis  of  its  history. 
Generally  divided  like  the  other  republics  into 
two   parties,  they  were   probably  seldom   able, 
even  with  the  assistance  of  their  allies,  to  find 
defenders  for  the  immense  circuit  of  the  citadel, 
city.  Long  Walls,  and  port  of  Lechaeum,  still 
less  to  occupy  effectually  the  Isthmus,  or  the 
passes  eastward  of  the  Acro-Corinthus.     Even 
in  the  Boeotian  war,  when  Corinth  was  allied 
with    Sparta   and    Athens,   as  well   as  with    a 
considerable  portion  of  the  Peloponnesus,  the 
Thebans,    in    their   repeated   invasions   of  the 
peninsula,   found    no    difficulty   in    penetrating 
into  the  heart  of  it,  after  they  had  passed  the 
Oneia.     In  the  present  age,  when  politics  and 
war  are  conducted  on  a  larger  scale  and  more 
enlightened   principles,  when    large    bodies   of 
men  are  more  easily  brought  to  follow  a  single 
impulse,  than  could  occur  among  the  small  and 
jealous  republics  of  Greece,  when  the  greater 
power  and  range  of  missile  weapons  renders  a 


larger  space  of  ground  defensible  by  the  same 
numbers,  that  triple  barrier  of  the  Peloponnesus, 
which  is  formed  by  the  Oneia,  by  the  Isthmus, 
and  by  the  Corinthian  line,  would  furnish  the 
finest  field  for  the  exercise  of  military  science. 

Y  2 



From  Corinth  to  St.  George. — CLEONiE. — Ancient  Roads 
from  Cleon;e. — Nemea.— St.  George.— Pntius. — The 
Phliasia. — Ancient  Military  Operations  in  this  District. 
— Orne^e. — From  St.  George  to  Vasilika. — Sicyon. — 
Subordinate  Places  of  the  Sicyonia. — EpieiciAjThyamia, 
Ger.e,  Titane. 

April  24.  For  the  last  three  days  we  have 
had  a  south-west  wind,  and  heavy  showers,  with 
only  short  intermissions.  Before  that  time  the 
wind  was  southerly,  with  light  airs,  the  sky 
hazy,  and  the  heat  oppressive,  without  any  rain. 
At  8^  this  morning  I  quit  Corinth  ;  at  8.40 
leave  the  road  to  Vasilika  on  the  right,  and  take 
that  of  Argos,  which  passes  through  the  white 
clayey  hills  on  the  southern  side  of  the  plain  of 
Corinth :  here  the  road  is  very  slippery,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  late  rains,  and  our  pace  is  slow, 
although  we  have  good  menzil  horses.  At  8.57 
we  cross,  by  a  bridge,  a  small  stream  which  joins 
that  of  Cleonce.  At  9.5  pass  a  quarry,  and  the 
marks  of  chariot  wheels  in  the  rocks,  and  a 
little  farther  some  Hellenic  foundations.  Hav- 
ing entered  the  valley  of  the  river  of  CleonWy 

CHAP.  XXX.]]  CLEON^.  325 

we  cross  the  stream  three  times,  generally  pro- 
ceeding along  its  right  bank,  between  rugged 
hills,  which  connect  the  Acro-Corinthus  on  the 
left  with  the  truncated  peak  called  Fuka  (pro- 
bably the  ancient  Apesas)  on  the  right.  At 
10.35,  at  the  opening  of  this  narrow  valley  into 
the  plain  of  Cleonce^  Omer  Tjaus,  a  small  village, 
adorned  with  gardens  and  cypresses,  stands  on 
the  opposite  or  right  bank  of  the  river.  Several 
rivulets  descend  from  the  surrounding  moun- 
tains, and  unite  in  the  plain.  Of  these  moun- 
tains the  most  remarkable  is  a  long  ridge,  called 
Aion  Oros,  of  which  the  direction,  like  that  of 
the  plain  itself,  is  from  north-west  to  south-east. 
Leaving  the  river  and  plain  on  our  left,  we 
cross  some  uncultivated  hills,  the  roots  of  Mount 
Fuka,  and  at  11.13  halt  for  a  few  minutes  at 
the  site  of  Cleo7ia\  The  only  remains  are  some 
Hellenic  foundations  around  a  small  height, 
upon  which  are  the  supporting  walls  of  several 
terraces.  A  hamlet  of  four  or  five  houses  on 
the  slope  towards  the  plain  is  still  called 
Klenes  %  not  far  from  which  is  a  larger  village, 
named  Kurtesi.  That  of  Ai  Vasili,  from  which 
the  plain  generally  takes  its  name,,  stands  in  a 
lofty  situation,  on  the  face  of  Aion  Oros,  above 
the  opposite  side  of  the  plain,  at  a  distance  of 
two  miles  direct  to  the  s.e.  of  Cleonce, 

326  CLEON^.  [chap.  XXX. 

StrabOj  having  been  in  this  instance  an  eye- 
witness, seems  to  have  correctly  described 
Cleonae  ^  as  having  been  a  small  town  ^  lying 
on  the  road  from  Argos  to  Corinth,  on  a  hill 
surrounded  on  all  sides  by  buildings,  and  well 
walled ;  so  as  to  deserve  the  epithet  applied  to 
it  by  Homer''.  He  adds,  "it  is  120  stades 
distant  from  Argos,  and  eighty  from  Corinth. 
We  ourselves  saw  the  place  from  the  Acro-Co- 
rinthus."  Pausanias  ''  describes  Cleonae  in  like 
manner,  as  a  small  city^.  The  only  monuments 
he  remarked  there,  were  a  temple  of  Minerva, 
containing  an  ancient  statue  by  Dipoenus  and 
Scyllis,  disciples  of  Daedalus,  and  a  monument 
of  Eurytus  and  Cteatus,  sons  of  Actor,  who 
were  slain  by  Hercules,  as  they  were  proceeding 
from  Elis  to  the  Isthmic  Games  ^  He  takes  no 
notice  of  the  temple  of  Hercules,  which,  as  we 
learn  from  Diodorus,  was  erected  near  Cleonae 
in  memory  of  that  event. 

"There  are  two  roads**,  continues  Pausanias, 
"  from  Cleonae  to  Argos :  the  shorter  is  suited 

^  Strabo,  p.  377-  at  a  khan,  five  minutes  beyond 
^  7ro^K7|U.a.  the  ruins  of  Cleonce,  on  the 
*=  iw.-n^iva,:.  road  to  Tretiis,  there  are  some 
^  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  15.  remains  of  a  small  Doric  tem- 
*  ttoXk  oi)  jj.iya}<.ri.  pie  in  antis^  with  fragments 
f  Pausan.  Eliac.  prior,  c.  of  a  statue ;  it  is  probably 
2. — Diodor.  1.  4.  c  33. — I  the  temple  of  Hercules,  men- 
have  since  been  informed  that  tioned  by  Diodorus. 

CHAP.  XXX.]  NEMEA.  327 

to  pedestrian  travellers ;  that  which  leads  by 
Tretiis,  although  narrower,  and  closely  inclosed 
by  mountains,  is  better  adapted  to  carriages. 
In  these  mountains  they  still  shew  the  cave  of 
the  Nemean  lion,  at  a  distance  of  fifteen  stades 
from  Nemea.  The  temple  of  Jupiter  Nemeius 
is  worth  seeing,  although  its  roof  has  fallen,  and 
the  statue  no  longer  remains.  Around  the 
temple  there  is  a  grove  of  cypresses.  The 
Argives  sacrifice  to  Jupiter  at  Nemea,  and  elect 
the  priest  of  the  god.  They  have  instituted 
also  a  contest  of  running,  for  armed  men,  at 
the  winter  festival  of  the  Nemeia."  *  The  other 
monuments  at  Nemea  were  the  sepulchres  of 
Opheltes,  and  his  son,  Lycurgus.  The  former 
was  a  tomb  ^  standing  within  an  inclosure  % 
which  contained  also  certain  altars ;  the  latter 
was  a  heap  of  earth  ^.  There  was  a  source 
of  water  ^  at  Nemea,  called  Adrasteia.  Above 
Nemea  was  the  mountain  Apesas,  where  Per- 
seus was  said  to  have  been  the  first  person  who 
sacrificed  to  Jupiter  Apesantius. 

In  this,  as  in  so  many  other  passages  of  Pau- 
sanias,  it  is  difficult  to  understand  the  direction 
of  the  roads,  and  the  relative  situation  of  the 
places,  without  actually  visiting  them.  It 
appears  that  anciently  three  roads  radiated  from 

*   Nif/,ni)iv  iTuvyiyvpti  run  yji^icauv,  '^   (j^iyKOi. 

328        ROADS  FROM  CLEON.E   [CHAP.  XXX. 

Cleonae ;  1.  The  foot  road  to  Argos  ;  this  I 
take  to  have  been  the  same  which  Polybius  and 
Athenaeus  call  the  Contoporeia.  1st.  Because 
the  name,  meaning  staff-road,  indicates  a  route 
for  pedestrians  only.  2dly.  Because  Polybius 
speaks  of  it  as  the  most  direct  way  from  Corinth 
to  Argos  %  which  agrees  with  the  foot  road  of 
Pausanias.  3dly.  Because  Ptolemy  Philadel- 
phus,  as  quoted  by  Athenaeus,  remarks,  that  it 
crossed  a  mountain  '',  which  accords  with  the 
modern  route  over  the  Aion  Oros,  through  Ai 
Vasili.  2.  The  second  road  from  Cleonae  was 
that  called  Tretus,  or  "  the  Perforated  ",  from  the 
caverns  with  which  it  abounds.  I  passed  through 
it  on  a  former  occasion ;  it  is  a  bed  of  a  torrent 
between  steep  rocks  which  open  into  the  Ar- 
golic  plain  near  Mycenae.  Although  circuitous, 
it  is  much  more  convenient  than  the  Contopo- 
reia, being  level  throughout,  and  avoiding  all 
the  mountains.  3.  The  third  road  from  Cleonae 
led  to  Nemea.  This  I  now  follow  and  cross  a 
stony  ridge  which,  in  appearance,  connects  tlie 
mountain  of  Ai  Vasili  with  Mount  Fuka,  or 
Jpesas,  three    miles   on   the   right,  though  in 

^  Polyb.  1.  16.  c.  16.  source  of  water  on  the  moiiu- 

^  Ptolcm.  regis  Comment.  tain    (y.ccrcc   7>jv   anji^ftav)    so 

ap.  Athen.  1.  2.   c.  6.     The  cold  that   none  of  those  who 

king  says  that,  travelling  to  accompanied    him    dared   to 

Corinth    by  the   road    called  drink  of  it. 

Contoporeia,    he    drank  of  a 

CHAP.  XXX.]  TO    NEMEA.  329 

reality  the  ridge  is  separated  from  the  former 
mountain  by  the  Tretus.     At  11.35,  on  the  rise 
of  the  ridge  are  several  natural  caverns  on  the 
right  of  the  road.     These  may  have  been  the 
abode  of  wild  beasts  when  the  Nemeian  forest 
covered   all   Tretus  and   Apesas,  but  none  of 
them  has  any  pretensions,  if  we  follow  Diodorus  * 
and  Pausanias,  to  the  honour  of  having  been  the 
favourite  dwelling  of  the  celebrated  lion  slain  by 
Hercules,  by  command  of  Eurystheus  King  of 
Mycense.     That  cavern  was  in  the  Tretus,  be- 
tween Nemea  and  Mycenae  ;  Pausanias  says,  at 
only  fifteen  stades  from  the  former  place.     In 
that  narrow  pass,   indeed,  like   a  kleft   of  the 
present  day,  he  was   more  certain  of  intercept- 
ing a  traveller  than   in   these  more  open  hills. 
It  is  curious  to  remark,  that  the  most  ancient 
writer  who    mentions   this   famous   beast,   was 
content  to  state  the  extent  of  country  which  he 
infested  ^ ;  but  that  the  later  Greeks  were  not 
satisfied  without  identifying  his  dwelling.     Ac- 
cording to  Apollodorus,  his  cave  had  two  en- 
trances,   one    of    which     Hercules    obstructed 
before  he  attacked  the  lion  \ 

Opposite    to    the    caverns   above-mentioned, 
there  is  an  artificial  excavation  in   the  rock  on 

a  Diodor.  1.  4.  c.  1 1 . 

Hfsiod.  Thcogoii.  V.  331. 
f  Apollod.  1.  2.  c.  5. 

330  NEMEA.  [chap.  XXX. 

the  road  side,  a  foot  and  a  half  or  two  feet 
square ;  it  was  probably  a  conduit  to  convey 
water  to  Cleonce.  It  is  traceable  at  intervals 
for  a  considerable  distance  up  the  ascent. 

At  12,  we  halt  for  a  few  minutes  on  the  sum- 
mit of  the  ridge,  from  whence  the  whole  range 
of  Artemisium  appears  before  us.  We  then  turn 
a  little  to  the  right  of  the  former  direction,  and 
descend  into  the  plain  of  Nemea ;  entering 
which,  at  12.30,  there  is  a  tjisme,  or  Turkish 
fountain,  now  without  water,  and  near  it  a  na- 
tural source,  probably  the  Adrasteia.  At  the 
foot  of  the  mountain,  to  the  left  of  this  spot, 
before  we  arrive  at  the  temple  of  Jupiter,  I  find 
some  vestiges  of  the  Nemeian  stadium.  The 
circular  end  is  the  only  part  of  which  the  form 
is  well  preserved;  this  made  me  suppose  it  at 
first  a  theatre  ;  but  the  parallel  sides  of  the 
stadium,  although  almost  levelled  by  the  con- 
tinued effects  of  the  rain-water  from  the  moun- 
tain, are  still  perfectly  traceable,  and  there  is 
even  a  part  of  the  wall  remaining  which  sup- 
ported the  rectilinear  extremity  towards  the 
plain  :  I  measured  650  feet  from  this  wall  to  the 
circular  end ;  it  is  the  usual  extreme  length  of 
the  Greek  stadium,  and  would  leave  about  600 
Greek  feet  between  the  aphesis  and  campter, 
or  two  extremities  of  the  course. 

On  my  former  visit  to  Nemea,  we  searched  for 
the  stadium  nearly  in  the  same  situation  without 

qHAP.  XXX.]  NEMEA.  331 

recognizing  it,  though  it  is  so  evident  that  my 
janissary  SaHh  knew  it   immediately  to  be  the 
same  kind  of  monument  which  he  had  assisted 
me  to  measure  at  Sicyon  and  the  Isthmus,  and 
to  which   he   had  given   the    name   of  Karavi 
(ship).     Between  the  stadium  and  the  temple 
of  Jupiter,  on   the  left  of  the  path,  are  some 
Hellenic    foundations,    and    two   fragments   of 
Doric  columns,  two  feet  three  inches  in  diame- 
ter.    Near  the  temple  are  the  ruins  of  a  small 
church,  which  contains  some   Doric  fragments 
of  dimensions  too  small  to  have  belonged  to  the 
temple.     The  three  columns   which  Chandler 
found  here  are  still  standing,  amidst  a  vast  heap 
of  ruins.     Two  of  these  columns  belonged  to 
the  pronaos,  and  were  placed  as  usual  between 
antcE ;  they  are  four  feet  seven  inches  in  diame- 
ter at  the  base,  and  still  support  their  architrave. 
The  third  column  which  belonged  to  the  outer 
range  is  five  feet  three  inches  in  diameter  at 
the  base,  and  about  thirty-four  feet   high,  in- 
cluding a  capital  of  two  feet.     Its  distance  from 
the  corresponding   column   of  the   pronaos  is 
eighteen  feet.     The  total  height  of  the  three 
members  of  the  entablature  was  eight  feet  twa 
inches.     The  general  intercolumniation  of  the 
peristyle  was  seven  feet ;  at  the  angles,  five  feet 
ten  inches.     From  the  front  of  the  pronaos  to 
the  extremity  of  the  cell  within,  the  length  was 

33^  NEMEA.  [chap.  XXX. 

ninety-five  feet ;  the  breadth  of  the  cell  within, 
thirty-one  feet;  the  thickness  of  the  walls,  three 
feet.  The  temple  was  a  hexastyle,  of  about 
sixty-five  feet  in  breadth  on  the  upper  step  of 
the  stylobate  which  consisted  of  three  steps : 
the  number  of  columns  on  the  sides,  and  con- 
sequently the  length  of  the  temple,  I  could  not 
ascertain  '.  The  slenderness  of  the  columns 
is  particularly  remarkable,  after  viewing  those 
of  Corinth ;  it  is  curious  that  the  shortest  and 
longest  specimens,  in  proportion  to  their  dia- 
meter, of  any  existing  Doric  columns,  should 
be  found  so  near  to  one  another.  The  columns 
of  Nemea  are  more  than  six  diameters  high,  or 
as  slender  as  some  examples  of  the  Ionic  ;  those 
of  Corinth,  as  we  have  seen,  very  little  above 
lour.  The  entablature  of  Nemea  was  less  than 
one-fourth  of  the  height  of  the  column,  whereas 
at  Corinth  it  was  about  a  half.  The  extant 
architrave  of  the  temple  of  Nemea  being  so  low, 
and  the  capitals  of  the  columns  proportionally 
small  and  narrow  compared  to  the  height  of  the 
shaft,  the  impression  on  many  spectators  will 
be,  that  the  whole  building  was  inelegant  and 
meagre,  compared  to  the  Doric  buildings  of 
Attica,  ^gina,  and  Phigaleia :  but  it  would  be 

^  i\Ir.  WilkinSj  in  the  In-  sa3s  that  there  were  fourteen 
troduction  to  the  Antiquities  cohimns,  and  that  the  entire 
of  Magna  Grtccia,  note  p.  xvii.      length  was  about  104  feet. 


CHAP.  XXX.]  NEMEA.  333 

unjust  to  come  to  this  conclusion  upon  the  view 
of  a  mere  fragment.     In  every  thing  relating 
to  architecture  the  ancients  vi^ere  much   more 
learned  than  the  moderns,  and  external  effect 
was    of  course    one  of   their   most   important 
studies.     They  considered  particularly  the  cir- 
cumstances of  position ;  and  proportions  which 
might  have  secured  approbation  in  the  midst  of 
a  city,   and  surrounded  by  smaller  buildings, 
might  not  have  been  thought  suitable  to  a  soli- 
tary edifice  in  a  narrow  valley,  surrounded  by  hills 
like  the  ^advireBios  Ne/Mca '.     These  refinements 
of  art  we  cannot  well  suppose  to  have  been  the 
accompaniment  of  a  very  early  period,  and  they 
furnish  an  argument  therefore  against  the  re- 
mote antiquity  of  the  temple  of  Nemea,  though 
the  Nemeian  games,  of  which   there  were  still 
some  remains  in  the  time  of  Pausanias,  were 
extremely  ancient ;  he  tells  us  that  they  were 
established  by  Adrastus,   and  renewed  by  the 
Epigoni " :  and   Apollodorus  has  given  us  the 

*  Pindar.  Nem.  3.   v.   30.  a  lofty  promontory.  But  they 

It  is  curious  to  observe,  that  do  not  resemble  in  the  height 

thehexastyle  which  approach-  of  the  entablature,  which,  at 

es   nearest    to   the   Nemeian  Sunium,  is  about  one-third  of 

in  the  slenderness  of  its  co-  the  height  of  the  column  as 

lumns  is  that  of  Sunium,  al-  in  the  Theseium  and  Parthe- 

though  the  situations  of  the  non :  at  Nemea  the  entabla- 

two  temples  are  as  different  ture  is  less  than  a  fourth, 
as  possible,  the  one  placed  in  ^  Pausan.  Phocic.  c.  25. 

a  narrow  vallev,  the  other  on 

334)  NEMEA.  [chap.  XXX. 

names  of  the  victors,  on  the  latter  occasion,  in 
all  the  eight  kinds  of  contest '.  They  were 
celebrated  in  the  presence  of  Philip,  son  of  De- 
metrius ^  in  the  years  b.c.  217  and  208,  and 
had  not  fallen  into  neglect  in  the  beginning  of 
the  Roman  empire  \  There  is  no  information 
in  history  which  can  lead  to  any  well  grounded 
opinion  as  to  the  time  when  the  temple  of  Jupi- 
ter, which  undoubtedly  existed  here  from  an 
early  period,  was  rebuilt  in  the  form  of  which 
the  ruins  still  exist ;  but  I  am  inclined  to  ascribe 
it  to  the  same  half  century,  between  the  end 
of  the  Persian  war  and  the  beginning  of  the 
Peloponnesian,  which  gave  rise  to  so  many  of 
the  buildings  of  Attica,  and  during  which  Pin- 
dar conferred  an  honour,  more  lasting  than  the 
temple,  on  several  of  the  victorious  athletse  of 
the  Nemeian  Games.  The  rebuilding  of  the 
great  temple  of  Juno,  near  Mycenae,  which  was 
destroyed  by  fire  in  the  ninth  year  of  the  Pelo- 
ponnesian war'',  probably  exhausted  the  means 
of  the  Argives,  applicable  to  such  works,  for 
many  years  after  that  event. 

Nemea,  like  Olympia,  the  Isthmian  Hierum, 
and  several  other  similar  establishments  of 
smaller  note  in  Greece,  consisted   only  of  an 

*  Apollod.  1.  3.  c.  6.  lopoemen. 

b  Polyb.  1.5.  c.  101.— Liv.  "^  Strabo,  p.  377. 

1. 27.  c.  31 Plutarch  in  Phi-  '>  Thucyd.  1.  4.  c.  vlt. 

CHAP.  XXX.]         NEMEA.  335 

akaos,  or  sacred  grove,  which  contained  the  sta- 
dium, theatre,  temple,  and  other  monuments ; 
there  was  a  tow^n  *  near  it  called  Bembina  ^,  the 
situation  of  which  I  cannot  ascertain. 

The  pear-tree  mentioned  by  Chandler  still 
grows  within  the  ruins  of  the  cell  of  the  temple. 
The  plain  lies  in  a  direction  nearly  north  and 
south,  and  is  from  a  half  to  three  quarters  of  a 
mile  in  breadth  and  two  or  three  miles  long. 
Theocritus  gives  toNemea  the  epithet  of"  well 
watered"".  There  are  several  rivulets  from 
the  surrounding  mountains  which  collect,  as  at 
Cleo7ia\  in  the  plain,  flow  northward  tluough 
the  ridges  of  Ajjesas,  leaving  the  summit  of 
that  mountain  to  the  right,  and  upon  emerging 
from  the  hills  cross  the  olive-grounds  of  Vokha 
to  the  sea.  The  river  bore  the  same  name  as 
the  sacred  grove.  The  valley  is  inclosed  on  the 
side  opposite  to  Mount  Fuka,  or  the  south- 
west, by  another  hill  of  nearly  equal  height,  on 
the  other  side  of  which  stands  the  town  of  St. 

**  Kuy.i).  HeUanicus,  Rhianus,    Pa- 

^  'E>TaD9«   ^i   y.a.]  ii   Ns^sa  nyasis  ap.   Stephan.  in    Be/^- 

fAET«|^  KA£a;vp^^x«i^  <DA.oD:to?,  ^-^^^      Theocritus  (Id.  25.  V. 

,  .,    „.         ;.    .        ,     '^    .  202)  represents  the  Nemeian 

ra  ^£p]  ri.  Ns^saro.  >.L,Tx  /^t-  ^'""'^  '^^  ''^^'"^S  ^<^^"  partial- 
6ao>£va  xa»  ^  Bif^^^vx  yJjixr,.  larly  destructive  to  the  neighr 
Stral)o,  p.  377.  bouring  BembinaRi. 

'     Ottttw:  t    ^vvdfov  Nfp.f*);  eiVjjAt'fi?  ^wp'):'. 

Theocr.  Id.  2').  v.  182. 

336  AI    GHIORGHI.  [chap.  XXX. 

At  2.15  we  leave  the  temple  and  pursue  a 
road,  which  turns  off  to  the  right  of  that  lead- 
ing to  the  Tretus :  after  having  crossed  the  re- 
maining part  of  the  plain,  the  vineyards  of  Kut- 
zomadhi  *  are  on  the  right ;  at  2.30  that  vil- 
lage, which  is  half  way  up  the  mountain  of  St. 
George,  is  a  mile  and  a  half  distant.  Crossing 
a  low  rocky  ridge  we  then  descend  into  the 
southern  end  of  the  plain  of  St.  George,  below 
the  monastery  of  "  Panaghia  on  the  precipice"  ^ 
which  is  on  the  left  under  the  precipice  of  an 
insulated  rocky  hill  rising  from  that  end  of  the 
plain.  This  monastery  was  visited  by  Chandler 
in  1766,  who  found  there  "a  most  transparent 
w^ater,  a  picture  of  the  Virgin  which  works  mi- 
racles, and  a  Greek  sepulchral  inscription  in 
the  wall." 

Having  turned  to  the  right  we  skirt  the  foot 
of  the  mountain  of  Ai  Ghiorghi  *",  and  arrive  at 
that  place  at  2.53.  It  is  a  kefalokhori  of  two 
makhalas,  containing  together  200  houses, 
which  own  half  the  land  of  the  subjacent  plain  ; 
Nuri  Bey  has  the  other  half.  He  is  said  to 
possess  1000  zevgaria  in  the  country  anciently 
belonging  to  Corinth,  Sicyon,  Phlius,  Stympha- 
lus,  and  Pheneus.  The  plain  of  St.  George 
produces  corn  and  vines,  and  is  watered  by 

*  KofT^o/iAa^».  ''  Uavuyla.  a-jov  /3p«;^ov.  "^  "Ay»o?  Tw^yjoj. 

CHAP.  XXX.]  AI    GHIORGHI.  337 

many  rivulets  flowing  from  the  surrounding 
mountains,  which  unite  in  the  plain.  The  road 
from  St.  George  to  Argos  ascends  the  most  con- 
siderable of  these  torrents,  entering  its  narrow 
valley  just  under  the  monastery  of  the  Panaghia, 
which  is  to  the  left  of  the  torrent.  The  direct 
road  to  Tripolitza,  after  crossing  the  plain, 
passes  along  the  foot  of  a  rocky  height,  a  pro- 
longation of  that  of  the  Panaghia,  and  then 
passes  by  Liondi  over  the  Artemisiiim  to  Tzi- 
piana.  But  this,  in  many  parts,  is  little  better 
than  a  mountain  path,  and  the  usual  communi- 
cation is  by  Argos. 

St.  George  is  said  to  be  more  healthy  and  to 
enjoy  a  better  climate  and  temperature  than 
either  Argos  or  Corinth.  When  the  north  or 
north-west  winds  are  strong  in  the  Corinthiac 
Gulf  it  is  hot  at  Argos,  and  the  diurnal  sea 
breeze  ^  often  blows  strongly  in  the  Argolic  Gulf 
when  there  is  none  at  Corinth ; — in  both  cases 
it  is,  according  to  the  St.  Georgians,  cool  with 
them.  Every  part  of  the  Argolic  plain  is  con- 
sidered unhealthy  in  summer,  and  the  heat  is 
excessive ;  that  of  the  ravine  of  the  Tretus^  in 
the  mid-day  hours,  is  said  to  be  something  be- 
yond bearing,  which  I  can  easily  conceive, 
having  passed  through  it  in  August,  at  an  hour 

"  'EjuiCacrt*,  by  the  Levantine  Franks  called  Imbat. 
VOL.  III.  Z 

338  AI    GHIORGHI.  [chap.  XXX. 

of  the  morning  when  the  heat  was  compara- 
tively moderate.  Not  long  since,  a  Tartar,  after 
having  drunk  plentifully  of  wine  and  raki  at 
Corinth,  was  found  to  be  dead  when  the  suriji 
held  his  stirrup  to  dismount  at  the  khan  of 
Kharvati  {Mycence),  just  beyond  the  exit  of 
the  Tretus.  In  fact,  there  seems  no  reason 
why  a  dead  Tartar  might  not  travel  a  whole 
stage  as  well  as  a  sleeping  one,  which  often 

The  chief  subject  of  conversation  among  the 
politicians  of  St.  George,  is  an  act  of  justice 
lately  performed  by  the  Pasha  upon  the  Boluk- 
Bashi  who  commanded  the  police  guard  of  Tri- 
politza,  and  who  had  been  recently  employed 
by  the  Pasha  against  the  thieves.  Instead  of 
performing  his  duty  he  plundered  the  villages, 
cut  off  the  heads  of  some  of  the  peasants,  pre- 
sented them  to  the  Vezir  as  the  heads  of  rob- 
bers, and  received  a  reward  for  them.  The 
Pasha  having  discovered  his  crimes,  issued  an 
order  for  his  head,  and  gave  the  commission  to 
the  Dehli-Bashi  who  commands  the  Pasha's 
body-guard.  The  Boliik-Bashi  being  a  true 
Albanian,  brave  and  artful,  the  Dehli  thought 
it  safest  to  employ  treachery,  which  indeed  is 
the  ordinary  mode  of  operating  in  such  cases 
among:  the  Turks.  He  invited  the  Albanian  to 
dinner,  and  while  the  latter  was  smoking  his 


pipe  and  the  servants  were  preparing  the  table, 
lie  drew  out,  in  order  that  every  thing  should 
be  done  in  form,  first,  the  buyurdi,  or  written 
order,  secondly,  a  pistol  to  shoot  his  guest,  and 
thirdly,  a  hanjar  to  cut  off  his  head,  with  whicli 
he  proceeded  forthwith  to  the  Serai  and  laid  it 
at  the  Pasha's  feet.  It  is  admitted  that  the  af- 
fair was  well  and  technically  done  *. 

April  25. — As  it  is  evident  that  the  valley, 
which  extends  for  four  or  five  miles  to  the 
southward  and  westward  of  St.  George,  is  the 
ancient  Phliasia,  I  endeavoured  to  discover  from 
some  of  the  natives  who  visited  me  yesterday 
evening,  the  site  of  Phliiis  itself,  and  soon  learnt 
that  at  Polyfengo,  only  half  an  hour  to  the 
northward,  there  are  many  remains  of  ancient 
buildings.  The  learned  indeed,  and  among 
them  the  hthdaKoXos  himself  denied  that  there 
were  any  Hellenic  vestiges  ^  among  those  re- 
mains, but  having  often  witnessed  the  ignorance 
of  the  Greeks  as  to  places  situated  close  to 
their  own  doors,  I  proceed  this  morning  to  Po- 

Quitting  St.  George  at  6^,  and  skirting  the 
foot  of  the  hill  on  which  the  village  stands,  I 
cross,  at  Q.53,  a  small  brook  which  joins  the 
Asopus  in  the  plain.      It  borders  the  site  of 

340  .  PHLIUS.  [chap.  XXX. 

Phlius  to  the  south-east.  At  7  I  arrive  on  the 
summit  of  the  Acropolis,  which  occupied  a  pro- 
jecting height,  the  last  root  of  the  mountain  of 
St.  George  :  the  walls  of  the  citadel  are  trace- 
able in  many  places,  but  particularly  across  the 
neck  of  the  hill  in  its  highest  part ;  on  the  sum- 
mit there  are  several  remains  of  foundations, 
but  none  that  can  positively  be  ascribed  to  the 
Temple  of  Hebe.  The  town  appears  to  have 
covered  the  southern  side  of  this  hill,  and  below 
it  to  have  occupied  all  the  angle  bounded  by  the 
river  Asopus,  and  the  brook  already  mentioned. 
The  wall  is  traceable  on  the  south-eastern  de- 
scent from  the  Acropolis  to  the  brook,  and  for  a 
short  distance  along  its  bank.  On  the  south- 
west it  seems  not  to  have  inclosed  so  much  of 
the  plain  j  for  after  its  descent  from  the  hill 
it  is  traced  for  a  short  distance  only  along  the 
foot  and  then  crosses  to  the  Asopus. 

Pausanias  says^,  that  "the  temple  dedicated 
to  Hebe,  more  anciently  called  Ganymeda,  who 
was  daughter  of  Juno,  sister  of  Mars,  andwine- 
pourer  ^  to  the  gods,  stood  in  a  cypress  grove 
in  the  Acropolis  of  Phlius  ;  it  was  of  great  an- 
tiquity and  enjoyed  a  right  of  asylum  ;  the 
chains  of  liberated  prisoners  were  hung  upon  the 
trees  of  the  grove ;  there  was  no  statue.    To  the 

*  Pausan.  1.  2.  c  13.  ^  olvrjyooc 


left  of  the  temple  of  Hebe,  on  going  out  of  it, 
was  a  temple  of  Juno  with  a  statue  of  Parian 
marble.  There  was  also  in  the  Acropolis  a  sa- 
cred inclosure  of  Ceres  containing  a  temple  and 
statues  of  Ceres  and  Proserpine,  and  an  ancient 
brazen  image  of  Diana.  On  the  right,  in  de- 
scending from  the  citadel,  stood  the  temple  of 
<^sculapius,  having  a  beardless  statue  of  the 
god  ;  and  below  it  the  theatre,  near  which  there 
was  a  temple  of  Ceres,  containing  ancient  seated 
statues  of  the  goddess  and  her  daughter.  In 
the  Agora  there  was  a  brazen  goat  for  the  most 
part  gilded ;  it  had  been  erected  as  a  propitiation 
of  the  star  called  the  Goat,  the  rising  of  which 
was  supposed  to  injure  the  vines.  The  Agora 
contained  also  the  monument  of  Aristias,  son 
of  Pratinas,  which  two  persons  excelled  all,  ex- 
cept -^schylus,  in  writing  satyrs.  Behind  the 
Agora  was  a  house  named  the  Prophetic  %  be- 
cause Amphiaraus  was  said  to  have  there  first 
prophesied.  Not  far  from  it  was  the  Ompha- 
lus,  so  called  [according  to  the  Phliasii]  as 
being  the  middle  of  Peloponnesus  ^  On  pro- 
ceeding from  thence  there  occurred  an  ancient 
temple  of  Bacchus  and  temples  of  Apollo  and  of 
Isis  J  in  the  two  former  the  statue  was  exposed 

^  MavTiKOf .  as  appears  by  the  words  which 

b  Pausanias   knew  better,      he  adds,  £»'  St)  t»  ovrec  ilpmecatv. 


to  the  public  view  ^,  in  that  of  Isis  it  was  seen 
by  the  priests  only.  Near  the  temple  of  Apollo 
stood  a  building  ^  sacred  to  the  memory  of  Cya- 
thus,  wine-pourer  "  of  GEneus,  who  was  slain  by 
a  blow  of  the  finger  of  Hercules;  it  contained  a 
statue  of  Cyathus  offering  a  cup  to  Hercules." 

The  name  Polyfengo  '^  is  now  attached  to  a 
tjiftlik  surrounded  with  large  poplars,  in  the 
plain  below  the  hill  of  the  Acropolis,  and  within 
the  inclosure  of  the  ancient  town.  Around 
this  spot  there  are  many  remains  of  antiquity, 
particularly  some  foundations  of  very  finished 
and  regular  masonry  at  the  foot  of  a  rock  which 
here  terminates  the  hill.  There  is  another 
foundation  below  it  200  feet  long,  and  about 
two  thirds  as  much  in  breadth.  Ancient  squared 
blocks  appear  in  many  parts  of  this  ruin,  but 
they  are  mixed  or  covered  with  heaps  of  rubble 
and  small  stones,  which  seem  to  verify  the  sup- 
position of  the  people  of  Ai  Ghiorghi,  that  here 
stood  the  Episcopal  church  of  Polyfengo,  form- 
erly one  of  the  bishoprics  of  the  province  of  Co- 
rinth, but  which,  like  all  the  other  suffragans  of 
that  metropolis,  no  longer  exists.  There  are 
some  other  similar  foundations  of  smaller  build- 
ings near  it.     The  church,  like  many  others  in 

CHAP.    XXX.]  MOUNT    GAVRIA.  343 

Greece,  was  probably  an  ancient  temple,  wliich 
had  been  converted  into  a  church  on  the  estab- 
lishment of  Christianity,  and  had  been  repaired 
with  masonry  of  later  times.  It  would  be  diffi- 
cult to  conjecture  upon  which  of  the  temples  of 
the  lower  town  of  Phlius  the  church  was  built, 
unless  some  remains  of  the  theatre  could  be  dis- 

A  little  below  the  place  where  I  crossed  the 
brook  in  approaching  the  hill  of  the  Acropolis, 
there  are  some  foundations  which  seem  to  have 
belonged  to  a  bridge.  In  the  plain  immediately 
below  St.  George  there  is  a  shapeless  mass  of 
brick  ruin. 

The  principal  sources  of  the  Asopus  are  at 
the  foot  of  Mount  Gavria,  where  I  perceive  a 
grove  of  poplars  and  other  trees.  Gavria  is  a 
picturesque,  rugged,  woody  mountain  of  a  con- 
siderable height,  interposed  between  the  Phlia- 
sian  valley  and  the  much  higher  summits  of 
Ghymnovuni  and  Zyria,  which  appear  above 
Gavria.  There  are  some  other  sources  of  the 
river  a  little  farther  south,  at  Botzika,  a  small 
village  under  the  same  mountain. 

Strabo  %  in  reference  to  the  line  in  the  Cata- 
logue of  Homer, 

remarks,  that  Araethyrea  was  the  Phliasia  of  his 
»  Strabo,  p.  382. 

344  PHLIASIA.  [chap.  XXX, 

day :  that  anciently  there  was  a  town  of  the  same 
name  situated  at  Mount  Celosse  ;  but  that,  in 
process  of  time,  the  inhabitants,  removing  from 
thence  to  a  distance  of  thirty  stades,  built  a 
new  city,  which  they  called  Phlius.  He  adds, 
that  the  source  of  the  Asopus  was  at  a  part  of 
Mount  Celosse  called  Carneates,  that  the  river 
flowed  through  Sicyonia,  and  gave  the  name  of 
Asopia  to  a  part  of  that  district  j  that  Phlius 
was  surrounded  by  Sicyonia,  Argeia,  and  the 
districts  of  Cleona?  and  Stymphalus ;  and  that 
both  in  Phlius  and  in  Sicyon  there  was  a  tem- 
ple of  Dia,  which  was  the  name  there  given  to 
Hebe\  Apollonius  Rhodius  describes  the 
town  of  Araethyrea  as  being  at  the  sources  of 
the  Asopus  ^,  thus  agreeing  exactly  with 

According  to  the  traditions  of  the  Phliasii,  as 
reported  to  Pausanias*^,  both  the  district  and 
chief  town  had  a  third  and  more  ancient  name, 
Arantia,  derived  from  Aras,  a  native  who 
founded  a  city  on  a  hill  near  the  citadel  of 
Phlius,  called  Arantinus,  where  Pausanias  saw 
the  monuments  of  Aoris  and  Araethyrea,  the 
children  of  Aras.  Asopus  was  said  to  be  the 
son  of  Neptune  and  Ceglusa  (the  same  name, 

3  Pausanias  says  nothing  of         ''  Apollon.   Rhod.  1.  ] .  v. 
this  denomination   of  Hebe,      115. 
nor  of  her  temple  at  Sicyon.  '^  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  12. 


I  apprehend,  as  the  Celosse  of  Strabo).  Phlius 
was  supposed  to  have  been  an  Argive,  and  one 
of  the  Argonauts,  whose  name,  as  it  would  ap- 
pear from  Homer,  was  not  given  to  the  places 
until  after  the  return  of  the  Heracleida3,  when 
the  city  was  removed  from  the  position  at  the 
foot  of  Mount  Celosse,  nearly  to  its  original  site 
of  Arantia. 

The  distance  of  thirty  stades  from  Phlius  to 
the  site  of  Araethyrea  agrees  very  well  with 
that  of  Polyfengo  from  the  northernmost  sources 
of  the  river  under  Mount  Gavria.  These 
springs,  therefore,  seem  to  mark  the  site  of  Arae- 
thyrea. Gavria  ^  is  a  Hellenic  name " ;  possibly 
a  small  place  called  Gaurium  may  have  suc- 
ceeded to  the  fine  position  of  Araethyrea  after 
the  removal  of  the  capital  of  Phliasia,  and  may 
have  given  the  name  of  Gaurias  to  the  moun- 
tain. Botzika,  in  like  manner,  may  perhaps 
occupy  the  site  of  an  ancient  place  called  Car- 
nea,  situated  at  the  more  distant  sources  of  the 
river,  and  from  which,  in  the  time  of  Strabo, 
the  adjacent  part  of  the  mountain  may  have  been 
called  Carneates. 

Celeae  was  five  stades  distant  from  Phlius. 
Here  the  Phliasii  celebrated,  every  fourth  year, 

^  Tuvfioii;.  drus.     Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  1. 

^  There  was  a  place  called      c.  4. 
Toiv^iov  in  the  island  of  An- 


the  mysteries  of  Ceres.  There  was  a  building 
called  the  Anactorium,  and  sepulchres  of  Aras 
and  Dysaules  ;  the  latter  was  brother  of  Celeus 
of  Eleusis,  and  introduced  the  mysteries  into 
Phliasia  \  Foundations  of  a  Hellenic  building, 
indicative  of  the  site,  are  still  to  be  seen  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Asopus,  at  about  half  a  mile 
from  Polyfengo. 

The  mountain  which  rises  immediately  east- 
ward from  the  town  of  St.  George  is  the  ancient 
Tricaranum,  as  appears  from  Xenophon,  in  his 
narrative  ^  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Phliasii, 
when  mindful  of  the  alliance  which  they  had 
formed  with  Sparta  in  her  prosperity,  they  still 
firmly  adhered  to  her  cause  after  the  disaster  at 
Leuctra,  notwithstanding  the  distress  to  which 
they  were  themselves  reduced  in  consequence 
of  that  adherence  by  the  hostile  incursions  of 
their  neighbours  of  Argos  and  Sicyon,  the  former 
of  whom  occupied  and  fortified  Tricaranum  near 
Phlius,  the  latter  Thyamia,  on  the  Sicyonian 
frontier.  Four  years  after  the  battle  of  Leuctra, 
(B.C.  367,)  when  the  Lacedaemonians  and  their 
confederates  were  posted  in  the  passes  of  the 
Oneia,  from  whence  they  were  soon  afterwards 
driven  by  Epaminondas,  a  body  of  Argives,  Ar- 
cadians, and  others  passing  through  Nemea  on 

a  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  14.  ^  Xenoph.  Hellcn.  1.  7.  c.  2. 


their  way  to  the  Isthmus  to  assist  the  operation 
of  the  Thebans,  were  met  by  some  exiles  from 
Phhus,  who  assuring  them  that  they  might  take 
Phhus  by  merely  appearing  before  it,  persuaded 
them  to  make  the  attempt.  The  same  night  the 
exiles,  provided  with  ladders  and  accompanied 
by  600  of  the  allies,  concealed  themselves  under 
the  walls  of  Phhus.  In  the  morning,  when  the 
city  was  thrown  into  confusion  by  a  signal  that 
the  enemy  was  approaching  from  Tricaranum, 
the  exiles  took  that  opportunity  to  scale  the 
walls  of  the  citadel,  but  they  were  repulsed  in 
attempting  to  make  their  way  from  the  Acro- 
polis into  the  city,  and  were  at  length  obliged 
to  take  refuge  in  the  towers  of  the  citadel. 
Meantime  the  Arcadians  and  Argives  were  still 
less  successful,  having  either  failed  in  making  a 
breach  or  having  been  overthrown  in  their  ef- 
forts to  scale  the  wall.  The  Phliasii  then,  by 
setting  fire  to  some  of  the  tow^ers  which  were 
occupied  by  the  exiles  and  partly  by  the  sword, 
succeeded  in  forcing  the  latter  to  save  them- 
selves by  leaping  from  the  ramparts.  As  soon 
as  the  citadel  was  cleared,  the  Phliasian  horse- 
men made  a  sally  and  forced  the  allies  to  a 
precipitate  retreat  with  the  loss  of  eighty  men. 

In  the  following  year  the  Theban  commander 
at  Sicyon,  with  his  own  garrison  united  to  the 
Sicyonii,    Pellenenses,    and    '2000   mercenaries 

348  HERiEUM.  [chap.  XXX. 

under  Euphron,  tyrant  of  Sicyon,  marched 
from  thence  against  Phlius,  and  descended 
through  the  Tricaranum  to  the  Heraeum%  which 
stood  at  the  foot  of  that  mountain  ^  in  order 
to  lay  waste  the  plain  of  Phlius.  The  Sicyonii 
and  Pellenenses  were  left  in  the  rear,  in  that 
part  of  the  heights  which  was  near  the  Corin- 
thian gate  of  the  city,  in  order  to  prevent  the 
Phliasii  from  marching  along  the  heights  and 
thus  obtaining  possession  of  the  high  ground 
above  the  Heraeum.  As  soon  as  the  PhHasii 
perceived  the  enemy's  intention  of  descending 
into  the  plain,  they  sent  forward  their  horse- 
men with  a  chosen  body  of  infantry  to  prevent 
them.  An  interchange  of  missiles  ensued  which 
lasted  the  greater  part  of  the  day.  The  mer- 
cenaries of  Euphron  forced  the  Phliasii  to  re- 
treat as  far  as  the  ground  which  was  favourable 
to  the  cavalry,  and  were  then  driven  in  return 
by  the  PhHasii  as  far  as  the  Heraeum.  The 
confederates  finding,  at  length,  that  they  gained 
nothing,  and  that  they  could  not  join  the  Pel- 
lenenses and  Sicyonii,  who  were  near  the  Co- 
rinthian gate,  by  a  direct  movement,  on  account 
of  a  ravine  in  front  of  the  city  walls  ",  took  a 

^  dtcc  rov  TfiKUfccvou  y.xTshui-  *^   X'fo  rov   irel^ovi    <pxpa,y^ — 

vov  \'n)  TO  Hp«7ov.  the  ravine  of  the  brook  which 

^  rh  vTT^  ToD  'H^cciov  Tf^Kci'      I   crossed   at   6.53.— See   p. 


circuitous  route  towards  them  through  Tricara- 
num,  which  gave  the  Phhasii  the  opportunity 
of  making  a  separate  attack  upon  their  oppo- 
nents near  the  gate.  These  at  first  steadily  re- 
sisted the  attack,  but  as  soon  as  the  Phhasii 
brought  up  their  infantry,  they  were  defeated 
with  the  loss  of  many  of  the  best  men  of  Pellene, 
together  with  some  Sicyonii.  The  Phliasii  erect- 
ed a  trophy  and  sang  the  paean,  and  the  enemy, 
after  having  staid  to  witness  the  ceremony,  re- 
turned to  Sicyon. 

It  seems  evident,  from  these  transactions^ 
that  Tricaranum  was  the  name  of  the  mountain 
of  St.  George,  and  that  the  fortified  post  of  the 
Argives  was  on  the  summit  of  the  mountain^. 
The  Heraeum  alluded  to  by  Xenophon,  in  re- 
lating the  later  transaction,  appears  to  have  stood 
upon  one  of  the  lower  eminences  of  the  moun- 
tain, perhaps  in  the  position  of  the  northern 
makhala  of  St.  George.  It  is  hardly  necessary 
to  add,  that  this  Heraeum  is  not  to  be  con- 
founded with  the  temple  of  Juno  in  the  Acro- 
pohs   of  Phlius,   described  by  Pausanias,    and 

^  It  appears  from  Stepha-  T^iy.i^&.vx,    cp^ov^iop   rij?   <i>At«- 

nus,  that   Theopompus,  who  «^«5*     ©wVo/ATroi      Tnrwoa-ji) 

wrote  a  history  of  the  same  tZ/xtttw.     Steph.  Byz.  in  T§»- 

wars,  described  Tricarana  as  koc^ukx,. 
a  fortress  of  the  Phliasia.  — 

350  DIOSCURIUM.  [chap.  XXX. 

which  is  alUided  to  also  by  Xenophon,  in  his 
narrative  of  the  former  attempt  made  upon 
PhUus  by  the  exiles,  where  he  says  that  one  of 
the  guards  of  the  towers,  as  he  fled  towards  the 
Herseum,  was  slain  by  those  who  scaled  the 
towers  *. 

I  have  already  had  occasion  to  speak  of  a 
place  in  the  Phliasia  called  Dioscurium,  at 
which  Philip  encamped  the  night  before  his 
defeat  of  Euripidas  at  Apelaurum^.  As  Phlius 
lay  to  the  right  of  the  road  which  led  from  the 
Isthmus  to  Stymphalus  through  Dioscurium, 
this  place  would  seem  to  have  been  not  far  from 
the  modern  St.  George,  in  the  plain  below  it. 

Ornese  seems  to  have  been  situated  very  near 
the  southern  side  of  the  plain  of  Ai  Ghiorghi, 
Strabo  says  that  it  stood  above  the  Sicyonian 
plain,  upon  a  river  of  the  same  name  %  which 
river  he  seems,  in  another  passage,  to  represent 
as  joining  the  sea  between  Corinth  and  Sicyon**. 
As  there  are  only  three  streams  collected  in  the 
interior  valleys  above  the  Sicyonia,  which  join 
the  sea  between  Corinth  and  Sicyon,  namely, 
those  of  Cleonae,  Nemea,  and  Phlius,  or  the 
Asopus,  we  cannot  but  infer,  if  the  description 
of  Strabo  is  correct,  that  the  Asopus  was  some- 

*  y.a,Toi,(pvyovToc  1T(0(;  to    Hpcuov-  *"   Strabo^  p.  382. 

b  See  Chapter  XXV.  '^  Ibid.  p.  376. 

CHAP.  XXX.]  ORNEiE.  851 

times  called  Orneae ;  or  rather  that  specifically 
tlie  river  Orneae  was  the  south-eastern  branch, 
and  that  the  city  Orneag  stood  upon  that  branch. 
Such  a  situation  will  perfectly  correspond  with 
the  data  of  Pausanias  %  namely,  that  Orneae  was 
situated  120  stades  from  Argos,  on  the  confines 
of  Phliasia  ;  for,  as  Phlius  is  not  more  than  thir- 
teen geographic  miles  in  direct  distance  from  Ar- 
gos, Orneae  could  not  have  been  more  than  three 
or  four  geographic  miles  direct  from  Phlius  :  and 
that  it  lay  nearly  in  a  line  from  Argos  to  Phlius 
seems  evident,  as  well  from  these  distances,  as 
from  the  situation  of  Alea,  and  the  Stymphalia 
to  the  westward  of  the  line,  and  that  of  Tretus, 
Nemea,  and  Cleonae  to  the  eastward  ;  thus  con- 
fining the  Orneatis  to  the  line  I  have  mentioned, 
in  which,  at  the  distance  of  five  or  six  miles 
from  Phlius,  it  is  probable  that  some  remains  of 
Orneae  will  be  found.  Strabo  tells  us,  that  there 
was  a  temple  of  Priapus  at  Orneae,  and  that  he 
was  thence  often  known  by  the  name  of  the 
god  of  Orneae''. 

After  having  viewed  the  little  that  is  inter- 
esting at  Polyfengo,  I  proceed  on  my  way  to 

The  following  are  the  remarks  of  Pausanias, 
upon  the  places  which  lay  between  Sicyon  and 

^  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  25.  ^  'Oji/EaTn^  ©foj. 

352  FROM    SICYON    TO    PHLIUS.       [CHAP.  XXX. 

Phlius^  "On  the  direct  road",  he  says,  "from 
Sicyon  to  Phlius^,  there  is  a  turning  to  the  left, 
which  leads,  at  the  end  of  ten  stades,  to  Pyraea, 
a  grove  *",  containing  a  sanctuary  of  Ceres  Pro- 
stasia  and  Proserpine  ;  here  men  celebrate  a 
festival  separately  from  women,  who  have  a 
building  called  the  Nymphon  for  that  purpose  : 
in  the  latter  are  statues  of  Bacchus,  Ceres,  and 
Proserpine,  of  which  the  faces  only  are  apparent. 
The  road  from  Sicyon  to  Titan e,  which  is  sixty 
stades  in  length,  is  impracticable  to  carriages, 
on  account  of  its  narrowness  '^.  At  the  end  of 
about  twenty  stades  there  is  a  turning  to  the 
left,  which  leads,  after  passing  the  Asopus,  to  a 
grove  of  holly-oaks  %  containing  a  temple  of 
the  goddesses  who  are  called  Semnae  by  the 
Athenians,  and  Eumenides  by  the  Sicyonii ; 
there  is  also  an  altar  of  the  Fates  in  the  open 
air  ^  After  having  re-crossed  the  Asopus,  and 
returned  into  the  road,  you  proceed  to  the  sum- 
mit of  a  mountain.  Here  it  was,  that  Titan, 
brother  of  the  Sun,  is  said  to  have  inhabited  ^, 
and  to  have  given  to  the  place  the  name  Titane." 

^   Pausan.  1.  2.  C.  11,  12.  Smc^Sia-t  rov  'Aaumv  Iuthi  uXaoi 

^   rriv  yMT   ivw  l<;  <!^\ioviiTtx,  £j-        vpUuv,  &C. 

^   ^ivyeaiv  ochccro^  dux.  t>jv  ctti-  tiicxJoa.o-\  te  ccv^k;  tov  ' Aauiro]/  kou 

vorr,icc.  £?  y.o^v(p'hv  o^ovq    yiia!7iv,   itrccv^a 

^  o"T«d40Ui  oE  Tt^oO'^^ovani,  ifAOi  Xsyovaty  ol  e'vi^upioiTiTunac  olKr,- 

SoKs7v,    sj'xo<r«    H«(     Iv     ot^ian^tx.  (^iorov,  &C. 

CHAP.  XXX.3  TO    VASILIKA.  353 

Phliasia  borders  upon  Sicyonia ;  the  city  Phlius 
is  about  forty  stades  distant  from  Titane,  but 
there  is  also  a  direct  road  from  PhHus  to 

It  appears,  therefore,  that  the  circuitous  road 
from  Sicyon  to  Phlius,  by  the  way  of  Titane, 
which  was  100  stades  in  length,  lay  to  the  right 
of  the  direct  road  ;  that  the  former  was  to  the 
left  of  the  Asopus,  and  the  latter  to  its  right ; 
and  that,  between  the  two,  before  the  road  to 
Titane  began  to  ascend  the  mountain,  there  was 
a  temple  of  the  Eumenides,  situated  on  the  right 
bank  of  the  river,  and  distant  between  two  and 
three  miles  from  Sicyon. 

At  ten  minutes  beyond  Polyfengo,  I  leave, 
on  the  opposite  or  left  bank  of  the  Asopus,  the 
ancient  foundations  and  blocks  of  stone  already 
alluded  to,  which  mark  the  site  of  Celece.  There 
seems  to  have  been  only  a  single  building.  Half 
a  mile  farther,  the  valley  of  the  Asopus  becomes 
narrow,  and  is  covered  with  fields  of  kalambokki. 
The  road  passes  occasionally  along  the  roots  of 
the  steep  mountains  which  border  it  on  either 
side,  and  which  are  thickly  covered  with  bushes; 
at  intervals  there  are  some  small  meadows, 
prettily  situated  amidst  oaks  mixed  with  shrubs 
and  a  few  patches  of  ploughed  land.  As  we 
proceed,  the  road  becomes  narrower,  and  at 
length  in   many  places   no   path  appears,  the 

VOL.  III.  A   A 

354  TO    VASILIKA.  [chap.  XXX. 

river  having  undermined  the  bank,  and  carried 
away  the  road. 

The  high  mountain  on  the  left  is  cultivated 
in  many  parts,  and  on  its  slope  are  seen  the 
villages  of  Liopesi  and  Paradhisi,  the  latter 
northward  of  the  former.  On  the  summit  of 
the  hill  above  Liopesi,  there  are  said  to  be  some 
ancient  foundations,  which  seem  to  indicate  the 
position  of  the  temple  of  u9Esculapius  at  Titane. 
I  cannot  learn  that  any  remains  of  columns  are  to 
be  seen  there ;  but  those  of  a  small  Hellenic  castle 
are  described  to  me,  southward  of  Liopesi,  the 
distance  of  which  from  Polyfengo  will,  I  think, 
answer  better  than  that  of  the  summit  of  the 
mountain,  to  the  forty  stades  which  Pausanias 
states  to  have  been  the  distance  between  Titane 
and  Phlius.  The  castle  may  perhaps  have  been 
a  dependent  fortress  of  the  Sicyonia,  of  the 
same  name  as  the  Hierum,  which,  it  seems  from 
Pausanias,  stood  on  the  summit  of  the  hill. 

As  we  advance,  the  road  becomes  still  worse, 
and  we  should  probably  have  spent  the  whole 
day  in  getting  out  of  the  valley,  had  it  not  been 
for  a  peasant,  whom  we  fortunately  meet,  who 
conducts  us  into  the  route  which  leads  from 
Vasilika  to  Mazi  and  Liopesi.  We  fall  into 
this  track  near  the  place  where  it  ascends  the 
mountain,  which  rises  from  the  left  bank  of  the 
Asopus,  and  consequently  near  the  spot  where 

CHAP.   XXX. J  TO    VASILIKA.  355 

the  ancient  route  to  Titane  quitted  the  valley. 
We  follow  this  road  along  the  left  bank  of  the 
river,  until  the  valley  begins  to  widen,  nearly 
at  the  distance  from  Sicyon  at  which  Pausa- 
nias  places  the  grove  of  the  Eumenides,  on 
the  right  bank  of  the  river.  Perhaps  some 
remains  of  the  temple  might  be  found  by  a 
careful  examination.  As  the  valley  becomes 
wider,  the  cultivation  increases.  This  seems  to 
have  been  the  best  part  of  that  subdivision  of  the 
Sicyonia  which  was  called  Asopia  *.  Having 
crossed  the  Asopus  we  follow  the  valley  to  its  right, 
until  we  enter  the  maritime  plain  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  hill  o^  Sicyon,  and  there  probably  fall 
into  the  direct  route  from  Sicyon  to  Phlius,  which 
seems  not  to  have  followed  the  right  bank  of  the 
Asopus  so  closely  as  the  road  to  Titane  followed 
the  left,  since  Pausanias  describes  the  temple  of 
the  Eumenides  as  lying  to  the  left  of  the  latter, 
instead  of  to  the  right  of  the  former,  although 
this  was  the  principal  route.  To  the  right  of  the 
place  where  we  enter  the  plain  of  Sicyon  from 
the  valley,  at  about  a  mile's  distance,  was  the 
position  which  Pausanias  describes  as  that  of  the 
sanctuary  of  Ceres  Prostasia,  and  the  Nymphon, 
but  I  cannot  hear  of  any  remains  in  that  direc- 

The  river  Asopus  has  totally  altered  its  ap- 

»  Strabo,  p.  38-2. 

A  A  2 

356  TO    VASILIKA.  [chap.  XXX. 

pearance  in  its  passage  through  the  mountains, 
and,  instead  of  the  clear  tranquil  stream  of  the 
plain  of  St.  George,  has  become  rapid,  white, 
and  turbid.  The  numerous  torrents  which 
descend  into  it  from  the  mountains,  in  its  passage 
through  them,  have  ca-used  this  change  of  colour  j 
the  white  argillaceous  soil  of  the  maritime 
Achaia  extending  also  through  the  Sicyonia  and 
Corinthia.  The  river  joins  the  sea  a  little  east- 
ward of  a  round  height  in  the  plain,  which  has 
much  the  appearance  of  being  artificial.  We 
ascend  the  hill  of  Vasilika  at  a  spot  where  are 
some  remains  of  the  Hellenic  wall  which  once 
entirely  surrounded  it.  Immediately  within  the 
wall  are  several  churches,  built  of  ancient  blocks, 
mixed  with  fragments  of  columns,  and  other 
similar  remains.  These  churches  seem  to  in- 
dicate that  Sky  on  continued  to  exist  long  after 
the  establishment  of  Christianity,  which  is  not 
at  all  improbable,  as  new  Sicyon,  according  to 
the  division  of  the  Byzantine  empire  by  Con- 
stantine,  was  one  of  the  cities  of  the  proconsular 
province  of  Hellas  or  Achaia  \  We  left  Poly- 
fengo  at  8.5,  and  arrived  at  Vasilika  at  12.45  j 
though  our  road  was  in  a  valley,  and  not  very 
winding,  the  rate  was  below  the  average,  on 
account  of  the  impediments.     Vasilika  is  now 

*  Hi   erocl.  Synecd.  p.  646,  Wessel. 

CHAP.  XXX.]  SICYON.  357 

inhabited  by  Albanians,  and  has  been  much  in- 
creased by  a  settlement  of  that  nation  since 
Wheler*s  time,  when  there  were  only  six  families: 
there  are  now  at  least  fifty  inhabited  houses. 
The  lands  which  they  cultivate  belong  to  Nuri 
Bey.  Like  all  the  Christian  peasantry  of  Al- 
banian race,  they  are  an  industrious,  quiet,  hos- 
pitable people,  but  extremely  ignorant. 

The  sketch  of  Sicyon  at  the  end  of  this  vo- 
lume will  convey  some  idea  of  the  site  and  re- 
maining monuments  of  the  city,  and  will  help  to 
illustrate  the  description  of  it  by  Pausanias.  He 
conducts  his  reader  to  Sicyon  from  Corinth. 
Not  far  from  the  walls  of  Corinth,  on  the  left  of 
the  road,  he  noticed  the  ruins  of  a  temple  said  to 
have  been  dedicated  to  Apollo,  and  to  have  been 
burnt  by  Pyrrhus,  son  of  Achilles  '.  The  river 
Nemea  was  the  boundary  of  the  two  districts'*. 
In  entering  the  Sicyonia  the  first  remarkable 
object  was  a  barrow'';  it  was  the  monument  of 
Lycus  the  Messenian  '*.  This,  however,  was 
not  the  mode  in  which  the  Sicyonii  usually  con- 
structed their  sepulchres,  but  the  following : 
having  buried  the  body  in  the  earth,  they  built 
a  substruction,  and  upon  this  raised  columns, 
which  supported  a  covering  resembling  the  roof 
of  a  temple.     They  placed  no  other  inscription 

»  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  n.  ^  Vide  Paiisan.  1.  2.  c.  7- 

*»  Strabo,  p.  382.  rt  scq. 



[chap.  XXX. 

than  the  name  of  the  deceased,  without  that  of 
his  father,  and  they  bad  him  farewell  ^. 

After  having  passed  the  Asopus  the  Olym- 
pium  was  on  the  right ;  a  little  farther,  on  the 
left  of  the  road,  was  the  tomb  of  Eupolis  of 
Athens,  the  writer  of  comedies.  Beyond  it,  on 
turning  towards  the  city,  occurred  the  monu- 
ment of  Xenodice,  who  died  in  child-birth  :  this 
was  not  formed  according  to  the  local  fashion, 
but  so  as  to  receive  a  picture,  of  which  Pausa- 
nias  speaks  in  strong  terms  of  commendation. 
Farther  on  was  the  tomb  of  the  Sicyonii  who 
fell  at  Pellene,  Dyme,  Megalopolis,  and  Sellasia. 
At  tlie  gate  of  the  city  there  was  a  fountain  in 
a  cavern ;  it  was  called  Stazusa,  because  it  flowed 
from  the  roof  of  the  cavern. 

^^        /  ,^        ~  \   >    >  Tov  vcxpoii  yxic-tiv, 

cciToli  \xi&^  TTotoScr.  y.ccr^  Toi,'  ^lie    Sicyonian  sepulchres 

asTot-j  i^a-Ma-ra  rov^  Iv  to:!;  -/oco^i'  seem    to   have   been    formed 

i7r'<y^a,f/.fxcc.  ^\  acXKo  fAiv  yca.^ov<nv  thus:  — 

CHAP.  XXX.]  SICYOiV.  359 

In  the  Acropolis  *  were  temples  of  Fortune 
Acraea,  and  of  the  Dioscuri ;  all  the  three  sta- 
tues were  of  wood.  The  theatre  was  below  the 
Acropolis ;  in  the  scene  stood  the  statue  of  a 
man  with  a  shield,  said  to  have  been  that  of 
Aratus,  son  of  Cleinias.  Near  the  theatre  was 
the  temple  of  Bacchus,  containing  an  image  of 
the  god  in  ivory  and  gold,  and  statues  oi"  the 
Bacchse  in  white  marble.  In  a  place  called  the 
Cosmeterium  were  kept  two  statues  of  Bacchus, 
with  the  epithets  Baccheius  and  Lysius.  In 
the  way  from  the  Dionysium  to  the  Agora  the 
temple  of  Diana  Limnaea  was  on  the  right.  It 
had  neither  roof  nor  statue.  At  the  entrance 
of  the  Agora  was  the  temple  of  Peitho,  also 
without  a  statue.  The  temple  of  Apollo  in  the 
Agora"'  was  originally  founded  by  Proetus ; 
that  which  existed  in  the  time  of  Pausanias  had 
been  erected,  as  well  as  the  statue,  by  Pythocles, 
in  the  place  of  a  temple  which  had  been  de- 
stroyed by  fire  '. 

An    inclosure    near    the   temple    of   Peitho, 
which  in  the  time  of  Pausanias  was  consecrated 

^  'Ev  7r,  itv  ' A.v.Po-::L\n,  place  of   worship  in   Sicyon. 

''  f V  f?  vt^i/ 'Ayopa.  Pindar  alludes  to  Apollo,to  the 

■    *^  The  temple  of  Apollo  ap-  hill  of  Sicyon,  and  to  the  river 

pears  to  have  been  the  chief  Asopus,  in  the  following  lines: 

'AA^'  ai/a  ^'.v  ^i^ri^^ctv 

IttteIwc  a■9^w^  x.o^v<pa,v,  ccti  (JJoiow 
Gr.Kiv '  A^fucnoq  E— '  'a- 

au~ov  fi'.^pKi.  Nem.  0.  v.  18. 

360  sicYON.  [chap.  xxx\ 

to  the  Roman  emperors,  had  been  formerly  the 
house  of  the  tyrant  Cleon.  Before  this  house 
stood  the  Arateium,  or  heroic  monument  of 
Aratus,  and  near  the  latter  an  altar  of  Neptune 
Isthmius,  and  statues  of  Jupiter  Meilichius  and 
of  Diana  Patroa,  the  former  resembling  a  pyra- 
mid, the  latter  a  column.  Here  also  were  the 
council-house,  and  a  stoa  called  Cleistheneius, 
from  Cleisthenes,  tyrant  of  Sicyon,  who  built  it 
from  the  spoils  of  Cirrha,  when  he  reduced  that 
place  in  conjunction  with  the  Amphictyones 
and  Solon  the  Athenian '.  The  Agora  con^ 
tained  also,  in  the  open  air,  a  brazen  Jupiter, 
the  work  of  Lysippus,  by  which  stood  a  gilded 
Diana.  Near  them  were  the  ruins  of  the  tem- 
ple of  Apollo  Lyceius,  so  called  because  the 
god  was  said  to  have  furnished  the  Sicyonii  with 
a  certain  bark  of  a  tree  with  which  they  poisoned 
the  wolves.  The  wood  was  kept  in  the  sanc- 
tuary of  Apollo  Lyceius,  but  not  even  the  sa- 
cred interpreters  ^  of  Sicyon  could  inform  Pau- 
sanias  of  what  kind  it  was. 

Near  the  Lyceium  were  statues  said  to  have 
been  those  of  the  daughters  of  Proetus,  although 
inscribed  with  the  names  of  other  women  j  also  a 
Hercules  by  Lysippus  of  Sicyon,  and  a  Mercury 
Agoraeus.     All  these  were  in  brass ".     In  the 

'  V.  et  Pausan.  Phocic.  c.  ^  'Jyiyrna.'i. 

.37- — Polyscn.    Strateg.    1.  3.  "^  In  the  time  of  Polybius 

;C.  5.  -  there  was  a  statue  fifteen  feet 

CHA1».  XXX.]  SIC  YON.  36l 

gymnasium,  which  was  near  the  Agora,  stood  a 
Hercules  in  stone,  by  Scopas.  The  temple  of  Her- 
cules was  in  a  different  situation,  in  the  middle 
of  an  inclosure  *  called  Paedize ;  the  temple 
contained  an  ancient  statue  in  wood,  the  work 
of  Laphaes  of  Phlius.  From  hence  a  street  led 
to  the  Asclepieium,  or  sanctuary  of  ^sculapius. 
Within  the  inclosure,  on  the  left,  stood  a  build- 
ing with  two  apartments^:  in  the  outer  there 
was  an  image  of  Sleep  ^  of  which  the  head  only 
remained ;  the  inner  apartment  was  sacred  to 
Apollo  Carneius,  whose  priests  only  had  the 
privilege  of  entering  it.  In  the  portico "  of  this 
building  were  statues  of  Dream  ^  and  of  Sleep  ; 
the  latter  surnamed  Epidotes,  was  represented 
as  causing  a  lion  to  sleep  :  in  the  same  stoa  lay 
a  large  whalebone.  On  the  other  side  of  the 
entrance  into  the  Asclepieium  (i.  e.  to  the  right) 
there  was  a  Pan  seated  and  an  upright  statue  of 
Diana :  the  statue  of  the  god  within  the  temple 
was  chryselephantine,  and  the  work  of  Calamis. 
It  was  beardless,  held  a  sceptre  ^  in  one  hand, 

high  of  King  Attalus  the  First  tures  of  this  celebrated  school 

near  the  temple  of  Apollo  in  of  painting, -which  had  formed 

the  Agora.  Polyb.  1. 17-  c.  16.  the  subject  of  a  work  of  Po- 

The  Poecile  was  probably  in  lemo,  between  the  times    of 

the  same  part  of  the   town.  Polybius  and  Strabo.  Athen. 

Athen.  1.  G.  c.  14.     It  would  1.  13.  c  2. 
seem  from  the  silence  of  Pan-  *  Trs^iteoXo;. 

sanias,  that  neither  the  colos-  ''  ^»7r^ot;»  o/xn/xa. 

sus  of  Attalus  nor  the  Poecile  "  "'^'^o^-  ''  '-■'  ^r>  ^■'h- 

had   remained    till  his   time,  '  '^^^'?'^-  <^«""rTfo.. 

nor  any  of  the  numerous  pic- 

362  SIC  YON.  [chap.  XXX. 

and  in  the  other  the  fruit  of  the  cultivated  pine- 
tree  '.  There  were  some  small  statues  sus- 
pended from  the  roof,  one  of  these,  [standing] 
upon  a  serpent,  was  said  to  represent  Aristo- 
dama,  mother  of  Aratus  ''.  There  was  a  pas- 
sage through  the  Asclepieium  into  the  sanctuary 
of  Venus  ",  in  which  the  first  object  was  a  sta- 
tue of  Antiope.  The  only  persons  allowed  to 
enter  the  temple  were  the  female  keeper'',  who 
was  forbidden  to  have  converse  with  men,  and 
the  Lutrophorus,  a  virgin  priestess  holding  an 
annual  office.  Other  persons  might  behold  the 
goddess  from  the  door,  and  from  thence  ad- 
dress their  prayers  to  her.  The  statue  of  Venus 
was  seated  and  was  made  by  Canachus  of  Sicyon, 
the  same  artist  who  wrought  the  Apollo  of  the 
Milesii  at  Didyma,  and  the  Apollo  Ismenius  at 
Thebes.  It  was  made  of  gold  and  ivory,  bore  a 
globe  ^  on  the  head,  in  one  hand  a  poppy  and  in 
the  other  an  apple.  The  thighs  of  victims  were 
offered  to  the  goddess  ^  but  not  those  of  hogs. 
In  ascending  from  the  Aphrodisium  to  the 

»  Trirvo^  rr.i  ^f^'.^ov.  Egypt,  which  wc  know,  from 

b  This  figure  had  reference  »   ^^eek   inscription   on    the 

to  a  report,  that  Aratus  was  cornice    of   the   Pronaos,    to 

the  son  of  .^:sculapius.  ^^^'^  ^^^^   dedicated   to  the 

c  A/    <^irov    ^£    iAXo    larly  Egyptian    deity    correspond- 

jodtT>5;  if.^ov 

ing    to    tlie    Venus    of    the 

^  ii  yvvfi  viuv.o^o:.  Greeks,  the  goddess  receives 

^  'ToAo,-.  offerings  of  the  thighs  of  vic- 

'  In  some  of  the  hicrogly-  tjms  together  ^^  ith  fruit  and 

phical  sculptures  of  the  teni-  flowers. 

pie    of    Tcntyri?    in    Upper 

CHAP.  XXX.]  SICYOy.  363 

gymnasium,  the  temple  of  Diana  Phersea  was 
situated  on  the  right ;  the  statue  was  of  wood, 
and  was  said  to  have  been  brought  from  Pherge. 
This  gymnasium,  whicli,  in  the  time  of  Pausa- 
nias,  was  still  used  for  the  exercise  of  youth, 
had  been  built  by  Cleinias.  It  contained  a 
Diana  of  white  marble,  wrouglit  only  as  far  as 
the  loins,  and  a  Hercules  resembling  a  quadran- 
gular Hermes. 

In  turning  from  thence  towards  the  gate 
called  the  Sacred,  there  was  a  temple  of  Mi- 
nerva not  far  from  the  gate,  and  an  altar  of  the 
same  goddess,  formerly  belonging  to  a  temple 
founded  by  Epopeus,  which  had  excelled  all 
those  of  its  time  in  magnitude  and  ornament, 
but  had  been  burnt  by  lightning.  Before 
the  altar  of  Epopeus  was  the  tumulus  of  the 
same  ancient  king  of  Sicyon  *,  together  with 
statues  of  the  gods  called  Apotropaei,  (Averters 
of  Evil).  Of  two  adjacent  temples,  that  sacred  to 
Diana  and  Apollo  was  said  to  have  been  built 
by  Epopeus,  the  temple  of  Juno  by  Adrastus, 
who  erected  behind  the  temple  an  altar  to  Pan, 
and  another,  of  white  marble,  to  the  Sun.  In 
neither  of  these  temples  was  there  any  statue 
remaining.  Near  the  Heraeum,  founded  by 
Adrastus,   stood  the  columns    of  a  temple   of 

'364)  SICYON".  [chap.  XXX. 

Apollo  Carneius,  of  which  the  walls  and  roof 
were  wanting :  in  the  same  state  also  was  the 
temple  of  Juno  Prodomia,  founded  by  Phalces, 
son  of  Temenus. 

In  descending  from  the  Heraeum,  in  the  di- 
rection of  the  plain,  occurred  a  temple  of  Ceres, 
said  to  have  been  founded  by  Plemnaeus,  in 
gratitude  to  the  goddess  for  having  brought  up 
his  son  Ortliopolis. 

The  position  which  marked  Sicyon  for  a  city 
of  importance  in  the  earliest  ages  of  Grecian 
history,  although  very  unlike  that  of  Corinth,  is 
scarcely  less  singular.  It  is  a  table-height  of 
no  great  elevation,  of  a  shape  irregularly  trian- 
gular, upwards  of  three  miles  in  circumference, 
and  two  miles  distant  from  the  sea.  The  tabu- 
lar summit  is  defended  on  every  side  by  a  na- 
tural wall  of  precipices,  admitting  only  of  one 
or  two  narrow  passages  of  ascent  into  it  from 
the  lower  plain.  A  river  flows  at  the  foot  of 
the  height  on  either  side.  That  on  the  eastern 
side  was  the  Asopus,  the  name  of  the  western 
stream,  which  is  much  smaller,  is  not  so  certain, 
but  was  probably  Helisson,  The  modern  vil- 
lage,  called  Vasilika  %  stands  near  the  northern 
edge  of  the  hill,  above  a  natural  ascent  through 
the  cliffs.  It  appears  from  several  authorities,  that 

CHAP.  XXX. J  SICYON.  365 

when  Sicyon  was  in  the  meridian  of  its  power, 
the  tabular  height  of  Vasilika  was  the  Acropo- 
lis, that  the  walls  extended  to  the  sea,  and  that 
they  included  a  maritime  quarter  at  the  har- 
bour. It  must  then  have  been  at  least  eight 
miles  in  circumference,  a  surprising  extent, 
when  it  is  considered  that  there  was  a  still 
larger  city  at  the  distance  only  of  a  few  miles, 
and  that  the  Sicyonia^  with  the  exception  of 
the  maritime  plain,  is  by  no  means  fertile,  all 
the  remaining  part  towards  the  borders  of  Phli- 
us  and  Fellene  consisting  of  mountains  or  of 
uneven  rocky  ground,  which  admits  only  of  a 
partial  cultivation.  But  the  h\\\  o^  Sicyon,  hy 
its  strength,  its  level  summit,  its  abundant 
water,  and  its  distance  from  the  sea,  at  once 
safe  and  convenient,  was  among  the  choicest 
positions  which  Greece  affords  for  the  capital 
of  one  of  the  small  commercial  states,  into 
which  the  hand  of  nature  has  divided  this 

Like  the  other  secondary  cities  of  Greece, 
Sicyon  declined  after  Athens  and  Sparta  had 
risen  to  the  height  of  their  power.  At  the  end 
of  the  fourth  century  before  the  Christian  asra, 
it  seems  to  have  already  declined  from  its  ancient 
magnitude  and  population ;  so  that  the  maritime 
city  was  disjoined  from  the  citadel.     Diodorus  * 

»  Diodor.  1.  20.  c.  102. 

36G  srcYON.  f chap.  xxx. 

relates,  that  in  the  expedition  of  Demetrius,  son 
of  Antigonus,  against  several  places  held  by  the 
forces  of  Cassander  and  Ptolemy,  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  Peloponnesus,  in  the  year  b.  c.  303, 
Demetrius  surprised  Sicyon  in  the  night,  and 
having  entered  the  walls,  occupied  the  space 
which  lay  between  the  habitations  of  the  lower 
town  and  the  citadel.  Before  the  Poliorcetes  had 
prepared  his  engines  for  the  siege  of  the  Acro- 
polis, Philip,  the  officer  of  Ptolemy,  capitulated 
on  condition  that  the  garrison  should  be  trans- 
ported into  Egypt :  after  which  Demetrius  de- 
stroyed the  city  adjacent  to  the  harbour,  built 
new  dwellings  for  the  Sicyonii  in  the  Acropolis, 
instituted  sacrifices  and  festivals,  and  received 
divine  honours  from  the  people  as  the  founder 
of  the  new  city  Demetrias%  "  Time",  adds 
Diodorus,  "  has  abolished  these  innovations,  but 
the  Sicyonii  still  continue  to  occupy  the  site  of 
the  ancient  Acropolis  ;  a  situation  very  prefer- 
able to  that  of  the  former  city,  the  inclosed 
space  being  an  extensive  plain,  surrounded  on 
every  side  by  precipices,  so  difficult  of  access 
that  it  would  not  be  possible  to  attack  the  walls 
with  machines.  Having  an  abundance  of  water, 
they  cultivate  fertile  gardens,  and  thus  the  sa- 
gacity of  the  king  at  once  provided  them  with 
pleasure  in  peace,  and  protection  in  war,** 

*  See  also  Plutarch  in  Demetr.— Pausan,  1.  2.  c.  7* 


Strabo,  who  wrote  about  the  same  time  as 
Diodorus,  describes  Sicyon  as  "  occupying  a 
strong  hill  distant  twenty  stades  *  from  the 
shore,  whither  Demetrius  had  removed  the  in- 
habitants from  the  position  of  the  ancient  city, 
which  thenceforth  served  for  the  maritime  quar- 
ter and  port.'* ''  Pausanias,  in  like  manner,  re- 
presents the  lower  situation  to  have  been  that 
of  the  city  before  the  time  of  Demetrius,  and 
the  hill  to  have  been  the  Acropolis ;  but  it  is 
difficult  to  coincide  with  him  in  the  belief  that 
the  maritime  position  was  that  of  the  earliest 
settlement  of  Sicyon.  The  strength  of  the  hill 
of  Vasilika,  and  its  secure  distance  from  the 
sea,  are  attributes  similar  to  those  of  the  other 
chief  cities  of  Greece,  and  such  as  generally 
determined  the  choice  of  the  original  founders. 
Here,  therefore,  it  is  natural  to  believe  that  the 
first  establishment  was  made.  In  a  more  ad- 
vanced state  of  society,  when  the  suppression 

*  ol   ^\  cp-na-tv,    adds  to  have  still  existed  in   the 

Strabo,    meaning  apparently  early  part  of  the  Byzantine 

that   he   thought   the    latter  empire,  for  the  Synecdemus, 

measurement  too  small,  and  as   I   have  already  observed, 

that  his  own  opinion  inclined  includes    New    Sicyon    (N«a 

to  the  former,  for,  in  this  in-  Ziy.vuv)  among  the  chief  towns 

stance,  we  know  that  Strabo  of   Achaia.       The    maritime 

was  an  uvroTTTric,  having  de-  quarter  Avas  probably  knowji 

scribed  as  such  the  view  from  at  that   time  by  the  name  of 

the  Acro-Corinthus.  Old  Sicyon  (UuXcux  '^*). 

^  Both  the  towns  appear 

368  SICYON.  [chap.  XXX. 

of  piracy  admitted  of  commerce  by  sea,  a  mari- 
time quarter  quickly  arose,  and  as  Sicyon  was 
one  of  the  first  cities  of  Greece  which  attained 
to  opulence  and  civilization,  we  may  suppose 
that  both  portions  were  united  within  a  common 
inclosure,  at  a  remote  period  of  time.  Indeed, 
Pausanias  himself,  at  the  same  time  that  he  re- 
spects the  local  traditions  as  to  ^gialeus,  con- 
firms the  antiquity  of  the  occupation  of  the  hill 
of  Vasilika,  by  describing  all  the  most  ancient 
monuments  of  the  Sicyonii  as  standing  upon  it. 
In  the  time  of  the  Greek  traveller  Sicyon  was 
in  a  most  ruinous  state,  as  his  description  shews. 
It  had  particularly  suffered  from  an  earthquake 
in  the  reign  of  Antoninus  Pius,  which  had  ex- 
tended its  ravages  even  into  Asia  ^. 

The  remains  of  the  ancient  walls  of  Sicyon 
are  still  to  be  seen  in  many  parts  of  the  circum- 
ference of  the  hill  of  Vasilika,  on  the  edge  of 
the  surrounding  cliffs.  The  hill  is  divided  into 
an  upper  and  a  lower  level  by  a  bank,  or  low 
ledge  of  rocks,  stretching  quite  across  it,  and 
forming  an  abrupt  separation  between  the  two 
levels.  The  upper  level,  which  is  at  the  apex, 
or  southern  part  of  the  triangle,  occupies  about 
a  third  part  of  the  whole.  In  the  side  of  the 
bank,  near  the  western  clifis,  are  the  remains  of 

^  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  7- — Ar-      tonino  Pio Dion.  Cass.  1.  70. 

ead.  C.43. — J.  Capitol,  in  An-      e.  4. 

CHAP.  XXX.]  SICYON,  369: 

a  stadium  and  a  theatre,  in  the  construction  of 
which,  advantage  has  as  usual  been  taken  of 
the  sudden  fall  of  the  ground.  Not  far  below 
these  monuments,  on  the  lower  level  near  the 
centre  of  the  Demetrian  site,  are  the  remains 
of  a  Roman  building  with  several  chambers  ; 
there  are  also  some  traces  of  the  street  which 
led  from  this  quarter  to  the  theatre.  Other 
foundations  are  found  to  the  east  of  the  theatre, 
and  near  the  cliff,  on  the  south-eastern  side  of 
the  upper  level,  some  extensive  foundations  of 
Hellenic  buildings.  Just  below  the  proscenium 
of  the  theatre  I  found  the  basis  of  a  column, 
together  with  that  of  one  of  the  antae,  of  a  small 
temple  :  the  column  was  two  feet  seven  inches 
and  a  half  in  diameter. 

The  total  diameter  of  the  theatre  was  about 
400  feet,  that  of  the  orchestra  100 :  the  found- 
ations of  the  proscenium  are  seventy-five  feet 
in  length,  and  are  cut  out  of  the  solid  rock. 
The  seats  of  the  theatre,  some  of  which  are  still 
seen  near  either  extremity,  were  formed  in  the 
same  manner.  There  appear  to  have  been  about 
forty  rows  in  three  divisions,  separated  by  two 
diazomata.  Each  wing  was  supported  by  a 
mass  of  masonry  penetrated  by  a  vomitory  or 
arched  passage,  the  walls  and  vault  of  which  are 
formed  of  quadrangular  stones,  put  together 
without  any  cement  apparent  on  the  exterior 

VOL.  III.  B  B 

370  SICYON.  [chap.  XXX. 

The  stadium  resembles  that  of  Messene,  in 
having  had  seats  which  were  not  continued 
through  the  whole  length  of  the  sides.  About 
eighty  feet  of  the  rectilinear  extremity  had  no 
seats,  and  this  part,  instead  of  being  excavated 
out  of  the  hill  like  the  rest,  is  formed  of  factitious 
ground,  supported  at  the  end  by  a  wall  of  poly- 
gonal masonry,  which  still  exists.  The  total 
length,  including  the  seats  at  the  circular  end, 
is  about  680  feet,  which,  deducting  tlie  radius 
of  the  semicircle,  seems  hardly  to  leave  a  length 
of  600  Greek  feet  for  the  line  between  the  two 
metas.  It  is  very  possible,  however,  that  an 
excavation  would  correct  this  idea ;  for  it  is 
difficult  to  believe  that  there  was  any  difference 
in  the  length  of  the  line  of  the  8po/j,o9,  or  course, 
in  the  several  stadia  of  Greece,  however  dissi- 
milar the  stadia  may  have  otherwise  been  in 
magnitude,  or  in  their  capacity  for  containing 
spectators.  If  the  length  of  the  course  had  ever 
varied,  it  must,  I  think,  have  been  alluded  to  in 
some  of  the  ancient  authors. 

The  theatre  and  stadium,  the  small  temple 
below  the  theatre,  the  Roman  building,  and  the 
street  leading  from  the  latter  to  the  theatre,  are 
all  so  strongly  illustrative  of  the  description  of 
Pausanias,  that  it  can  hardly  be  doubted  that 
the  upper  level  of  the  tabular  hill  was  the  Acro- 
polis of  the  Sicyon  of  his  time ' ;  that  the  then 

CHAP.  XXX.]  SICYON.  371 

asora  *  was  in  the  central  situation,  where  now 
stands  the  Roman  ruin ;  and  that  the  theatre 
and  stadium  are  those  wliich  he  describes.  The 
inference  will  be,  that  the  foundations  of  the 
small  temple  are  those  of  the  Dionysium.  The 
Roman  building  was  probably  the  praetorium, 
or  criterium,  of  the  Roman  governor,  during 
the  period  between  the  destruction  of  Corinth 
by  Mummius,  and  its  restoration  by  Julius 
Caesar,  when  the  greater  part  of  the  Corinthia 
was  attached  to  Sicyon,  and  this  place  was  the 
capital  of  the  surrounding  country. 

In  regard  to  the  date  of  the  theatre  and  sta- 
dium, there  is  some  difficulty  in  forming  an 
opinion.  It  is  natural  to  presume,  from  their 
position  near  the  new  Agora,  that  they  were 
constructed  in  the  time  of  Demetrius  ;  on  the 
other  hand,  the  words  of  Pindar  already  cited  ^ 
favour  the  belief,  that  the  agonistic  celebration, 
to  which  they  were  subservient,  took  place  at  the 
sanctuary  of  Apollo,  which  in  all  ages  was  on  the 
Kopv(f)r])  or  hill  of  Vasilikci ;  and  consequently, 
that  the  stadium  and  theatre  of  Sicyon  were  al- 
ways in  the  position  in  which  we  find  the  ruins 
of  those  two  monuments.  It  is  very  possible, 
nevertheless,  that  the  greater  part  of  the  existing 
remains  are  repairs  of  the  time  of  Demetrius. 

»  i)  yuii  'Ayo^a.    '  '^  Vide  p.  359,  note  '', 

B  B  2 

37^  SIC  YON.  []CHAP.  XXX. 

The  description  of  Pausanias  appears  to  indi- 
cate, that  there  were  three  gates  to  the  Sicyon 
of  his  time:  1.  that  of  Corinth  ;  2.  the  Sacred 
Gate,  leading  down  on  the  northern  side  into 
the  plain  and  to  the  maritime  quarter  of  Sicyon ; 
3.  a  gate  in  the  south-eastern  cliff,  which  led 
by  the  valley  of  the  Asopus  to  Phlius.  There 
seems  little  doubt,  that  the  remarkable  opening 
in  the  rocks  adjacent  to  Vasilika  is  the  position 
of  the  Sacred  Gate,  and,  consequently,  that  the 
Athenaeum  and  Heraeum,  two  of  the  most  an- 
cient buildings  of  the  Sicyonii,  stood  upon  the 
site  of  the  modern  village.  At  the  opening  in 
the  rocks  near  Vasilika  there  is  now  a  fine  foun- 
tain ;  but  I  searched  in  vain  for  that  which  was 
called  Stazusa,  because  it  distilled  from  the 
roof  of  a  cavern  :  it  would  fix  the  position  of 
the  gate  by  which  Pausanias  enters  the  city 
from  Corinth.  The  gate  of  Phlius,  it  is  natural 
to  presume,  was  nearly  in  the  position  where  I 
ascended  through  the  cliflfs,  coming  from  the 
site  of  Phlius. 

The  military  importance  of  Sicyon,  when  its 
fortifications  extended  from  the  hill  of  Vasilika 
to  the  sea-shore,  was  inferior  only  to  that  of  Co- 
rinth. It  closed  the  maritime  plain  on  the  west, 
as  Corinth  did  on  the  east ;  and  in  like  manner 
as  the  Acro-Corinthus  commanded  the  entrance 
of  the  two  narrow  valleys  of  Tenea  and  Cleonae, 


wliichon  either  side  of  that  mountain  are  the  na- 
tural gates  of  access  towards  the  ArgoHs,  so  Si- 
cyon  occupied  the  entrance  of  the  longer  and 
more  difficult  ravine  of  the  Asopus.  The  river 
Nemea  forms  a  third  opening  of  the  same  kind 
through  the  gorges  of  Mount  Apesas.  And 
thus  it  appears,  that  the  same  construction  of 
Achaia,  so  remarkable  in  sailing  along  the  coast 
of  that  province,  is  continued  through  the  Si- 
cyonia  and  Corinthia ;  that  the  Achaian  chain, 
which  begins  at  Patrae,  is  prolonged  as  far  as 
Cenchreiae,  on  the  shore  of  the  Saronic  Gulf; 
and  that  in  every  part  the  rivers  reach  the  ma- 
ritime level  through  narrow  glens,  which  are 
the  natural  communications  with  the  interior 
country.  With  the  exception,  however,  of  the 
summits  Apesas  and  Acro-Corinthus,  the  north- 
ern range  of  the  Peloponnesian  mountains  is 
of  a  less  lofty  character  at  the  eastern  end  than 
in  any  other  part. 

It  may  be  inferred  from  Xenophon  %  that  a 
fortress  called  Epieicia  formed  the  subsidiary 
protection  of  the  Sicyonian  plain,  at  the  entrance 
of  the  valley  of  the  river  Nemea.  Previously 
to  the  great  battle  ^  fought  on  the  banks  of  this 
stream,  in  the  summer  of  the  year  b.  c.  394, 
the  Lacedaemonians  and  their  allies  were  at  Si- 

*  Xeiioph.  Helleii.  1.  4.  c.  ^  fji.iya.Xri  /y.six'^,.     DeiDosth. 

2.  in  Lt'ptin. 

374f  EPIEICIA.  [chap.  XXX, 

cyon,  their  opponents,  consisting  of  Athenians, 
Argives,  Corinthians,  and  Boeotians,  at  Nemea. 
As  the  Lacedaemonians  were  advancing  along 
the  plain  towards  Corinth,  they  were  met  by 
the  adverse  army  near  Epieicia,  and  having 
suffered  from  the  missiles  of  the  light  troops 
directed  from  the  heights  against  their  right  or 
unprotected  side,  they  declined  to  their  left 
towards  the  sea.  The  enemy  then  encamped 
behind  the  torrent  %  upon  which  the  Lacedae- 
monians followed  their  example  at  the  distance 
of  a  stade  from  them,  in  the  midst  of  the 
plantations  which  covered  the  plain.  The  La- 
cedaemonian army  consisted  of  13,500  hoplitae, 
against  24,000,  with  a  similar  disproportion  in 
cavalry  and  light  troops  ;  but,  notwithstanding 
this  disadvantage,  and  that  their  allies  were 
everywhere  beaten  and  slain  in  great  numbers, 
the  Spartans  gained  the  victory,  with  the  loss 
of  only  eight  men  ^. 

In  the  following  year  Praxitas,  after  having 
broken  down  the  Long  Walls  of  Corinth,  and  oc- 
cupied Sidus  and  Crommyon  beyond  the  Isth- 
mus, fortified  and  placed  a  garrison  in  Epieicia 

"^a.To'Tri^iva-avTo     sfj.-  NemeEj  as  he  had  applied  the 

7r^oa^iv7roi.via-oi.iJt.svoiTiivx<^?»^?»>'-  name  to   the    district  a  few 

Xenophon     seems     to     have  lines  before, 

thought  "  the  torrent "  a  suf-  *  Xenoph.  Hellen.  1.  4.  c 

ficient  designation  of  the  river  3. 

CHAP.  XXX.]       THYAMIA.  375 

for  the  purpose  of  covering  the  position  of  his 
allies  in  the  Sicyonia  before  he  departed  for 
Sparta ".  This  fact  again  supports  the  conjec- 
ture of  Epieicia  having  been  on  the  Nemea,  as 
that  river  formed  the  boundary  of  the  Sicyonia 
towards  Corinth. 

Thyamia,  as  I  have  already  remarked,  was  a 
post  which  the  Sicyonii  occupied  and  fortified 
when  they  were  at  war  with  the  Phliasii,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  adherence  of  the  latter  to  the 
cause  of  the  Lacedaemonians  after  the  battle  of 
Leuctra.  It  belonged  probably  to  the  Phliasia, 
but,  like  Tricaranum,  had  fallen  into  the  hands 
of  the  enemy.  The  Sicyonii  were  engaged  in 
fortifying  the  place'',  when  the  Phliasii  under- 
took, with  the  assistance  of  a  body  of  merce- 
naries under  the  Athenian  Chares,  to  dislodge 
them.  While  the  horsemen  of  Phlius  advanced 
trotting  and  sometimes  galloping,  the  hoplitse 
followed  them  running,  and  were  at  no  great 
distance  in  the  rear.  They  arrived  at  Thyamia 
a  little  before  sunset,  and  so  completely  sur- 
prised their  adversaries,  that  the  latter  had  only 
time  to  escape,  leaving  even  the  provisions 
which  had  been  prepared  for  their  supper.  The 
Phliasii  having,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Co- 
rinthians, completed  the  fortifications  of  Thya- 

'^  Xcnoph.  Hcllen.  1.  4-  c  4.  '  Id.  1.  7-  c.  2. 

376  GER^,  ETC.  [chap.  XXX. 

mia,  retained  the  place  until  the  end  of  the 
war.  It  is  evident,  from  these  circumstances, 
that  Thyamia  was  towards  the  frontiers  of 
PhUus  and  Sicyon.  It  would  seem  also,  that 
the  interval  between  Phlius  and  Thyamia  was 
plain,  and  that  the  distance  was  not  very  great ; 
it  is  probable,  therefore,  that  it  stood  in  the 
narrowest  part  of  the  valley  of  the  Asopus, 
perhaps  about  four  miles  from  Polyfengo,  on 
the  road  to  Vasilika. 

On  the  descent  of  the  ridge  of  Mount  Titane, 
leading  from  the  valley  of  Kesari  to  Sicyoji,  I 
remarked  some  Hellenic  remains,  belonging 
apparently  to  a  dependent  fortress  of  the  Sicy- 
onia,  which  commanded  the  road  from  Sicyon 
to  Stymphalus  and  Pellene.  There  is  nothing 
in  ancient  history,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  that 
can  lead  to  a  knowledge  of  its  name.  Xeno- 
phon  relates  %  that  when  the  first  succours  sent 
from  Sicily  to  the  Lacedaemonians  in  twenty  tri- 
remes, by  Dionysius  the  Elder,  in  the  year  b.c. 
368,  had  defeated  the  Sicyonians  in  the  field, 
they  then  captured  the  fortress  ^  of  Gerae  ;  but, 
as  they  re-embarked  soon  afterwards  and  sailed 
to  Syracuse,  it  would  rather  seem  that  GeraB 
was  in  the  maritime  plain.  Stephanus  names 
-Buphia  and  Phoebia,  the  former  upon  the  aur 

^  Xenopli.  Hellen.  1.  7-  c  1.  **  '^''X'^'- 

CHAP.  XXX.]  TITANE.  377 

thority  of  Ephorus,   as  two  places  of  the  Si- 

The  most  remarkable  dependency  of  Sicyon 
was  Titane.  The  road  thither  has  already  been 
described  from  Pausanias ",  who  proceeds  to  in- 
form us,  that  the  Asclepieium  on  the  summit  of 
the  mountain  Titane  was  built  by  Alexanor  son 
of  Machaon,  son  of  ^sculapius.  Around  it  there 
were  dwellings  chiefly  for  the  use  of  those  who, 
as  at  other  hiera  of  ^Esculapius,  came  to  solicit 
the  compassion  of  the  deity,  and  probably  the 
medical  advice  of  his  priests.  Within  the  peri- 
bolus  of  the  temple  stood  some  aged  cypresses 
and  a  brazen  statue  of  Granianus  of  Sicvon, 
who  had  been  often  successful  at  Olympia. 
Within  the  temple  were  statues  of  ^sculapius, 
of  Hygieia,  of  Alexanor,  and  of  Evamerion  (the 
same  person  called  Acesius  by  the  Epidaurii). 
Of  the  statues  of  ^Esculapius  and  Hygieia  little 
could  be  seen,  on  account  of  the  long  garments 
with  which  they  were  covered,  and  that  of  Hy- 
gieia, moreover,  by  the  votive  hair  of  women.  A 
'statue  of  Hercules  stood  in  either  pediment,  and 
figures  of  Victory  at  its  extremities  (on  the  acro- 
.teria) ".  In  the  portico  were  wooden  statues  of 
Bacchus,  Hecate,  Venus,  Ceres,  and  Fortune, 

*  Stephan.ihBof^ka  et  <J>oio,«.         '   T«  ol  h  ro.q  aiTO.  j   H^axXJ;,- 
Pausan.  1.  2.  C.  11.  N.>;xi  -^o^  to;'j  7rc^aO".v  £jVtv, 

378  COINS    OF    SICYON.  [chap.  XXX. 

and  a  statue  in  stone  of  ^sculapius  Gortynius. 
Some  sacred  serpents  were  fed  in  the  temple. 
On  the  descent  of  the  hill  there  was  an  altar  of 
the  Winds,  together  with  four  pits  %  used  for  the 
performance  of  certain  ceremonies  to  pacify  the 
winds,  among  which  the  priest  is  said  to  have 
sung  the  incantation  of  Medeia.  Besides  the 
Asclepieium,  there  was  a  temple  of  Minerva  at 
Titane,  containing  an  ancient  wooden  statue  of 
the  goddess.  Here  it  was  customary,  upon  par- 
ticular occasions,  to  worship  Coronis,  whose 
wooden  statue,  kept  elsewhere,  was  then 
brought  into  the  temple.  On  the  way  from 
Titane  to  the  maritime  Sicyon  there  was  a  tem- 
ple of  Juno,  on  the  left  of  the  road,  without  roof 
or  statue. 

After  making  many  inquiries  of  the  villagers 
of  Vasilika  for  ancient  coins,  I  have  only  been 
able  to  procure  two,  and  both  these  are  di- 
drachmae,  in  silver,  of  Sicyon  itself,  on  which 
are  represented  on  one  side  a  dove  standing,  and 
expanding  its  wings,  as  if  about  to  fly,  on  the 
other  a  dove  on  the  wing,  within  a  garland  of 
olive.  On  one  of  the  coins  the  letters  ^E  are 
distinguishable,  the  sigma  of  an  archaic  form. 
I  notice  the  circumstance,  because  other  coins, 
of  a  style  very  similar,  but  having  a  chimaera  m 
place  of  the  standing  bird,  and  the  legend  2E, 

CHAP.  XXX.]  SICYON.  379 

have  been  assigned  by  numismatists  to  the  island 
Seriphus,  though  it  is  clear,  I  think,  that  they 
belonged,  as  well  as  the  two  above  mentioned, 
to  Sicyon,  at  an  early  period,  when  the  name 
was  written  ^cikvcdv.  The  substitution  of  the 
iota  for  the  diphthong  in  proper  names  was 
very  common  in  the  later  ages  of  Greece,  and 
accordingly  there  exist  coins  of  Sicyon,  of  a 
fabric  less  ancient,  with  the  same  types  of  the 
chimaera,  the  bird,  and  the  olive  wreath,  and 
inscribed  with  the  letters  HI.  Drachmae  so  in- 
scribed, with  a  chimaera  on  one  side,  and  on  the 
other  the  flying  dove,  without  the  olive,  are  the 
most  common  of  all  silver  coins.  I  have  seen 
some  thousands  of  them  since  I  have  been  in 
Greece.  They  are  probably  all  posterior  to  the 
time  of  Demetrius  ;  at  least  I  have  met  with 
one  with  the  letters  S"!,  ^H,  ^  shewing,  that 
during  the  short  period  in  which  the  Sicyonians 
preserved  the  name  of  Demetrius,  the  diph- 
thong was  already  dropped. 

The  hill  of  Sicyo7i  commands  a  most  beautiful 
and  interesting  prospect.  To  the  eastward  is 
seen  the  plain  so  celebrated  for  its  fertility, 
which  at  the  other  extremity  is  terminated  by 
the  noble  mountain  of  Acro-Corinthus,  and 
which  is  separated  by  the  Isthmus,  and  the  bay 
of   Lechasum,    from    the   Oneian    mountains, 


closing  the  view  in  that  direction.  From  the 
shore  of  the  bay  of  Lechaeum  rises  that  separate 
portion  of  the  Oneia  which  terminates  in  a 
rocky  peak  above  Perakhora,  a  village  most 
agreeably  situated  on  its  western  face,  amidst 
cultivated  slopes  and  olive  plantations,  descend- 
ing to  the  cape  opposite  to  Sicyon,  upon  which 
anciently  stood  the  Heraeum,  or  the  temple  of 
Juno  Acrsea.  The  inhabitants  of  Perakhora 
make  pitch  from  the  forests  of  their  mountain, 
and  in  good  years  6000  barrels  of  excellent  oil 
from  their  olive  trees.  The  cape  of  Juno  is  call- 
ed Melangavi  %  or  Black  Cape.  A  little  to  the 
eastward  of  it,  towards  the  Isthmus,  is  the  an- 
chorage named  Agrio,  a  corruption  perhaps  of 
Acrcea,  Farther,  in  the  same  direction,  there 
is  a  lake  called  Vuliasmeni'',  which  is  separated 
from  the  sea  by  a  narrow  strip  of  land,  and  still 
farther  eastward  on  the  same  shore  the  Lutra 
or  Hot-springs,  already  noticed.  On  the  other 
side  of  Melangavi  there  projects  beyond  it,  in 
the  view  from  Sicyon,  the  cape  which  is  opposite 
to  the  Kalanisia,  or  small  islands,  situated  in 
the  entrance  of  the  north-eastern  branch  of  the 
Corinthiac  Gulf,  which  terminates  in  the  ports 
of  Pagce,  ^gosthencc,  and  Creusis.  I  have  al- 
ready remarked  that  this  cape  is  probably  the 


ancient  Olmiae.  Beyond  these  objects  and  the 
gulf  to  the  left  of  them,  the  horizon  is  magni- 
ficently closed  by  the  renowned  summits  of 
Cithaeron,  Helicon,  and  Parnassus.  The  great 
ridges  of  the  two  latter  mountains  are  blended 
in  the  view  from  Sicyon,  but  there  is  an  opening 
between  Cithaeron  and  Helicon,  which  is  filled 
by  an  insulated  rocky  mountain,  rising  im- 
mediately from  the  sea-shore,  which  is  now  called 
Korombili.  I  am  unable  to  attach  the  ancient 
name  either  to  this  mountain  or  to  the  peak  of 
Perakhora,  although  they  are  two  of  the  most 
remarkable  objects  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
Corinthiac  Gulf. 



From  Vasilika  to  Xylo-kastro,  and  Kamares. — Rivers  He- 
LissON  and  Sys. —  Donussa. — To  Mavra  Litharia. — 
^GEiRA,  Phelloe,  ARisTONAUTyE. — To  Akrata. — JEgje. 
•—To  Trupia. — Bura. — Helice. — To  Vostitza. — Cery- 
NEiA. — Ancient  Geography  between  ^gium  and  ^Egeira. 
— To  Patra — Port  Erineus. — Ancient  Geography  be- 
tween Patr^  and  ^gium. — Leontium. 

April  25. — This  afternoon,  at  2|,  I  descend  from 
Vasilika  to  Mulki,  a  farm  and  tower  belonging  to 
Nuri  Bey.  On  the  descent  I  observe  some  re- 
mains of  the  ancient  walls  of  the  city;  there  are 
some  others  near  Mulki,  and  they  are  traceable 
also  at  intervals  towards  the  sea,  shewing  clearly 
that  the  whole  space,  a  distance  of  more  than 
two  miles  from  the  northern  point  of  the  Acro- 
polis, was  at  some  period  connected  by  walls 
with  the  hill  of  Vasilika.  At  2.45  w^e  cross  the 
river  which  flows  on  the  western  side  of  that 
hill ;  the  road  then  approaches  the  sea  obliquely, 
and  at  2.52  joins  the  coast  road  from  Corinth. 
The  paralian  plain  now  becomes  narrower ;  at 
2.58  cross  a  small  stream,  from  a  gorge  in  the 
mountain  on  the  left :   3.12   pass  some  ancient 

CHAP.  XXXI.]       RIVERS    HELISSON,    SYTHAS.       383 

foundations  on  the  road  side,  where  appears  to 
have  been  a  wall  reaching  to  the  shore,  from 
the  mountain  on  the  left.  The  river  which  we 
crossed  at  2.45,  and  which  flows  on  the  western 
side  of  the  hill  of  Sicyon,  1  take  to  be  the  ancient 
Helisson  \  and  that  of  2.58  the  Sythas.  Pau- 
sanias  says,  that  "  on  the  road  from  the  port  of 
Sicyon  towards  Aristonautae,"  which  is  precisely 
our  route,  "there  first  occurred  a  temple  of 
Neptune  on  the  left,  then  the  river  Helisson, 
then  the  Sythas.  *"*  On  the  festival  of  Apollo 
there  was  a  procession  of  boys  and  girls  from 
Sicyon  to  the  Sythas,  from  whence  they  returned 
to  the  temple  of  Peitho,  and  from  thence  to  the 
temple  of  Apollo  ",  both  of  which,  as  we  have 
seen,  were  situated  in  the  Demetrian  agora. 
Hence  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  Sythas  was  not 
very  far  from  Sicyon.  The  same  river  is  called 
Sys  by  Ptolemy,  who  names  no  other  between 
Lechaeum  and  the  boundary  of  Achaia.  The 
wall  which  stretched  from  the  mountain  to  the 
shore  may  have  marked  the  boundary  of  the 

At  3.20  we  cross  a  small  stream  like  the  lastj 
at  3.32  pass  the  projection  of  the  hills,  which 

*  Strabo    (p.    338.)    says  lisson  of  Pausanias. 
there  was  a  river  Selleeis  near  ^  Pausan.  1.  2.  c.  12. 

Sicyon  (TTEg*  2i)ct4;i/a);  possibly  '^  Ibid.  1.  2.  c.  7- 

tin's  was  the  same  as  the  He- 

384  KAMARES.  [chap.  XXXI. 

terminates  the  view  of  the  coast  line  from 
Corinth,  and  which  leaves  a  very  narrow  level 
only  between  it  and  the  sea.  A  little  beyond, 
the  road  opens  upon  a  plain  of  considerable 
breadth,  but  which  is  almost  wholly  uncultivated. 
We  follow  the  sea-beach,  and  at  3.50  cross  the 
mouth  of  a  river,  half  an  hour  beyond  which 
we  incline  towards  the  hills,  enter  the  olive 
plantations  of  Xylo-kastro,  and,  after  crossing 
the  river  of  Fellene,  arrive  at  5  p.  m.  at  Xylo- 

April  26.  Ride  obliquely  across  the  maritime 
plain  in  half  an  hour  to  the  khan  of  Kamari, 
or  Kamares%  which  takes  its  name  from  a  village 
of  that  name  on  the  sea-side,  belonging  to  Nuri 
Bey.  On  the  eastern  side  of  the  khan  are  some 
pieces  of  ancient  brick-work,  and  some  squared 
blocks  of  stone  lying  near  them  in  the  fields. 
They  are  some  remains  perhaps  of  AristonautcB, 
the  port  of  Pellene.  Near  the  tower  of  Kamares, 
the  name  of  which  (meaning  arches)  seems  to 
indicate  the  existence  of  more  considerable  re- 
mains in  former  times,  there  is  a  little  curve  in 
the  coast,  exposed  to  the  north,  but  which 
anciently  may  have  received  some  assistance 
from  art.  At  least  I  see  no  appearance  of  a 
harbour  in  any  other  position.     The  place  where 


I  landed,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  Xylo- 
kastro,  and  which  is  used  as  the  place  of  em- 
barkation for  the  district  of  Trikkala,  is  still 
more  exposed  than  Kamares,  being  protected 
only  by  a  low  point,  so  that  when  the  weather 
appears  threatening,  vessels  generally  seek 
shelter  in  one  of  the  secure  anchorages  of  the 
opposite  coast. 

The  Khan  of  Kamares  stands  at  the  foot  of 
the  pointed  mountain  so  conspicuous  from  al- 
most every  part  of  the  Gulf,  called  Koryfi  \  It 
is  beyond  a  doubt  the  ancient  Gonoessa,  or  Do- 
noessa,  or  Donussa,  to  which  Homer  has  well 
applied  the  epithet  of  lofty;  for  it  is  higher  than 
the  Acropolis  of  Corinth,  and  more  conspicuous 
from  its  being  more  abrupt  and  equally  insulated. 
Pausanias  has  accurately  described  its  position, 
as  being  between  -^geira  and  Pellene. 

At  7.35  I  leave  the  Khan,  and  at  7.43  the 
Pyrgo  of  Nuri  Bey  on  the  right :  'J.5'2  cross  the 
river  Fonissa,  issuing  from  a  valley  on  the  west- 
ern side  of  Mount  Koryfi.  On  the  right  bank 
of  the  river  I  observe  some  remains  of  ancient 
buildings  of  brick,  similar  to  those  at  Kamares. 
Our  road  is  now  an  uncultivated  narrow  plain, 
covered  with  bushes,  which  stretches  along  the 
shore,  at  the  foot  of  white  cliffs,  clothed  with 
pines.     At  8.50,  having  mounted  to  an  upper 

VOL.  III.  C   C 

386  BAY  OF  AKRATA.    [CHAP.  XXXI. 

levels  which  terminates  seaward  in  the  cliffs  just 
mentioned,  we  arrive  abreast  of  Avgo ;  this 
peninsLilated  peak,  though  not  high,  forms  a 
remarkable  object,  wherever  it  is  visible.  The 
upper  level  unites  it  with  the  mountains,  and 
thus  it  forms  a  natural  separation  between  the 
Pellencea  and  j^geiratis. 

The  cliffs  now  retire  inland,  and  leave  a  ma- 
ritime plain  covered  with  currant  vineyards,  be- 
longing to  Zakhuli,  which  village  stands  in  a 
lofty  situation,  above  the  right  bank  of  a  river 
flowing  from  the  western  side  of  Mavrioro;  this 
stream  we  cross  at  9.  The  coast  now  curves 
considerably,  and  forms  a  very  wide  bay,  which 
may  be  called  the  bay  of  Akrata  ;  though  it 
aflbrds  no  safe  anchorage,  being  entirely  exposed 
to  the  northward.  At  9-27  we  pass  at  the  foot 
of  a  woody  height,  upon  which  are  situated  the 
Kalyvia  of  Zakhuli%  just  above  the  bottom  of  a 
curve  of  the  coast.  At  9-45  cross  a  small  stream, 
halt  five  minutes,  and  at  10  arrive  at  the  inner 
curve  of  the  bay  of  Akrata.  At  10.10  a  square 
mass  of  ruin,  formed  of  rough  stones,  cemented 
with  mortar,  is  on  the  road  side,  close  to  the 
sea-beach,  and  upon  it  are  three  or  four  qua- 
drangular blocks  of  stone.  At  10.32  we  cross 
a  rocky  point,  advancing  into  the  sea.  Here 
are  two  little  creeks  in  the  rocks,  and  the  found- 

CHAP.   XXXI.]  ^GEIRA.  387 

ations  of  Hellenic  walls  upon  the  latter ;  to- 
gether with  some  squared  blocks  in  a  small  level 
corn-field,  just  within  the  rocks.  The  place 
is  called  ra  Mavpa  Aidcipia  (the  Black  Rocks)  ;  it 
seems  to  have  been  the  port  of  yEgeira,  for  to 
the  left,  on  the  summit  of  a  hill,  which  is  separated 
by  a  narrow  plain  from  the  shore,  are  some 
vestiges  of  an  ancient  city,  which  I  cannot  doubt 
to  have  been  ^geira.  They  occupy  an  upper 
summit,  which  is  separated  from  a  lower  towards 
the  plain,  by  a  small  precipice.  The  walls  are 
traceable  around  the  brow  of  the  hill,  and  there 
are  said  to  be  several  foundations  and  fi-agments 
of  antiquity  in  the  inclosed  space. 

Poly bi us,  in  relating  an  expedition  of  the 
^tolians,  who  surprised  ^geira  from  the  oppo- 
site town  of  CEantheia,  in  Phocis,  in  the  first 
year  of  the  Social  War,  but  who  were  driven 
out  with  great  loss  after  obtaining  possession 
of  the  city,  has  truly  described  the  place  as  si- 
tuated opposite  to  Mount  Parnassus,  upon  hills 
strong  and  difficult  of  access,  seven  stades  from 
the  sea,  and  near  a  river  \  Pausanias  tells  us  ^ 
that  ^geira  was  the  Hyperesia  of  Homer,  and 
that  it  was  still  sometimes  known  by  that  name. 
Its  objects  worthy  of  notice  were  a  temple  of 
Jupiter,  which  contained  a  sitting  statue  of  the 

«  Polyb.  1.  4.  c.  57-  ^  Paxisan,  Achaic.  c.  2(J. 

c  c  2 

S88  JEGEIRA.  [chap.  XXXI. 

god  in  Pentelic  marble,  by  Eucleides  of  Athens, 
together  with  an  upright  statue  of  Minerva 
made  of  wood,  gilded  and  painted,  and  having 
the  face,  hands,  and  feet  of  ivory.  The  temple  of 
Diana  contained  a  statue  of  the  goddess  of  recent 
workmanship,  with  an  ancient  statue  of  Iphige- 
neia,  to  whom  the  temple  was  supposed  to  have 
been  originally  dedicated.  The  temple  of  Apollo 
was  very  ancient.  The  statue  was  naked,  colossal, 
and  made  of  wood,  and  was  supposed  by  Pausa- 
nias,upon  comparing  it  with  a  Hercules  atSicyon, 
to  have  been  the  work  of  Laphaes  of  Phlius. 
The  same  temple  contained  upright  statues  of 
uEsculapius,  Isis,  and  Sarapis,  of  Pentelic 
marble,  and  in  the  aeti  some  works  of  statuary, 
apparently  coeval  with  the  building.  But  the 
deity  held  in  the  greatest  veneration  by  the 
-^geiratae,  was  Venus  Urania,  into  whose  temple 
men  were  not  permitted  to  enter,  nor  into  that 
of  the  Syrian  goddess,  except  on  particular 
days  and  after  certain  expiations.  A  building 
dedicated  to  Fortune  contained  a  statue  of 
Fortune  bearing  the  horn  of  Amaltheia,  with  a 
winged  Love  standing  beside  her,  to  signify 
that  success  in  love  depends  more  upon  good 
fortune  than  upon  beauty.  In  the  same  build- 
ing there  was  a  monument  in  honour  of  a  young 
hero  of  iEgeira,  who  had  been  slain  in  battle. 
Near  the  youth,  who  was  represented  as  armed 

CHAP.  XXXI.]      PHELLOE.  389 

with  a  thorax,  stood  his  two  brothers ;  his  three 
sisters  were  taking  off'  their  bracelets  as  a  sign 
of  mourning  for  him,  and  his  aged  father  was 
weeping,  (probably  seated). 

From  the  temple  of  Jupiter  (which  we  hence 
learn  to  have  been  at  the  summit  of  the  town) 
there  was  an  ascent  of  forty  stades  through  the 
mountains  to  a  town  of  no  great  note  ^,  called 
Phelloe.  This  place,  which,  according  to  Pau- 
sanias,  was  not  inhabited  in  the  time  of  the 
lones,  he  describes  as  abounding  in  springs  of 
water,  and  as  surrounded  with  land  well  suited 
to  vines,  beyond  which  were  rocky  mountains 
covered  with  oak,  and  peopled  with  deer  and 
wild  swine.  Phelloe  still  preserved  temples  of 
Bacchus  and  Diana ;  the  statue  of  the  former 
was  of  wood,  coated  with  cinnabar,  that  of 
Diana,  which  was  in  brass,  represented  the  god- 
dess as  drawing  an  arrow  from  her  quiver. 
Some  remains  of  Phelloe,  if  I  am  not  misin- 
formed, are  to  be  seen  on  the  road  from  Vlo- 
goka  to  Zakhuli. 

Strabo  says  ^  that  between  ^gce  and  the  city 
Pellene,  there  was  a  small  town  *"  also  called 
Pellene,  and  that  here  were  fabricated  the  cele- 
brated Pellenic  cloaks  or  blankets ",  which  were 

*•  Strabo,  p.  386.  *  X^*'"**  UiXXnnKxl. 

390  ^GEIRA.  [chap.  XXXI. 

SO  much  valued  as  to  be  offered  as  prizes  in 
some  of  the  agonistic  contests  at  Pellene  *. 
As  Phelloe  was  exactly  in  the  position  which 
Strabo  indicates,  one  cannot  but  suspect  that 
he  may  have  been  mistaken  as  to  the  name ; 
perhaps  the  greater  part  of  the  cloth,  though  it 
bore  the  name  of  Pellene,  was  made  at  Phelloe. 
In  fact,  the  abundant  waters  at  the  latter  place 
seem  to  afford  greater  conveniences  for  the  full- 
ing of  cloth  than  Pellene  possessed,  where  water 
was  scarce,  at  least  in  the  town. 

Pausanias  states,  that  the  port "  of  the  .^gei- 
ratae  was  twelve  stades  from  the  upper  city " ; 
in  Polybius,  it  has  been  seen  that  the  number 
is  seven :  Pausanias  is  the  more  correct  of  the 
two,  if  the  town  extended  no  farther  towards 
the  sea  than  the  upper  range  of  cliffs  which 
I  have  mentioned.  In  the  time  of  the  Social 
War,  perhaps  it  comprehended  also  the  lower 
level,  which  immediately  overlooked  the  mari- 
time plain. 

According  to  the  number  of  stades  between 
Aristonautai  and  the  maritime  ^geira,  as 
stated  by  Pausanias,  namely,  120,  Aristonautee 

a  Strabo,  p.  386.— Aris- 
toph.  Av.  V.  1421.  et  Schol. 
—Pindar.  Olymp,  9.  v.  146. 
et  Schol. — Hesycli.  et  Phot. 

in  n£7i>v»vi!ta(  y\ci.\\c/A. 

"     tTlHtOV. 

'^   baoi;    S    Ik    tov 



CrCiOiUV      y.Ocl        OcKCt 

U    Tm 



CHAP.  XXXI.]  KHASSIA.  .     3*91 

will  coincide  better  with  Xylo-kastro  than  with 
Kamares,  if  we  assume  the  Mavra  Litharia  for 
the  maritime  ^geira^  the  latter  position  giving 
a  rate  of  about  twelve  stades  to  the  geographi* 
cal  mile  in  direct  distance,  which  is  too  great, 
the  former  ten  and  one-third,  which  is  nearly 
the  correct  rate  on  a  line  of  that  length.  The 
distances  of  Pausanias,  however,  on  this  coast, 
are  not  sufficiently  complete  or  accurate  to  jus- 
tify a  reliance  on  this  evidence  alone ;  on  the 
other  hand,  the  ruins  at  Kamares,  with  the 
little  harbour  at  that  place,  give  it  strongly  the 
preference  over  the  mouth  of  the  Xylo-kastro, 
where  no  such  appearances  of  a  harbour  are 

Having  crossed  the  Mavra  Litharia,  which 
interrupt  the  sandy  beach  of  the  bay  for  the 
distance  of  ten  minutes,  we  enter  the  plain  of 
Akrata,  which  consists  of  a  white  clayey  soil, 
entirely  covered  with  currant  plantations.  On 
the  hills  above  stand  several  villages,  of  which 
the  largest,  and  that  nearest  to  the  site  of 
j^geira,  is  called  Vlogoka  ^  They  belong  to 
Khassia,  a  sub-district  of  the  Kalavryta  Kazasi ; 
the  slopes  around  them  produce  an  abundance 
of  fine  wheat.  At  10.45  cross  a  large  stream, 
which  now  whitens  all   the  bay  with  the  colour 

392  RIVER  CRIUS.  [chap.  XXXI. 

of  its  waters,  but  which,  in  dry  weather,  is  said 
to  be  very  shallow.  It  is  called  the  river  of 
Khassia,  being  formed  from  the  waters  of  that 
mountainous  district.  This  is  evidently  the 
river  flowing  by  ^geira,  which  is  mentioned  by 
Polybius,  and  it  is  the  same  als'o,  I  think,  as 
the  Crius,  which  Pausanias  describes  as  joining 
the  sea  near  ^Egeirae^,  though  in  this  case  he 
is  incorrect  in  saying  that  it  rises  in  the  moun- 
tains above  Pellene'',  for  the  origin  of  the 
Khassiotiko  is  not  far  from  that  of  the  Akrata 
or  CratJiis,  and  nearer  to  the  Vheneaiice  than 
the  Fellencea^  between  which  latter  district  and 
the  Khassiotiko,  the  riv'er  of  Zakhuli  or  Phelloe 
is  interposed. 

If  the  river  of  Khassia  be  not  the  Crius,  the 
Zakhulitiko  is  the  only  one  to  which  that  ancient 
name  can  be  applied.  But  although  a  part  of  its 
contributions  are  from  the  western  side  of  Mount 
Mavrioro,  which  is  literally  one  of  the  moun- 
tains above  Pellene^  and  although  it  joins  the 
sea  to  the  westward  of  Cape  Avgo,  and  was 
therefore  at  its  junction  with  the  sea  a  river  of 
the  JEgeiratis,  the  distance  from  thence  to  the 
site  of  ^geira  seems  too  great  to  answer  to  the 
apparent  meaning  of  Pausanias  in  the  words 
TTpos  Alyelpas.     Nor  is  it  likely  that  he  should 

*   Tfoj  Alyti^ui.  "   ly.  t^v  opojy  inrs^  'tyiv  TliXAya/yiV. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]        RIVER  CRIUS,  ETC.  393 

have  noticed  the  stream  of  Zakhuli,  and  omitted 
all  mention  of  the  larger  river  of  Khassia ;  on 
the  other  hand,  he  may  very  possibly  have  been 
misinformed  as  to  the  origin  of  the  river  of 
-^geira,  or  perhaps  he  here  used  the  word  irrrep 
as  he  does  on  many  other  occasions,  without 
any  intention  of  being  precise.  He  mentions 
another  stream  as  rising  in  the  mountains  of 
Pellene,  but  the  name  is  omitted  *.  He  alluded 
probably  to  the  river  of  Xylok astro,  on  which 
supposition  the  Fonissa  and  the  Zakhulitiko, 
although  such  streams  as  he  is  in  the  habit  of 
noticing,  have  both  been  neglected  by  him  ;  it 
is,  perhaps,  to  a  defective  text,  of  which  there 
are  some  other  appearances,  that  we  may  as- 
cribe both  this  omission,  and  that  of  the  name 
of  the  river  of  Xylo-kastro. 

a  The  entire  passage  is  as  ^^^"3''  "'  ^'-  ^-  -  ^-  29— 

follows:    norccf.0]     r.    U    r~.y  The  name  Crius  naturally  re- 

/  ,    >      \    „  .  called  to  the  recollection  of 

X^y/,v,  ^^0,'  ^\v  Alyu'^xi  -Kc^Koi-  Pausanias  a  river  of  a   coun- 

/AEK)?  Kfio'?'  j^Eii'  ^l  acvrlf  to  uvajxa  try  with  which  he  was  well 

Ik  TiTavo?  K^tov-  uq  ycci  aMoj  acquainted.       Kuhnius    pro- 

vora,fM<;  Sj  uoyofxivoi  Ix.  'LtTrvXov  posed  to  alter  rt,-  to  "Lv,;,  the 

ToS  'i^ovi    If  riv  "E|^oy  ^^^rsis^'  ^.j^^j.  mentioned  bv  Ptolemy  ; 

\    ^         ,       ,  I         V  but  hysj  as   1   have  already 

To^To  ':roTccy.k  ^rfi^^  tk remarked,  is  ^vntten   Sythas 

ea-^o!,Tog  •jtorccij.ujv  tuv  'Ap^ai'xiv  by  ir^ausanias,  and  it  was  a 

£j  rriv  I,ix.vuj\nai/  USiSj;ai  9u.x»a--  river  of  the  Sicyonia,  near  Si- 

a-ix.v.     The  words  u^  xccl  aWoq  cyon,    whereas   the   river  in 

were  an  emendation  of  Paul-  question,  without  a  name,  be- 

mier,  and  are  confirmed  by  longed  to  the  Pellensea. 

394  AKRATA.  [chap.  XXXI. 

After  having  crossed  the  currant  vineyards, 
we  arrive  at  the  river  Akrata,  the  ancient  Cra- 
this,  which,  rising  in  the  mountain  of  Zarukhla, 
and  after  receiving  the  Stya:  from  Mount  Khel- 
mos  at  Klukines,  here  issues  from  the  moun- 
tains. Strabo  derives  its  name  from  its  being 
formed  of  two  rivers^.  At  11^  we  cross  it  by 
a  bridge  of  seven  arches,  and  halt  at  the  Khan 
of  Akrata,  which  stands  on  the  summit  of  the 
steep  bank  of  the  river  a  Httle  within  a  bkift' 
point,  which  here,  projecting  from  the  moun- 
tain,  forms  a  conspicuous  cape  from  'Epakto, 
Vostitza,  as  well  as  the  northern  and  eastern 
parts  of  the  gulf;  this  height,  however,  is  not 
exactly  on  the  sea  side,  being  separated  from  it 
by  a  small  plain  covered  with  currant  grounds, 
through  which  the  river  discharges  itself.  At 
a  short  distance  westward  from  the  mouth  of 
the  river  the  plain  terminates,  and  the  sea 
begins  to  break  upon  a  steep  rocky  coast  covered 
with  brushwood,  along  the  summit  of  which  is 
the  Vostitza  road. 

^gae,  one  of  the  ancient  cities  of  T^igialus, 
and  a  rival  of  Helice  in  the  fame  and  riches  of 
its  temple  of  Neptune  ^,  was  probably  situated 

*  ripof     ^\      TO-'ic.       Ayoiix.ou<;        y.tpiia(,iT9ot,i  mm  ovofj-cccriau  \yuiv. — 
AiyaJ?  0  KpaSi?  U"^  TroTccf/.o^,  iy.       Strabo,  p.  386. 
Of  £i»  •jrorcci/.'jjv  ocvi^ojxcvoi;  uico  tov 

Horn.  II.  0  V.  203. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]  JF.GM.  395 

on  the  site  of  the  Khan  of  Akrata ;  for  though 
neither  Strabo  nor  Pausanias,  who  agree  in 
placing  JEgdd  on  the  Crathis,  distinguish  the 
bank  on  which  it  stood,  yet,  as  the  right  bank 
is  low  and  often  inundated,  we  can  hardly  doubt 
that  the  commanding  height  which  rises  from 
the  left  bank,  and  upon  which  the  khan  is 
built,  must  have  been  the  site  of  the  ancient 
city.  As  it  was  deserted  before  the  time  of 
Strabo,  who  adds,  that  the  site  was  then  called 
^ga,  I  am  not  surprised  at  being  unable  to 
find  any  other  remains  of  antiquity  than  some 
broken  pottery  and  fragments  of  wrought  stones 
in  the  neighbouring  fields.  The  abrupt  termin- 
ation of  the  height  to  which  I  have  already  al- 
luded, is  a  walk  of  five  minutes  from  the  khan  to 
the  north-westward.  It  commands  a  noble  view 
of  the  gulf,  and  of  the  adjacent  parts  o? Boeotia, 
Phocis  and  Locris  from  the  Alegar  is  to  Naiipac- 
tus.  On  the  opposite  coast  of  Locris,  between 
Cape  Andromakhi,  at  the  western  entrance  of  the 
Gulf  of  Crissa,  and  the  Khan  of  Ferat  EfFendi 
near  'Epakto,  I  observe  first  a  valley  on  the 
coast  where  is  the  village  of  Dhidhavra,  then  a 
cape  near  Kiseli,  then  Cape  Psaromyti,  on  the 
eastern  side  of  which  is  Petrinitza  in  a  plain, 
and  on  the  other  side  of  Psaromyti  the  Trisonia 
islands.     Behind  the  coast  rise  the  great  moun- 


tains  which  I  crossed  in  the  way  from  Salona 
to  'Epakto. 

At  2.55,  leaving  the  khan  we  enter  upon  the 
route  along  the  rugged  hills  just  described ;  it 
is  called  Kaki  Skala.  At  3.6  the  road  to  Ka- 
lavryta  mounts  the  hill  to  the  left.  At  3.38  the 
Potamitika  Kal)  via  are  on  the  summit  of  the 
same  heights.  At  4  descend  from  the  Kaki 
Skala  into  a  small  maritime  plain  belonging  to 
Dhiakofto  ^ ;  this  village  stands  among  the  hills 
to  our  left,  near  the  river  which  I  crossed  in  the 
way  from  Klukines  to  Megaspilio  on  the  3d  of 
April.  It  was  there  called  the  Lago,  but  is 
better  known  on  the  coast  by  the  name  of  Dhia- 
kofto. The  other  stream,  which  I  passed  the 
same  day,  and  which  rises  near  Apano  Potamia, 
or  Potamnia,  is  a  branch  of  it.  At  4.7  we  cross 
the  river  of  Dhiakofto.  Through  the  gorge  I 
recognize  the  flat  topped  rocky  summit  between 
Potamnia  and  the  Lago,  called  Petruki. 

After  having  traversed  the  plain  we  again 
travel  for  a  short  distance  along  the  summit  of 
cliffs  bordering  the  coast,  and  then  enter  upon 
the  great  maritime  level  which  extends  beyond 
Vostitza,  and  which  at  one  time  was  divided 
among  the  four  cities  of  Bura,  Helice,  ^gium, 
and  Rhypae,  but  at  last  belonged  to  ^gium 

*  AixKO^TOf,  or  Aiaxoirro;. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]  TRUPIA.  397 

alone.  At  4.48  we  arrive  at  the  river  of  Ka- 
lavryta,  but  find  it  so  swollen  with  the  late  rains 
that  we  are  obliged  to  follow  its  right  bank  for 
10  minutes  to  a  bridge,  which  stands  just  at  the 
entrance  of  a  stupendous  opening  between  two 
perpendicular  rocks,  beautifully  fringed  with 
trees  and  shrubs.  We  then  mount  a  hill  over- 
looking the  maritime  plain,  and  backed  by  rocky 
heights  which  are  connected  with  the  precipices 
on  the  side  of  the  river.  At  5.10  arrive  at  Tru- 
pia  %  a  metokhi  of  the  monastery  of  Megaspilio, 
with  a  church  of  St.  Irene,  delightfully  situated 
in  the  midst  of  woods  interspersed  with  olive 
plantations,  vineyards,  and  corn-fields,  on  the 
crest  of  a  steep  height,  the  foot  of  which  is  se- 
parated from  the  sea  by  a  plain  covered  with 
currant  plantations.  The  convent  commands 
a  magnificent  prospect  of  the  gulf,  of  the  oppo- 
site shore  of  LocriSy  and  of  all  the  great  summits 
from  Mount  Geraneia  to  Naupaclus. 

I  doubt  whether  there  is  any  thing  in  Greece, 
abounding  as  it  is  in  enchanting  scenery  and 
interesting  recollections,  that  can  rival  the  Co- 
rinthiac  Gulf.  There  is  no  lake  scenery  in  Eu- 
rope that  can  compete  with  it.  Its  coasts, 
broken  into  an  infinite  variety  of  outline  by  the 
ever-changing  mixture  of  bold  promontory, 
gentle  slope,  and  cultivated  level,  are  crowned 

'   Tpot/Tiat. 

398  TRUPIA.        [chap.  XXXI. 

on  every  side  by  lofty  mountains  of  the  most 
pleasing  and  majestic  forms  ;  the  fine  expanse  of 
water  inclosed  in  this  noble  frame,  though  not 
so  much  frequented  by  ships  as  it  ought  to  be 
by    its    natural    adaptation    to    commerce,    is 
sufficiently  enlivened  by  vessels  of  every    size 
and    shape    to    present    at   all    times   an   ani- 
mated scene.      Each    step    in    the    Corinthiac 
Gulf  presents  to  the  traveller  a  new  prospect, 
not  less  delightful    to   the   eye   than    interest- 
ing to  the  mind,  by  the  historical  fame  and  il- 
lustrious names  of  the  objects  which  surround 
him.     And  if,  in  the  latter  peculiarity,  the  cele- 
brated panorama  in  the  Saronic  Gulf,  described 
by  Sulpicius  *,  be  preferable,  that  arm  of  the 
^ga}an  is  in  almost  every  part  inferior  to  the 
Corinthian    sea    in    picturesque    beauty ;    the 
surrounding   mountains  are  less  lofty  and  less 
varied  in  their  heights  and  outlines,  and,  unless 
where  the    beautiful   plain    of  Athens  is  suffi- 
ciently near  to  decorate  the  prospect,  it  is  a  pic- 
ture of  almost  unmitigated  sterility  and  rocky 

^  In  the  celebrated  letter  of  Piraeeus,   sinistra    CorinthuSj 

consolation  to  Cicero  for  the  quae  oppida  quodam  tempore 

loss    of  his  daughter  TuUia.  florentissima    fuerunt,    nunc 

"  Ex  Asia  rediensj  cum  ab  prostrata  et  diruta  ante  oculos 

jEgina  Megaram  versus  navi-  jacent.    Coepi  egomet  mecum 

garem,  coepi  regiones  circum-  siccogitare.  Hem!  noshomun- 

circa  prospicere  :  post  me  erat  culi,  &c."      Cic.  Ep.  ad  div. 

iEgina,  ante  Megara:  dextra  1.  4.  ep.  5. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]        BURA.  399 

wildness  exhibited  in  every  possible  form  of 
mountain,  promontory,  and  island.  It  must, 
however,  be  admitted,  that  it  is  only  by  compa- 
rison that  such  a  scene  can  be  depreciated. 

The  metokhi  of  St.  Irene  stood  formerly  in 
the  plain,  but  tlie  monks  were  obliged  to  quit 
that  situation  on  account  of  its  unhealthiness. 
It  possesses  all  the  currant  plantations  of  the 
plain,  and  the  olive-trees  and  corn-land  on  the 
hill,  besides  large  flocks  which  feed  still  higher 
in  the  adjacent  mountain.  Trupia  stands  ex- 
actly, I  think,  on  the  site  of  Bura,  but  the  only 
remains  I  can  find  are  some  foundations  not  far 
from  the  convent,  on  the  descent  of  the  hill  on 
the  Vostitza  road.  They  seem  to  have  been 
those  of  a  temple.  If  this  be  the  site  of  Bura, 
the  lines  of  Ovid,  in  which  he  asserts  that  the 
remains  of  Bura,  like  those  of  Helice,  were  still 
to  be  seen  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea  *,  furnish  a 
good  instance  of  how  little  the  Roman  poets 
cared  about  topographical  accuracy.  Pliny,  in- 
deed, makes  the  same  assertion'',  and  it  might 
therefore  be  suspected  that  the  ancient  Bura, 
like  Helice,  stood  on  the  shore,  and  that  after 

^  Si  quaeras  Helicen  et  Buram^  Achaidos  urbes, 
Invenies  sub  aquis,  et  adhuc  ostendere  nautae 
Inclinata  solent  cum  moenibus  oppida  mersis. 

Ovid.  Metam.  1.  ]5.  v.  293. 
^  Elicen  et  Buram  in  Sinu     tigia  apparent.     Plin.  1.  2.  c. 
Corinthio,  quarum  in  alto  ves-     92. 

400  HELICE.  [chap.  XXXI. 

the  earthquake  the  site  was  removed  to  the  hill. 
But  Strabo  and  Pausanias  are  much  better  au- 
thorities than  the  two  Latin  authors.  Strabo 
clearly  and  correctly  distinguishes  the  nature  of 
the  convulsion  which  destroyed  either  city. 
"  Bura  ",  he  remarks,  "  was  destroyed  by  an 
opening  of  the  earth,  Helice  by  the  swelling  of 
the  sea  "  *.  Pausanias  makes  the  same  distinc- 
tion, though  less  clearly.  "  At  the  same  time  ", 
he  says,  *'  that  the  deity  withdrew  Helice  from 
the  sight  of  men,  Bura  was  shaken  by  an  earth- 
quake so  violently,  that  not  even  the  ancient 
statues  in  the  temples  were  saved ;  and  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Bura,  those  only  who  happened 
to  be  absent  in  war  or  from  other  causes,  and 
who  became  founders  of  the  new  city  *'  ^. 

The  earthquake  of  Helice  was  the  most  fatal 
of  which  we  have  any  notice  in  Grecian  history. 
It  occurred  two  years  before  the  battle  of  Leuc- 
tra,  B.  c.  373.  Heracleides  Ponticus,  in  whose 
time  the  earthquake  happened,  affirms,  that  the 
anger  of  Neptune  was  excited  against  the  people 
of  Helice,  because  they  had  refused  to  give 
their  statue  of  Neptune  to  the  Ionian  colonists 
of  Asia,  or  even  to  supply  them  with  a  model  of 

"   Boveix  y.xl  'EXijc*)*    i  fjt,ii/  vtto       Xov  f|'  ccf^^ioTnov  0  Oeoj,    tote   xa» 

naGn.     Strabo,  p.  59.  pk,  &c.      Pausan.  Achaic.  c. 

''  "Oti  Si  'EXixhv  liroiyiaiy  iiJti-      25. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]  HELICE.  401 

the  temple  ;  he  adds,  that  the  earthquake  hap- 
pened in  the  ensuing  winter  *.  The  refusal  is 
said  by  Diodorus  to  have  been  accompanied, 
on  the  part  of  the  people  of  Helice  and  Bura,  by 
violence  towards  the  Ionian  deputies " ;  accord- 
ing to  Pausanias  and  iEhan  %  even  by  their 
murder.  Heraclides  informs  us,  that  the  earth- 
quake took  place  in  the  night ;  that  the  city, 
and  a  space  of  twelve  stades  below  it,  were  sub- 
merged by  the  sea ;  and  that  the  other  Achai- 
ans,  who,  on  hearing  of  the  disaster,  had  sent 
2000  men  for  the  purpose  of  removing  the  dead, 
when  they  found  that  no  part  of  the  city  re- 
mained, divided  the  remaining  lands  of  Helice 
among  the  neighbouring  states.  More  than  a 
century  afterwards  Eratosthenes'^  visited  the 
place  and  heard  it  asserted,  that  the  brazen  sta- 
tue of  Neptune  holding  the  hippocampus  in  his 
hand  was  still  visible  under  water,  and  formed 
a  shoal  dangerous  to  fishermen.  Pausanias  re- 
lates, that  after  the  earthquake  had  subverted  the 
houses,  the  sea  rose  so  high  as  almost  to  cover 

^  Heracl.  Pontic,  ap.  Stra-  still  continued  in  the  time  of 

bon,  p.  385.     Neptune  Heli-  Pausanias.     Herodot.  1.  1.  c. 

conius  was  held  in  the  highest  148. — Strabo,  p.  384. — Pau- 

veneration  among  the  lonians,  san.  Achaic.  c.  24. 
who  had  temples  or  altars  in  ^  Diodor.  1.  15.  c.  49. 

several   of  their   cities,    but  "^  Pausan.  ubi  sup. — ^Elian. 

particularly  at  Panionium  in  de  Nat.  Deor.  1.  11.  c.  19. 
the  Prienaea.     This  worship  '^  Ap.  Strabon.  p.  384. 

VOL.  III.  D  D 


TO    VOSTITZA.  [chap.  XXXI. 

the  trees  in  the  sacred  grove  of"  Neptune  Heli- 
conius.  Not  a  vestige  of  Helice  remained  in  his 
time  except  some  fragments  in  the  sea,  having 
the  usual  appearance  of  buildings  which  had 
been  acted  upon  by  water  *. 

April  27. — A  source  of  water  near  the  Me- 
tokhi  of  Trupia  is  probably  the  fountain  Sybaris 
at  Bura,  which  gave  name  to  the  celebrated 
river  and  city  in  Italy ''. 

I  descend  this  morning  from  the  metokhi  by 
the  ruins  just  mentioned  to  the  western  foot  of 
the  hill  of  Trupia,  which  is  here  very  steep,  and 
then  pass  through  forest-trees  and  an  underwood 

^  The  fx,^n;  Uoa-eiSoJvoi;  seems 
to  be  not  yet  satisfied.  On 
the  23d  of  August,  1817,  the 
same  spot  was  again  the  scene 
of  a  similar  disaster.  The 
earthquake  was  preceded  by 
a  sudden  explosion,  which 
was  compared  to  that  of  a 
battery  of  cannon.  The  shock 
which  immediately  succeeded 
was  said  to  have  lasted  a  mi- 
nute and  a  half,  during  which 
the  sea  rose  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Selimts,  and  extended  so 
far  as  to  inundate  all  the  level 
immediately  below  Vostitza. 
After  its  retreat  not  a  trace 
was  left  of  some  magazines 
which  had  stood  on  the  shore, 
and  the  sand  which  had  co- 
vered the  beach  was  all  car- 

ried away.  The  ships  an- 
chored in  the  road  were  not 
injured,  but  the  smaller  ves- 
sels were  thrown  ashore  with 
more  or  less  damage.  In  Vos- 
titza sixty-five  persons  lost 
their  lives,  and  two  thirds  of 
the  buildings  were  entirely 
ruined,  including  the  Turkish 
mosque  and  the  houses  of  the 
voivoda  and  kady.  Five  vil- 
lages in  the  plain  were  de- 
stroyed, among  which  was 
that  of  Upper  Temeni,  or 
Temena.  In  the  bay  of  Tri- 
sonia,  on  the  opposite  coast 
of  Riimeli,  the  sea  rose  in 
the  same  manner  as  at  Vos- 
titza and  advanced  200  paces 
into  the  plain. 
^  Strabo,  p.  386. 

CITAP.  XXXI.]       RIVER    CERYNITES.  403 

of  wild  olive  ^  and  Jerusalem  thorn  ^  beautifully 
festooned  with  wild  grape-vines*",  and  now  m 
all  their  vernal  beauty.  On  the  side  of  the  hill 
on  the  left,  not  flir  short  of  the  river  Bokhusia, 
I  remark  a  grotto  with  votive  niches  in  it,  and 
soon  afterwards  a  sepulchral  niche  in  the  rocks 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river :  we  arrive  on 
the  bank  in  half  an  hour  from  Trupia,  not  far 
below  the  exit  of  the  rocky  gorge,  through 
which  I  descended  coming  from  Megaspilio  on 
the  5th  instant.  The  river  answers  exactly  to 
the  Cerynites  of  Pausanias,  and  the  ancient  city 
which  I  then  visited,  just  above  the  descent 
into  the  ravine,  to  the  small  city  '^  Ceryneia.  A 
lofty  tabular  rocky  summit  seen  tlu'ough  the 
opening  is  called  Klokos,  from  a  village  of  that 
name  on  its  slope.  On  the  northern  side  of  the 
same  mountain,  towards  the  right  bank  of  the 
river  of  Vostitza,  there  is  a  monastery  dedicated 
to  St.  Michael '.  Pausanias  describes  the  Cery- 
nites as  having  its  origin  **in  Arcadia  and  Mount 
Ceryneia  "  ^  Above  the  site  of  the  ancient  town, 
the  river  is  formed  of  two  branches,  of  which 
the  western  flows  from  Mount  Klokos,  the  east- 
ern from  the  mountain  on  the  northern  side  of 

^  'za.Xiov^t,    zizypluis   pali-         ^  °;   H  ^  A^xaJ*«?   kuI  opovg 

Kipvyeta-i;  fiuv  A^aiovj  tovj  iccv- 

ay^ioc  kX^I^utu.  tj,  ^ap.'|£.-,.      Puusail.  Achaic. 

D  D  2 

-/^5 —   I  Q, 

404  HELICE.  [chap.  XXXI. 

the  vale  of  Kalavryta,  on  which  are  situated  the 
villages  of  Visoka  and  Kerpeni.  The  mountain 
of  Klokos  therefore  I  take  to  be  the  Ceryneia  of 
the  ancients,  and  that  Pausanias  alludes  to  the 
eastern  branch  of  the  river  by  the  words  e| 
'ApKahlas,  for  Mount  Klokos  is  surrounded  by 
Achaian  districts,  whereas  the  ridge  of  Kerpeni 
belonged  to  the  Arcadian  city  Cynwtlia,  In 
descending  the  hill,  I  remarked  at  the  mouth 
of  the  river  some  shoals,  which  may  indicate 
perhaps  the  site  of  the  drowned  Helice,  the  spot 
being  nearly  at  the  distance  from  ^gium,  as- 
signed by  Pausanias,  namely,  forty  stades. 
Having  fallen  into  my  route  of  the  5th,  and 
crossed  the  Bokhusia  at  7'18j  we  pass  the  mass 
of  ancient  brickwork  as  before,  cross  the  Seliniis, 
or  river  of  Vostitza,  at  8.3,  and  at  8.35  arrive  in 
the  town  of  Vostitza. 

I  shall  here  insert  an  extract  of  the  topo- 
graphical information  of  Pausanias,  from  the 
three  chapters  of  his  Achaics  ^  which  relate  to 
the  country  between  -^gium  and  ^geira,  as, 
thus  placed  before  the  reader  at  one  view,  they 
may  serve  more  clearly  to  justify  the  positions 
which  I  have  assigned  to  the  ancient  places. 
"  On  proceeding  forward  from  ^gium,  occurred 
the  river  named  Selinus  ^,  beyond  which,  at  a 

"  Pausan.   Achaic.   c.   24,  ^  Mvn  ic  to  tt^Ix^u  TsXjk)??  ts 

25,  26.  7roT«//.o?. 


distance  of  forty  stades  from  ^>gium,  there  was 
a  place  ^  on  the  sea-side,  called  Helice,  where 
formerly  stood  the  city  of  that  name.  Quitting 
the  sea-shore,  and  turning  to  the  riglit  hand,  the 
traveller  arrived  at  the  city  Ceryneia,  which 
was  built  in  the  mountain,  above  the  high  road''. 
Pausanias  doubted  whether  the  place  took  its 
name  from  a  native  ruler ",  or  from  the  river 
Cerynites.  There  still  existed  a  temple  of  the 
Eumenides,  into  which  it  was  believed  that  those 
who  entered  were  seized  with  madness,  if  they 
had  been  guilty  of  murder,  or  any  great  impurity 
or  impiety.  The  statues  of  the  deities  were 
small,  and  made  of  wood,  but  in  the  vestibule 
of  the  temple  there  were  figures  of  women  in 
marble,  of  fine  workmanship,  which  were  sup- 
posed to  represent  certain  priestesses.  After 
having  returned  from  Ceryneia  into  the  public 
road,  and  travelled  onward  to  no  great  distance, 
a  by-road  conducted  to  Bura,  which  was  also 
situated  on  a  mountain  to  the  right.  Bura  was 
said  to  have  derived  its  name  from  the  daughter 
of  Ion,  son  of  Xuthus,  by  Helice.  Here  were 
temples  of  Ceres,  of  Venus,  of  Bacchus,  and  of 
Lucina,  with  st.aues  of  Pentelic  marble,  by  Eu- 
cleides  of  Athens.  The  Ceres  was  clothed. 
There  was  also  a  temple  of  Isis.  On  descending 
from  Bura  to  the  sea  occurred  the  river  Buraicus, 

406  MGJEy    ^GEIRA.  [CHAP.  XXXI. 

and  a  small  oracular  statue  of  Hercules  Buraicus, 
in  a  cavern :  those  who  consulted  the  oracle, 
after  praying  to  the  god,  threw  upon  a  table  four 
dice  %  inscribed  with  certain  marks,  wliich  were 
explained  on  reference  to  a  tablet ".  The  direct 
road  from  Helice  to  the  Hercules  was  thirty 
stades  in  length,  beyond  which  there  was  a  per- 
ennial '^  river  flowing  into  the  sea  from  an  Arca- 
dian mountain.  Both  the  river  and  the  mountain 
in  which  were  its  sources,  were  called  Crathis. 
At  this  river  formerly  stood  the  city  iEgae.  Not 
far  beyond  the  Crathis,  on  the  right  of  the  road, 
stood  a  sepulchral  monument,  on  which  there 
was  an  almost  obliterated  picture  of  a  man  stand- 
ing by  a  horse.  From  thence  there  was  a  road 
of  thirty  stades  to  the  place  called  Gseus,  which 
was  a  temple  of  Earth,  surnamed  Eurysternus 
[Wide-bosomed],  containing  a  very  ancient  sta- 
tue of  wood.  From  the  cave  of  Hercules,  on 
the  road  to  Bura  '*,  to  the  harbour  of  .^geira, 
which  bore  the  same  name  as  the  city,  there  was 
a  distance  of  seventy-two  stades.  On  the  sea- 
side the  JEgeivsitds  had  nothing  remarkable.  The 
way  from  the  harbour  to  the  upper  city  was 
twelve  stades  in  length." 

Here  it  is  seen  that  Pausanias  mentions  only 
four  rivers  between  ^gium  and  the  port  of 

CHAP.  XXXI.]       RIVERS    OF    ACHAIA.  407 

^geira,  whereas  there  are  six,  of  considerable 
size,  namely  :  1.  The  river  of  Vostitza;  2.  The 
Bokhusia;  3.  The  river  of  Kalavryta;  4.  The 
Lago,  or  river  of  Dhiakofto  ;  5.  The  Akrata,  or 
river  of  Klukines  j  6.  The  river  of  Khassia.  As  to 
the  last,  I  have  already  offered  some  reasons  for 
believing  that  Pausanias  has  noticed  it  in  another 
place,  under  the  name  of  Crius.  Of  the  five  re- 
maining, it  can  hardly  be  questioned,  from  the 
words  of  Pausanias,  that  the  river  of  Vostitza  is 
the  SelimiSy  for  the  real  topography  shews  that 
Strabo  has  incorrectly  described  the  Selinus  as 
flowing  through  the  city  of  the  ^iEgienses  %  there 
being  no  river  in  that  situation.  It  will  follow 
that  the  Bokhusia  was  the  Cerynites.  That  the 
Akrata  was  the  ancient  Crathis,  there  is  still  less 
reason  for  doubting.  Independently  of  the  re- 
semblance of  the  modern  name,  the  magnitude 
and  permanence  of  the  stream  in  summer,  accord 
with  the  epithet  atwaos,  by  which  Pausanias  dis- 
tinguishes the  Crathis  from  the  other  rivers  of 
Achaia,  which  in  summer  are  for  the  most  part 
oi i\\2it indverulent^  kind  so  common  in  Greece, 
Besides  these  proofs,  there  are  the  strong  geo- 
graphical arguments,  first,  of  the  vicinity  to 
Pheneus  of  the  mountain,  (anciently  called  Cra- 

^   Sia.  T?5  Alyuuv  xoXiu;.      Strabo,  p.  387- 

^  — pulverulciita  calcandaque  fhimina. — 

Stat.  Thcb.  I.  1.  v.  358. 

408  RIVERS    OF    ACHAIA.       [CHAP.  XXXI. 

this,)  in  which  are  the  sources  of  the  river  Ak- 
rata^;  secondly,  that  of  its  being  joined  by  the 
Styjc^  from  the  cascade  of  the  mountain  Aroania 
(now  Khelmos),  and  thirdly,  the  vicinity  of  the 
latter  mountain  to  the  Cleitoria  ^. 

As  to  the  Buraicus,  there  may  be  a  question 
arising  from  the  following  causes :  1st,  Pausanias 
has  not  mentioned  the  origin  of  that  river,  as 
he  has  of  the  Cerynites  and  Crathis:  2dly,  There 
are  no  remains  of  Bura  of  sufficient  importance 
to  lead  to  any  opinion  as  to  the  exact  site  of 
that  city,  without  a  previous  identifying  of  the 
river :  3dly,  The  only  information  w^hich  Pausa- 
nias gives  us,  regarding  the  position  of  the  Burai- 
cus, is  that  it  was  seventy  stades  from^gium,  and 
seventy-two  from  the  maritime  ^geira,  distances 
which,  added  together,  will  give  too  great  a  rate 
to  the  stade  on  the  whole  distance,  to  allow  of 
our  placing  impUcit  reliance  upon  their  accu- 
racy :  Nor,  4thly,  would  even  the  proportion  of 
the  two  numbers  decide  the  question  betw^een 
the  Lago  and  river  of  Kalavryta,  as  the  point 
resulting  from  that  proportion  will  fall  between 
the  two  streams.  But  on  further  examination 
there  can  be  little  hesitation  in  choosing  between 
them.  1st,  It  is  not  likely  that  Pausanias  should 
have  mentioned  the  Lago,  and  omitted  the  river 
of  Kalavryta,  which  is  much  the  larger :  2dly, 

«  Pciusan.  Arcad.  c.  15.  ''  Ibid.  c.  17^  18. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]  TO    PATRA.  409 

There  are  no  remains  of  an  ancient  town  on  the 
banks  of  the  Lago,  as  I  could  perceive  or  learn, 
whereas  there  are  some  remains,  as  I  have  stated, 
on  several  parts  of  the  heights  of  Trupia,  where 
the  strong  and  commanding  situation  adds  much 
to  the  probability  of  its  having  been  an  ancient 
site.  It  appears  from  Strabo  that  the  real  name 
of  the  Buraicus,  or  river  of  Bura,  was  Erasinus, 
or  Arsinus  *. 

April  28.  Finding  it  impossible  to  explore 
the  middle  route  from  Kalavryta  to  Patra  with- 
out great  risk,  I  am  obliged  once  more  to 
follow  the  road  from  Migiiim  to  Patrce.  At 
the  Khan  of  Lambiri,  where  I  halt  for  the  night, 
a  Tatar  of  Patra,  travelling  the  same  road,  offers 
me,  as  a  present,  part  of  a  lamb,  which  he  had 
purchased  on  the  road  ;  soon  afterwards  he  ex- 
plains to  me  the  cause  of  this  civility.  He  was 
a  Dehli  in  the  service  of  Mustafa  Pasha,  who 
was  made  prisoner  by  the  French,  at  the  landing 
at  Abukir,  and  who  died  at  Kairo.  When  the 
French  drove  the  Turks  into  the  sea,  the  Dehli 
endeavoured  with  many  others  to  save  himself, 
by  swimming  on  board  Kadir  Bey's  ship  ;  but 
his  countrymen  stood  ready  to  cut  him  down,  if 
he  attempted  to  climb  the  ship's  sides.    He  then 

'^  To\  Je  'E^xo-Tvov  xocXovai  y.ut       tu,  Bov^ai/  aJyiaAoc.      Strabo^  p. 

410  ERINEUS.  [chap.    XXXI. 

swam  to  an  English  ship,  where  he  was  well 
treated,  and  was  afterwards  landed  at  Akka.  I 
find  that  it  was  by  the  same  Tatar's  influence 
at  Vostitza,  that  I  was  provided  with  a  celebrated 
Bosniac  horse  for  my  journey,  which  has  be- 
longed, they  say,  for  fifteen  years  to  the  menzil- 
hane  of  Vostitza,  and  has  been  in  constant  work, 
seldom  reposing  more  than  a  day  at  a  time,  and 
the  oftener  employed,  as  all  persons  travelling 
this  road  are  well  acquainted  with  his  virtues. 

It  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  the  harbour  of 
Lambiri  is  the  ancient  Erineus,  where  a  naval 
action  was  fought  in  the  nineteenth  year  of  the 
Peloponnesian  war,  b.  c.  413,  not  long  before 
the  defeat  of  the  Athenians  in  Sicily.  There  is 
no  other  harbour  near  the  situation  indicated 
by  Pausanias^,  that  will  answer  to  Erineus,  and 
Lambiri  accords  perfectly  with  the  circum- 
stances related  by  Thucydides  ".  The  Pelo- 
ponnesian fleet,  consisting  chiefly  of  Corinthian 
ships,  had  for  some  time  been  stationed  on  the 
coast  opposite  to  Naupactus,  in  observation  of 
an  inferior  force  of  Athenians  at  that  place, 
when  the  latter,  having  received  a  reinforce- 
ment under  Conon,  which  made  them  more 
than  equal  to  the  enemy,  these  withdrew  to 
Erineus,  and  were  followed  thither  by  the  Athe- 
nians. The  shore  at  Erineus  formed  a  curve 
^  Pausan.  Achaic.  c.  22.  ^  Thucyd.  1.  7.  c.  34. 


within  two  promontories.  The  hmd  forces  of 
the  Corinthians  and  their  confederates  were 
stationed  on  either  promontory,  and  the  ships 
formed  a  line  between  them.  When  the  Athenians 
arrived,  the  security  of  the  position  caused  a 
pause  on  both  sides,  but  the  Corinthians,  at 
length  thinking  the  moment  favourable,  ad- 
vanced to  the  attack.  Three  of  their  ships  were 
sunk,  and  the  wrecks,  drifting  out  to  sea,  were 
taken  by  the  Athenians,  seven  of  whose  galleys 
were  disabled  by  the  superior  strength  of  the 
Corinthian  beaks.  A  trophy  of  victory  was 
erected  on  both  sides. 

The  road  from  Corinth  to  Patrae  being  direct, 
level,  and  free  from  obstacles,  unless  when 
violent  rains  swell  the  rivers  and  injure  the 
roads,  is  one  of  the  best  in  Greece  for  trying 
the  rate  of  travelling.  I  have  found  it,  with 
post-horses,  both  on  the  whole  line  and  in  de- 
tail, to  be  three  geographical  miles  and  a  half^. 
in  direct  distance,  to  an  hour  of  time.  This,, 
therefore,  is  the  rate  that  may  be  taken  for  the 
frequented  post  routes  in  Turkey,  when  the 
horses  are  good  and  there  are  no  obstacles  or 
retardations  from  hills,  baggage,  or  bad  roads ; 
but  with  the  ordinary  roads  and  cattle  of  Greece 
it  is  certainly  too  great  a  rate.  From  3  to  3*3 
geographical  miles,  or  from  30  to  33  stades,  is 
a  safer  average  in  Greece  for   direct  or  short 


lines,  even  when  there  are  no  mountains :  a  fur- 
ther deduction,  according  to  circumstances,  is 
necessary  on  long,  or  indirect,  or  mountainous 
routes.  The  following  numbers  shew  the  differ- 
ence of  rate  between  the  agoyatic  horses  and 
those  of  the  menzil.  From  Patra  to  the  khan 
of  Lambiri,  with  the  former,  it  took  310  mi- 
nutes ;  with  the  latter,  255  j — from  Lambiri  to 
Vostitza,  with  the  former,  133  ;  with  the  latter, 
110.  The  proportions  are  exactly  the  same, 
and  shew  the  uniformity  of  the  rates :  which  are 
in  a  ratio  of  6  to  5.  Such  calculations  would 
not  be  worth  making  in  a  country  in  which  geo- 
daesic  operations  can  be  carried  on  according  to 
rule ;  but  in  Turkey,  where  trigonometry  can 
only  be  partially  applied,  they  are  useful  auxili- 
aries to  instrumental  observations.  I  have  found 
great  advantage  also  in  having  constantly  with 
me  a  horse,  the  walk  of  which  I  had  exactly 
ascertained  by  measurement  in  the  plains  of 
Athens  and  loannina. 

From  Patrae  to  JEgium,  Pausanias  furnishes 
us  both  with  a  payapliis  and  a  route  by  land  *. 
In  the  former,  which  he  reckons  230  stades  in 
length,  he  gives  the  distances  of  the  several 
harbours  along  the  coast ;  in  the  latter,  which 
he  makes  40  stades  shorter  than  the  line  of  na- 

»  Pausaii.  Achaic.  c.  22,  23. 


vigation,  he  notices  the  rivers  and  the  ruins. 
"  As  you  sail  '*,  he  says,  "  from  Patrae  to  ^Egi- 
um,  the  promontory  Ilhium  first  occurs,  distant 
fifty  stades  from  Patrge ;  then  tlie  port  named 
Panormus,  which  is  fifteen  stades  beyond  the 
promontory.  There  is  a  Uke  distance  from 
Panormus  to  the  place  called  the  fortress  of 
Minerva  %  from  thence  to  the  port  Erineus  the 
distance  by  sea  is  ninety  stades,  and  from  Erineus 
to  ^gium  sixty  stades.  The  road  by  land  is 
forty  stades  shorter.  Not  far  from  the  city  of 
Patras  is  the  river  Meilichus,  and  the  temple  of 
Diana  Triclaria,  which  has  no  longer  any  statue : 
it  stands  to  the  right  of  the  road.  Proceeding 
from  thence,  there  occurs  another  river,  named 
Charadrus,  beyond  which  are  some  few  remains 
of  the  city  Argyra,  the  fountain  Argyra  on  the 
right-hand  side  of  the  high  road  ^,  and  the  river 
Selemnus  descending  to  the  sea.  Beyond  Ar- 
gyra is  the  river  Bolinaeus,  upon  which  was  for- 
merly situated  the  city  Bolina ;  farther  on  a 
promontory  extends  into  the  sea,  called  Drepa- 
num ;  a  little  above  the  high  road  are  the  ruins 
of  Rhypa^ ;  ^gium  is  about  thirty  stades  distant 
from  Rhypae  ;  the  river  Phoenix  flows  to  the 
sea  through  the  country  of  j^Egium,  and  another 
called  Meganitas." 


In  this  passage,  as  in  many  others,  Pausanias 
by  a  slight  omission,  that  is  to  say,  by  faihng 
to  connect  the  paraplus  witli  the  land  route, 
and  by  giving  only  a  single  distance  in  the  latter, 
namely  from  Rhypa3  to  ^Egium,  has  left  the 
topography  in  such  a  state  of  doubt  as  can  only 
be  removed  by  an  actual  inspection  of  the  places. 
Strabo,  too,  tends  to  mislead  us  by  speaking 
of  Rhium  and  Drepanum,  as  if  they  v^-ere  one 
and  the  same  promontory  a.  No  one  can  doubt, 
that  Rhium,  which  formed  with  Jntirrhium  the 
narrowest  part  of  the  strait,  is  the  cape  now 
occupied  by  the  Morea  castle  ;  nor  is  it  less 
certain,  that  Drepanum  is  the  low  sandy  point 
four  miles  to  the  eastward  of  the  castle,  which 
still  preserves  its  ancient  appellation.  The  name 
was  often  applied  by  the  ancients  to  low  sandy 
promontories,  which,  by  the  action  of  currents 
in  the  sea  upon  the  deposits  of  rivers,  assume 
the  form  of  a  hpiiravov,  or  sickle.  Cape  Dhre- 
pano  is  exactly  in  that  predicament,  and  Pau- 
sanias has  correctly  described  its  position  as  be- 
ing at  the  mouth  of  the  fourth  river  from  Patrae 
in  the  way  to  ^gium. 

Strabo  makes  the  distance  from  Patra2  to 
Rhium  40  stades,  Pausanias  50  :  the  difference 
is  accounted  for  by  the  former  having  meant  the 

*    EcTTt     d\    TO    fj.iv     P,oi/    1U1M        era,  y.ocl   ^ri  -/.ocl  KctAuroci  Ap'.ttu- 
'  Axa-iut  a.hiTi)i'i>i;a.y.^ccl^i7ta.von^n        ^^j,,      Strabo,    p.  335. 

GHAP.  XXXI.]   PORTS  PANORMUS,  ETC.      415 

land  route,  and  the  latter  the  navigation,  whicli 
he  supposed,  on  the  whole  paraplus  to  ^gium, 
to  have  been  40  stades  more  than  the  road  by 
land.  His  paraplus  of  230  stades  is  nearly  cor- 
rect, its  length  on  the  map  being  24  geogra- 
phical miles,  measured  on  a  curved  line  parallel 
to  the  coast ;  but  the  length  which  he  assigns 
to  the  road  by  land,  190  stades,  is  below  the 
truth,  the  line,  when  measured  with  a  distance 
of  3  geographical  miles  in  the  compasses,  being 
21  geographical  miles,  which,  at  10<j  stades  to 
the  geographical  mile,  amounts  to  220.  Indeed, 
it  is  obvious  that,  as  the  land  route  followed  a 
curve  nearly  parallel  to  the  paraplus,  the  differ- 
ence between  them  could  not  have  been  so  great 
as  he  makes  it. 

The  places  mentioned  by  Pausanias  on  the 
route  by  sea,  beyond  Rhium  are,  1.  Port  Pa- 
normus,  15  stades  from  Rhium  ;  2.  The  wall  or 
fortress  of  Minerva,  15  stades  from  Panormus  ; 
3.  Port  Erineus,  90  stades  from  the  wall  of 
Minerva,  and  60  stades  from  -^gium. 

Panormus  is  well  known  in  history  as  having 
been  the  scene  of  a  naval  battle  between  the 
Peloponnesians  and  Athenians,  in  the  third  year 
of  the  Peloponnesian  war*.  It  is  described  as 
having  been  near  the  Achaic  Rhium  '',  and  over 

«  Thucyd.  1.  2.  c  86.  ^  Id.  ibid. 

416       FORT  OF  MINERVA,  ERINEUS.      [CHAP.  XXXI. 

against  Naupactus  ^ ;  a  description  which  leaves 
no  doubt  of  its  being  that  curve  of  the  coast 
between  Cape  Dhrepano  and  Kasteh,  (the  Mo- 
rea  castle,)  now  called  Tekieh.  Tlie  measure- 
ment of  Pausanias  is  not  incorrect  when  taken 
to  the  part  nearest  to  Rhium. 

If  the  fort  of  Minerva  was  a  harbour,  as  we 
cannot  but  suspect  from  its  being  named  in 
the  Paraplus  between  two  other  harbours,  it 
could  have  been  no  other  than  Psathopyrgo, 
that  being  the  only  harbour  eastward  of  Cape 
Drepanum  until  we  arrive  at  Lambiri ;  more- 
over, the  respective  distances  of  ninety  stades 
and  sixty  stades,  placed  by  Pausanias  between 
the  fort  of  Minerva,  Erineus,  and  ^gium,  con- 
firm both  the  position  of  the  fort  of  Minerva  at 
Psathopyrgo  and  that  of  Port  Erineus  at  Lam- 
biri. The  name  of  Psathopyrgo  was  derived 
from  a  tower  which  once  existed  at  the  harbour ; 
it  may  have  been  the  fortress  of  Minerva  itself, 
or,  perhaps,  a  building  of  later  times  erected 
upon  the  ancient  foundations.  The  only  ob- 
jection to  its  being  the  ancient  site  in  question 
is,  that  the  fifteen  stades  of  Pausanias,  between 
Panormus  and  the  fort  of  Minerva,  is  below  the 
distance  from  Psathopyrgo  even  to  the  nearest 
part  of  the  harbour  of  Tekieh.  But  I  have  al- 
ready remarked,  that   Pausanias   is  below  the 

»  Polyb.  1.  5.  c.  102. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]        BOLINA,    ARGYRA.  417 

truth  in  his  estimate  of  the  land  route  :  tlie 
cliief  part  of  the  deficiency  seems  to  have  been 
between  Rhium  and  the  fort  of  Minerva. 

The  certainty  as  to  Drepanum  furnishes  a 
fortunate  adjustment  for  the  places  on  the  land 
route  of  Pausanias.  It  would  otherwise  have 
been  difficult  to  understand,  from  his  abrupt 
mention  of  Rhypae  immediately  after  Drepa- 
num, that  there  was  in  truth  a  road-distance 
of  fifteen  miles  between  them.  But  Drepa- 
num fixes  the  river  Bolinaeus,  so  called  from 
the  town  Bolina,  which  once  stood  on  its  bank  ; 
and  thus  also  we  apply,  without  difficulty,  the 
name  of  Selemnus,  upon  the  bank  of  which 
(probably  the  left  bank)  stood  Argyra,  to  the 
stream  which  joins  the  sea  a  little  eastward  of 
Rhium,  and  that  of  Charadrus  to  the  torrents 
which  unite  and  join  the  sea  a  little  westward 
of  the  same  point.  There  remains  the  river  of 
Sykena  nearer  to  Patra,  corresponding  precisely 
to  the  MeUichus. 

Rhypae,  though  not  mentioned  by  Homer, 
was  a  very  ancient  city,  and  contributed  to  the 
foundation  of  Crotona  in  Italy,  where  another 
Achaian  colony  from  ^Egaj  gave  the  name  of 
the  river  Crathis  to  the  stream  which  flows  near 
Crotona  ^        I    have    already   remarked,    that 

■'»  Strabo,  p.  38C. — Piiusan.  Achaic.  c.  2.'i. 
VOL.  HI.  E  E 

418  RHYPiE.  [chap.  XXXI. 

Rhypae  probably  occupied  a  position   on  the 
banks  of  the  river  of  Sahneniko.      The  argu- 
ments for  this  opinion  are ;  1st.  That  Greek  cities 
were  generally  so  situated,  as  well  for  the  sake 
of  the  water  as  for  defence,  especially  when  they 
had  the  benefit  of  such  torrents  as  that  of  Sal- 
meniko,  which  is  incased  in  precipitous  banks 
and   sometimes  impassable.     2d.  That   of  the 
three   rivers  which  join  the  sea  between  Vos- 
titza,  or  JEghim,  and  Lambiri,  or  Erineics,  two, 
namely,  the  Meganitas  and  Phoeriia:^  were   in 
the  Mgiatis,  between  Rhypce  and  Mgium,     3d. 
That  the  river  of  Salmeniko  is  not  far  from  Port 
Lambiri,  and  Erineus,  according  to  Thucydides, 
was  in  the  district  of  Rhypae  \     The  objection 
is,  that  Pausanias  places  Rhypae  at  thirty  stades 
from  ^gium,  or  at  about  equal  distances  from 
^gium  and  Erineus,  whereas  the  river  of  Sal- 
meniko is  at  two  thirds  of  the  route  from  Vos- 
titza  to  Lambiri.      It  appears,  however,  from 
other  instances,  that  the  numbers  of  Pausanias 
on  this  coast  will  hardly  bear  so  close  an  ex- 

There  still  remains  a  difficult  question  in  re- 
gard to  one  of  the  Achaian  cities,  and  I  have 
deferred  it  to  this  place,  because  the  inform- 
ation regarding  it  being  very  scanty,  it  is  only 

«  If  T>j  'Pyw»xrl,  Thucyd.  1.  7-  c.  34. 

CHAP.  XXXI.]      LEONTIUM.  419 

from  negative  arguments  tliat  it  can  be  placed 
with  any  degree  of  probability.     We  have  seen 
that  Polybius  mentions  a  Leontium  among  the 
twelve  cities  of  the   Achaian  league.     It  was 
the  native  place  of  Callicrates,  whose  treachery 
to  his  native  country  has  been  recorded  by  Pau- 
sanias  as  well  as  Polybius.     Pausanias,  however, 
does  not  say  that  Callicrates  was  of  Leontium, 
nor  can  I  discover  that  any  author  besides  Po- 
lybius has  named  this  Achaian  city.     That  it 
was  not  on  the  coast  may  be  presumed  from 
the  silence  of  Strabo,  and  still  more  from  that 
of  Pausanias,  who  has  so  particularly  described 
the  maritime  country.     We  may  infer  then  that 
it  was  an  inland  town,  and  consequently  in  the 
country  situated  to  the  southward  or  eastward 
of  Mount  Panachaiciim,  that  being  the  only  part 
in  which  Achaia  was  not  confined  to  the  vicinity 
of  the  coast.      But  in  this  district  the  inland 
part  of  the  valley  of  the  river  Peirus,  above 
Olenus,  belonged  to  Pharac,  and  that  which  lay 
near  the  sources  of  the   Selinus,    between  the 
Phara^a  and  the  Cynaetha^a,  confining  on  Arca- 
dia, belonged  to  Tritaea ;  Leontium  therefore, 
it  should  seem,  occupied  an  intermediate  part 
of  the  valley  of  the  Selinus,  between  the  Tritieis 
and  the  district  of  ^gium.      This  agrees  ex- 
actly with  the  position  of  a  place  which  is  now 
called  Ai  Andhrea,  from  a  ruined  church    of 

E  E  2 

420  LEONTIUM.  [chap.  XXXI. 

that  saint  near  the  village  of  Guzumistra  *,  and 
which  is  in  or  near  the  direct  road  from  Kala- 
vryta  to  Patra,  at  something  less  than  half-way. 
If  I  am  rightly  informed,  vestiges  of  an  ancient 
city   of   considerable    extent    there   occupy   a 
height  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  of  Aio  Vlasi, 
consequently  about  the  middle  of  the  course  of 
the  ancient  Selinus.     And  this  conjecture,  as 
to  the   position    of    Leontium,   receives   some 
countenance  from  Polybius,   who   informs  us, 
that  in  the  Social  War,  Euripidas  the  ^tolian, 
at  the  head  of  2000  Eleians  and  sixty  cavalry, 
having  marched  from  the  Eleia  through  the  ter- 
ritory of  Pharae,  advanced  to  the  vicinity  of 
^gium,   where  the  Achaic  council  was  then 
convened  under  Aratus ;  that  after  having  ra- 
vaged the  country  he  retired  with  a  great  plun- 
der to  Leontium,  and  that  having  been  there  at- 
tacked by  the  Achaians  under  Lycus  of  Pharse 
he  was  defeated  with  a  loss  of  600  men  ^.  These 
circumstances    are  well   illustrated  by  placing 
Leontium  near  Guzumistra. 

a  Tov?oi^K7r^a.  ^  Polyb.  1.  5.  c.  94. 

THE    END. 


The  Roman  letters  refer  to  the  volumes  ;  the  Arabic  figures 
to  the  paging. 

Abdul  Kerim,  pyrgo  of,  i.  193. 
A/jia  or  A/Ace,  once  named.  Ire,  i. 

325.  330.  332.  453. 
Abundance,  temple  of,    iii.    295, 

AcHAiA,  province  of,  ii.  94,  151 ; 

its  western  extremity,  or  Cape 

Araxus,    165 ;    iii.    227.    382 ; 

rugged  mountains  overhang  the 

maritime   plains ;    difficult    and 

narrow  passes,  iii.   130;  ancient 

history  of,  196. 
Achaean  rocks,  Samus  built  at  the, 

i.  61  ;  they  are  seen  near  Khai- 

affa,  66. 
Achfei,  the,  i.  163  ;  expelled  from 

Laconia  and  Argolis,  iii.   197  » 

their  twelve  cities,  iii.  197- 
Achaia,  fountain   thus   named,   i. 

Achaian  league,  the,  ii.  33;  the  last 

years  of   Grecian  independence, 

iii.  204. 
Achelous    river,  i.    440,    accunni- 

lation  of  earth  at  its  mouth,  ii. 

148  ;  iii.  233. 
Acheron  river,  near  Pylus,  i.  59, 

the  stream  of  this  name  men- 
tioned by  Strabo,  89. 
Achilles,  tomb  of  Las  slain  by  him, 

i.  275. 
towns  offered  to  him  bv 

the  Atrid«,  329,  330.  452. 

cenotaph  of,  ii.  221.  498. 

temple  of,  iii.  14. 

Avhillems,  port  of,  i.  299.  301,  now 

Vathy,  302. 
Acidas,  the  river  that  flows  to  the 

Anigrus ;  its  lish,  i.  64  ;  its  rise 

in  Mount  Smerna,  67,  68  ;   the 

Jurdanus,  ii.  190. 

Acidon,  a   stream  identified  with 

the  river  Acidas,  i.  62.  68  ;  ii. 

Acragas,  temples  of  Juno  and  of 

Concord  at,  iii.  284. 
Acrcea,  situation  of;  opposite  to  the 

Herajum  of  Argos,  ii.  393. 
Acrcephium,  inscription  copied  at, 

i.  5. 
AcritB,  position  of,  i.  229—231. 
Acribe,  situation  of,  iii.  111. 
Acritas,  Cape,  in  the  Gulf  of  Mes- 

senia,  i.  279.  303,  now  called  Ka- 

vo  Gallo,  435.  443. 
Acro-Corinthus,  description  of  the 

modern  fortress  by  \Vheler,  iii. 

257,  258 ;  it  is  commanded  by  a 

peaked  hill,  259,  260. 
Acropolis  of  Aliphera,  ii.  ^^.  79. 

Argos  (Larissa)  ii.  410 

Arene,  i.  60. 

Asea,  ii.  317- 

—  Asopus,  i.  226,  227. 

the  Aero  Corinthus, 

iii.  236.  257. 

Corone,  i.  437. 

Cynffitha,  ii.  112. 

Cyparissiae,  i.  69. 

Ehs,  ii.  221.  225. 

Epidaurus,  i.  21 1, 212. 

Geranthrte,  iii.  (J. 


Gythiuin,  i.  246. 

Leuctra,  i.  328. 

Wessene,  i.  386.  392. 

3Ivcenfi»,  ii.  368. 

Pallantium,i.ll8, 119. 

Patras  ii.  127.  131. 

Pellene,  iii.  216. 

Pheneus,  iii.  136.  140. 

Phigaleia,   i.   500;  ii. 

PhHus,  iii.  340. 
Psophis,  ii.  248. 



Acropolis  of  Sicyon,  ili.  359. 

Sparta,    i.     1C[>.    173. 

177.  4GG. 

Teuthis,  ii.  63. 

TrcDzen,  ii.  443. 

Acroreia,  district  of,  ii.  203. 

Acroreii,  their  towns  named 
Thraustus,  Alium,  Eupagium, 
and  Opus,  ii.  202,  203. 

Acrotatus  the  Lacedajmonian  de- 
feated by  Aristodemus,  ii.  31. 

son  of  Areus,  ii.  303. 

Acte,  the  Thracian,  i.  301. 

AcHum,  sea-iight  of,  i.  95,  IO7. 

Additional  Note  to  Chapter  VIII., 
i.  332.  ii.  466;  also  to  Chapter 
XXVIII.,  iii.  268. 

Adonis,  lamented  by  the  Argive 
women,  ii.  404. 

Adrastus,  iii.  333. 

-/Eacus,  ii.  440 ;  the  jEaceium  at 
jEgina,  ii.  434 ;  site  of  the  build- 
ing, 438. 

yEdo,  statue  of;  [Modesty]  iii.  14. 

JEgalciim,  ridge  of  hills,  i.  426,  427- 

yEffcB,  iii.  138.  188;  its  site,  394, 
395  ;  the  city,  406. 

yEgfean,  islands  of  the,  i.  189. 

seamen   the  best  of  the 

Turkish  fleet,  ii.  345. 

JEgeira.,  city  of  Achaia,  iii.  131. 
142  ;  its  port  at  the  Black  Rocks, 
387 — 392  ;  city  and  harbour,  iii. 

^geiis,  heroum  of,  i.  167;  sword 
and  slippers  of,  ii.  447- 

xEffialeus,  district  on  the  N.  coast 
of  the  Peloponnesus,  iii.  196; 
traditions  regarding,  368. 

/EgiiB,  or  JEijcbcb,  i.  247 — 249. 

jEgidaj,  a  Spartan  tribe,  i.  175.  178. 

JEgila^  a  city  of  Lacouia,  i.  278, 
279.  466. 

JEgilodes  sinus,  i.  278. 

jEgina,  city  and  celebrated  island 
of;  description,  ii.  431  ;  silver 
money  of,  432  ;  iEginetan  fleet, 
433  ;  ancient  descripticm,  434  ; 
harbour  and  walls,  436 ;  the  mo- 
dern 'Eghina,  441. 

picturesque  position  of  the 

temple  of,ii.  9.  466;  iii.  262.  312. 

iEginetan  school  of  sculpture,  i. 
122  ;  ii.  434  ;  statues  by  Gallon, 
445  ;  fine  specimen  in  England, 
iii.  267. 

TEgisthus,  place  of  sepulture  of  him 
and  of  Clytemuestra,  ii.  366. 

ASgitim,  route  and  navigation  from 
Patrae  to,  iii.  412.  etseq. ;  vicinity 
of,  404. 

its   site  at  Vostitza,    iii. 

187  ;  statues  and  edifices  of  the 
ancient  city,  188.  190  ;  council, 

JEgospotami,  spoils  gained  by  Ly- 
sander  in  the  battle  of,  i.  46. 
169;  consequence  of  the  victory, 

yEgyptian  artists,  the,  i.  370. 

/Egvjjtus,  son  of  Belus,  monument 
of,  ii.  130. 

jEgytae,  the,  ii.  320;  their  territory, 
and  city  .Egys,  322. 

JEgys,  remains  of,  iii.  19. 

yEnetus,  his  death  at  OljTnpia,  i. 

jEolic  B,  a  substitute  for  the  di- 
gamma,  i.  330 ;  the  final  A  ap- 
pertains to  this  dialect,  331. 

jEpeia,  i.  453. 

Aipeium,  or  Epeium,  ii.  206. 

jEpiian,  ii.  76. 

jEpytus,  successor  to  Cresphontes, 
i.  458. 

son  of  Elatus,  his  tomb, 

iii.  116. 

iEsculapius,  temple  of,  i.  72  ;  sta- 
tue,  96.  106  ;  temples  at  Sparta, 
164.  I67.  172;  statue  at  Epidau- 
rus,  211  ;  terrace  of  his  temple, 
212;  his  altars  at  the  Lake  of 
Ino,  217;  sacred  well  at  Gythi- 
um,  246.  251  ;  temple  on  Mount 
Ilium,  274  ;  statue,  328  ;  temple 
at  Pharffi,  345  ;  and  at  Messene, 
369 ;  the  son  of  Arsinoe,  370 ; 
temple  of  Pentelic  marble  at 
Gortys,  ii.  25.  290  ;  at  Aliphera, 
79;  at  Patrje,  129;  his  ivory 
statue,  by  C-olotas,  174  ;  his  tem- 
ple and  statue  in  the  Larissa  of 
Argos,  408,  409  ;  his  famous 
temple  at  Sto  lero,  41 7.  420  ; 
iii.  233 ;  temple  at  Titane,  354  ; 
statue  at  Sicyon,  361  ;  celebrated 
Asdepieiura  on  Mount  Titane, 

jEsculapius,  his  temples  and  sta- 
tues under  various  local  appel- 
lations :  — 

Agtiitfis,  i.  165. 

the  Boy,  ii.  37.  102. 

• Causius,  ii.  251. 

Cotyleiis,  i.  182. 

Gortynius,  378. 



jEsculapius,  Philolaits,  i.  227- 
^py,   the   Homeric    town   of,   ii. 

206,  207. 
JEtheum,  site  of,  i.  471,  472. 
^thidas,  a  chief  of  tlie  iMesseiiii, 

repulses  Demetrius,  i.  370.  393. 
Aetl,  or  pediments  of  the  temple  of 

Jupiter   at    Olyrapia,    i.   43 ;  of 

the    temple  of   Minerva   Alea, 

^tolians,  under  Pyrrhias,  invade 

Messenia,    i.    362 ;    their   cam- 
paigns, iii.  122.  126.  130. 
Aetos,  village  of,  i.  74. 
Afidhia,  signal-tower  on  the  hill 

above  this  village,  i.  228,  229. 
Agamemnon,  his  statue  at  Ami/clw, 

i.    147  ;  oifers  seven  Messenian 

cities  to  Achilles,  329,  330.  452  ; 

his  sepulchre,  ii.  366.  465  ;  iii. 

190 ;  transported  Trojan  captives 

to  settle  in  Greece,  321. 
Agaptus,  Stoa  of,  i.  41. 
Ageladas  of  Argos,  i.  371 ;  his  sta- 
tues of  a  youthful  Jupiter,  and  a 

beardless  Hercules,  iii.  189. 
Agelas  of  Naupactus,  speech  of,  iii. 

Agesilaus,  saying  of  King,  i.  143; 

stratagem,    177  i    lie   leads   the 

Spartans  against  IMantineia,  iii. 

32 ;    Agesilaus    and    Teleuthias 

capture  Corinth,  257.  315. 
Agesilaus  of  IaisI,  iii.  180. 
Agesipolis,  his   expedition  against 

the  Mantinenses,  i.  1 03 ;  ii.  68, 

et  seq. 
Agias,  Spartan  prophet,  i.  161. 
Agid«,  sepulchres  of  the  roval  race 

of  the,  i.  165.  175,  176. 
Agis,  king  of  Sparta,  expeditions 

of,   i.   176.    484;   ii.   196.   202. 

. son  of  Archidamus,  iii.  58. 

. IV.,  son  of  Eudamidas,  slain 

in  battle  at  Mantineia,  iii.  85  ; 

contradictory    relations    of    his 

death,  86. 
Agnitas,  jEsculapius, — statue  made 

of  the  agnus,  i.  165. 
Agnus  Casttis,  the,  i.  483  ;  ii.  123; 

old  tree  of  the  Heraeum  of  Samus, 

iii.  120. 
Ago'i,  or  vettura,  derivation  of  the 

word,  i.  49.  203. 
Agonistae  at  the  Olympic  Games,  i. 


Agorae  of  various  cities: — 
•  Argos,  ii.  404. 

Elis,  ii.  220. 

Gythium,  i.  24C. 

Mantineia,  i.  108. 

Rlegalopolis,  ii.  34.  38. 

• Patraj,  ii.  128. 

Pharaj,  ii.  158. 

Phhus,  iii.  341. 

Sparta,  i.  160.  172.  176. 

Tegea,  i.  94. 

Agrapidho-khori,  ii.  230. 

Agridhi  village,  ii,  254. 

mountain  of,  and  the  peak 

opposite  to  it,  ii.  274. 

Agrio,  harbour  of,  iii.  319 ;  an- 
chorage of,  380. 

Agoyates,  or  carriers,  their  mirth 
whilst  travelling,  i.  55. 

Agoyatic  horses,  computation  of 
distance  by  time,'ii.  282. 

Agrielea,  a  village,  i.  78. 

Agrilovuni,  torrent  of,  i.  481  ;  vil- 
lage of,  483. 

Agrio,  anchorage  of,  iii.  380. 

Agrotera,  hill  of,  at  Megalopolis, 
ii.  40. 

Agulenitza,  its  fishery,  i.  45  ;  the 
Aga's  pyrgo  and  vineyards  at, 
50  ;  ferry,  51 ;  the  Lake  of  Agu- 
lenitza, 52  ;  village  on  the  site  of 
Epitalium,  or  Thryoessa^  65. 

Agulenitza,  iiill  of,  ii.  200. 

Ahmet  Pasha  causes  the  prosperity 
of  PjTgo,  i.  45. 

Aga  voivoda  of  Patra,  ii. 


Aianni,  or  village  of  St.  John,  pro- 
bable  site  of  Letrmi,  i.  22 ;  ii. 
479.  483.  48G. 

-■ village  near  to  Mistra,  i. 

133;  visit  to  Ami'is  Aga,  189. 

near  the  Alpheius,  pro- 
bably the  site  of  Hera>a,  ii.  91,  92. 

Ai  Andhrca,  ruined  church  at,  ii. 
484.  497;  iii-  419. 

Ai  Dhimitri,  village  in  Exo-Mani, 
i.  320. 

Ai  Elia,  hill  of,  i.  128. 

Ai  Irini,  iii.  20. 

Ai  Isidlioro,  i.  11. 

Ai  Nikola,  monastery  of,  iii.  24. 

Ai  Sidhoro,  khan  of,  i.  55. 

Ai  Vlasi,  kal>'\ia,  and  stream 
named  the  Aivlasitiko,  ii.  115, 
116;  village  and  plain  of,  iii.  184. 

Aia,  towni  and  motintain  of,  i.  74. 



Aia  Kyriaki,  see  Kyriakl, 

Aia  Marina,  old  church  of,  i.  285. 

Aia  Vaipiira,  church  of,    i.  28?  ; 

village  of,  iii.  158,159,  160. 
Aidin,  JMount,  the  highest  summit 

of  IMaenaliuni,  ii.  52,  54. 
'Aio  Floro,  fountains  of,  i.  357.  350. 
388 ;  derveni-house  and  chapel, 
'Aio  Konstantin,  iii.  108. 
'Aio  Sosti,  church  of,  i.  89  ;  plain 

of,  90—103 ;  ii.  22(i.  328. 
'Aio  Sotiri,  church  of,  at  Kyparisso, 

i.  291. 
Aion  Oros,  ridge  named,  iii.  325. 

'Aios   Petros,  i.  88  ;  its  governor, 
100 ;     the    vilayeti,     124  ;     ii. 
284.  484. 
Ais  Aga,  village  of,  i.  354. 
Akhaies,  two  villages  near  the  sea, 

and  a  salt-v/ork,  ii.  121.  155. 
Akhladho-kambo,  ii.  33?.  339.  34C. 

plain  of,  ii.  329. 

331.  334. 
Akhuria,  i.  00,  91. 
Akhuria,    the,    a  term  signifying 
hamlet,    and   nearly   similar   to 
kalji-via,  ii.  252. 
Akrata,  Cape,  iii. ^12,  213. 

« the  river,  iii.  212.  394. 


i-avine,  iii.  172. 

hay  of,  iii.  386. 

plain  of,  iii.  301. 

khan  of,  iii.  394. 

Alagonia,  a  city  numbered  among 

the  Eleuthero  Lacones,  i.  329. 
Albania,  muskets  mounted   in,   i. 

284.  348. 
Albanian  colonies   in   Ydhra   and 
Petza,  ii.  345  ;  peasants  settled  in 
the  Corinthia,  iii.  263. 
Allianians,  the ;  their  occupation  of 
the  IMorea,  i.  204.  208 ;  revenge- 
ful spirit  of,  230  ;  pay  of  Alba- 
nian soldiers,  ii.  40;  their  settle- 
ments, 53. 
Albanoise,  a  1',  costume,  i.  210. 
Alcamenes,  works  of  this  statuary, 

i.  106. 
Alcimus,  i.  166. 

Alcimedon,  plain  of;    the  vale  of 
Kapsa,  ii.  280,  281  ;  iii.  48. 

hill  of,  iii.  05. 

Alcman,  i.  167-  178. 
Alcmaeon,  sou  of  Amphiaraus,  ii. 

Alcyonia,  the  lake,  ii.  473. 
Alcyoitis,  the  sea,  iii.  313.  315. 
Alea,  zerethra  in  the  vale  of,  iii. 

Alea,  temple  of  Minei'va  snrnaraed, 

i.  96. 
Aleiaium,   ancient    town,    ii.    182. 

AlesieB,  i.  182. 
Alesium,  Mount,  i.    Ill  ;  iii.    49. 

Alevetzova,  village,  i.  265. 
Aleus,  the  house  of,  i.  94. 
Alexander  the   Great,  i.  247  ;  ii- 

36;  iii.  163.  166. 
Alexandra,  or  Cassandra,  i.  328, 

Alexandria,  patriarch  of,  i.  206. 

.  column  of  Diocletian 

at,  293. 
Alexanor,  grandson  of  jEsculapius, 
built  the  Asclepieium  on  Mount 
Titane,  iii.  377- 
Alexicacus,  an  appellation  of  Apol- 
lo, i.  402. 
AH  Fernii'iki,  of  Lalla,  ii.  71. 
'Alika,  village  of,  i.  288  ;  quarries, 
280.  304.  308.  336  ;  the  ancient 
Alycwa,  ii.  45.  319. 
Alikes,  or  salt-works  of  the  Rufia, 

Aliki,  salt-work  near  Akhaies,  ii. 

AUphera,  called  the  Castle  of  Ne- 
rovitza,  ii.   68.   72.  7^ ;  named 
from  Aliplierus  son  of  Lycaon, 
75  ;  its  citadel,  77- 
Alitiiri,  village  of,  i.  78.  482. 
AUason,  plan  of  Olympia  by  IMr., 

i.  42. 
All    Holy   Virgin    upon    Khrepa, 

monastery  so  named,  i.  116. 
All  the  Gods,  temple  at  Marhts  in 

Lacxjnia  of,  iii.  7- 
Aloe,  the  American,  in  flower,  ii. 

Alonistena,  spring  of  the  Helisson 

at,  i.  116. 
mountain  of  Aloniste- 
na, ii.  20.  274,  275. 

salubrity  of  this   vil- 

lage,  55. 
Alpheius,  river,  near  Oljniipia, 
i.  4  et  seq.  ;  lagoon  at  its  em- 
bouchure, 22  ;  called  the  Rnfea, 
25  ;  ii.  95;  flows  between  moun- 
tains near  Pisa,  i.  2^1 — 26 ;  Olym- 
pic remnins  on  its  bank,  28 — 30; 



ferry,  4'J.  5ft.  02  ;  plain  of  this 
river,  HI  ;  the  ui)|)er  Al]ilieius, 
83.  IIG;  sources,  122;  subter- 
raneous  course,  123  ;  eastern 
branch,  124  ;  traverses  the  land 
oi'  Pyhis,  417.  421  ;  vale,  ii.  1(3 
— 18;  ravine  at  Lavdha,  19; 
upper  plain,  20  ;  lower  plain,  20 ; 
tributary  stream,  21 ;  ford,  27  ; 
joined  by  the  Helisson,  28 ;  tri- 
butaries near  Londari,  43  ;  level 
towards  its  mouth,  G^  ;  river 
from  Mount  Vunuka,  l',2 ;  the 
Erymanthiis  and  the  Ladon  flow 
into  it,  89,  90  ;  river  of  Karite- 
na,  95.  100  ;  source  of,  317  ; 
S.  E.  and  s.  w.  sources,  iii.  22, 
23 ;  course  underground,  37  ;  its 
N.  sources,  141. 

Alpheius  and  Maro,  monument  of, 
i.  I(i3. 

Altis,  at  Olympia,  skirmish  in  the, 
i.  29  ;  temples,  35  ;  the  Pompic 
entrance,  37- 

'Alvena,  mountain  of,  i.  55  ;  other- 
wise Mount  Vuiu'ika,  50.  73 ; 
anciently  Alinthe,  ii.  70  ;  village 
of 'Alvena,  84. 

Ahipokhori,  village,  ii.  121. 

Alycceu,  or  Alccea,  its  site,  ii.  45. 

Aly  Eifendi  of  Tripolitza,  ambas- 
sador at  Paris,  i.  80. 

Aly  Pasha,  ii.  274  ;  iii.  180. 

Alt/saoii,  spring,  ii.  109. 

Alyssus,  the  fountain,  iii.  180. 

Aly  Tjele!)y,  pyrgo  and  village,  ii. 
100 ";  iii.  178. 

Amathus,  near  Cape  Twnarum,  i. 
302  ;  river,  422  ;  ii.  85. 

Amazons,  the,  i.  275  ;  sculptured, 
ii.  5 ;  conquered  by  Theseus,  ii. 

Ambracia,  in  Northern  Greece,  i. 

Ambracian  Gulf,  the,  i.  138. 

Ambrysus  of  Phocis,  its  fortifica- 
tions, i.  308. 

Amilus,  village,  iii.  105. 

Ammon,  temple  of,  i.  170 ;  lier- 
maic  statue  of,  ii.  30. 

Ain])/ieia,  captured  by  the  Lacedaj- 
mouians,  i.  401,  402. 

Amphiaraus,  i.  95.  102. 

Amphidoli,  town  of,  ii.  194. 

Ampliiyeneia,  Homeric  town,  i. 
485  ;  ii.  207- 

Amphilochus,  i.  IO7. 

Amj)hitheatre  at  Corinth,  iii.  214. 

Amphitrite,  i.  109  ;  iii.  290. 

Amphitus,  river,  i.  390.  47^.  481. 

Amus,  a  janissary,  i.  474  ;  iii.  18. 

Amus  Aga,  bey  of  Bardhunia, 
dress  and  character,  i.  189,  190  ; 
his  influence,  205.  475  ;  ii.  282. 

Amyclce,  celebrated  town,  i.  115; 
site,  133  ;  antiquities,  134  ;  mi- 
litary events,  138.  183;  AiaKy. 
riaki,  144  ;  temple  of  Apollo, 
145  et  seq.  ;  statue,  108  ;  camp 
of  the  Thebans,  174  ;  its  colony 
at  fllokhli,  ii.  330. 

,    bishop  of,  ii.  330. 

AXAPLI,  silk  of,  i.  131  197  ;  ii. 
1 42  ;  history  of  Nauplia,  350 ; 
city  on  the  slojje  of  a  table  moun- 
tain, 357  ;  Hellenic  fortifications 
visible  at  the  fortress,  358  ;  hill 
Palamidhi,  interesting  name 
handed  down  by  antiquity,358; 
women  esteemed  to  be  handsome 
300  ;  Latin  church,  300  ;  r 
and  anchorage,  301,  302. 

Anapli,  IMills  of,  ii.  340.  409.  472. 

Anastasova,  village,  ii.  252  ;  river 
of,  253. 

Anavolo,  source ;  see  Deine,  ii.  480. 

Anavryti,  village,  i.  205. 

Anaxandra,  i.  HJS. 

Anaziri,  village,  i.  359. 

Ancffius,  sculjiture  of,  i.  95. 

Anchionis,  i.  105. 

Anchises,  sepulchre  of  him  at  the 
foot  of  the  mountain  Auchisia, 
iii.  90. 

Auchisia,  mountain,  iii.  97- 

Andania,  the  ancient,  i.  302  ;  its 
remains  at  Ellinikokastro,  388. 
391.  455;  river  of,  481,  482; 
fortress,  407-  472.  479  ;  pass  of 
Andania,  or  of  IMakrj'plai,  iii.  27- 

Andilalo,  the  name  of  the  site  of 
Olympia,  i.  31,  32. 

Andonaki,  Capt.  of  Longastra,  i. 

Andravldha,  vill.ngeof,  i.  10  ;  frag- 
ments of  ancient  architecture  at, 
ii.  109. 

Andrew,  St.,  festival  of,  ii.  130. 

Andriopulo,  the  bridge  of,  i.  57- 

Andritzena,  fine  situation  of,  ii.  10; 
villages  appertaining  to  it,  I7. 

Androcles  and  Antiochus,  i.  400. 

Andromonastero,  village  aud  mo- 
nasterv,  i.  395. 



Androni,  ii.  235. 

Andronicus,  the  emperor,  i.  205, 

Andri'issa,  road  to,  i.  79,  80.  353  ; 

district   of,  346,   347  ;  town   of, 

359.  365  ;  built  on  heights,  366. 
Andruvista,  town  and  bishopric  of, 

i.  261.  264.  315. 
Anemosa,  village,  ii.  300. 
Anemodhuri,    village    on    Mount 

Tjimbaru,  ii.  45.  01. 
Angell  and  Harris,  I\Iessrs.,  their 

architectural  researches,  iii.  280. 
Anghelo-kasti'o,  building  of  Frank 

construction,  ii.  274. 
Atdas,  river,  iii.  145. 
Anigrwa.,  ancient  road  called  the, 

ii.  477,  47«.  4«1. 
Anigrides,  cavern  of  the  Nyinphs, 

i.  61.  64. 
Anigrus  River,   the  Homeric  Mi- 

nye'ms,i\ovf  called  Mavro-potamo, 

i.  54.  59 — 61  ;  the  fish  unfit  to 

be  eaten,  64 ;  source  in  Mount 

Lapithus,  or  Sraerna,  (Hi,  67. 419. 
Animals,  wild,  sacrificed  to  Diana, 

ii.  127- 
'Anino,  Mount,  ii.  232. 
Antheia,  i.  360.  453  ;  ii.  126. 
Anlhene,  or  Athene,  ruins  of,  ii. 

478.  493,  494.  510. 
Anthuse,  a  priestess,  i.  188. 
Antigoneia,  or  Mantineia,  i.  106. 
Antigonus  Gonatas,  king  of  Mace- 
don,  i.  106.  142;  ii.  52G. 
Antilochus,  i.  370. 
Antinous,  games  in  honour  of,  iii. 

,  a  favourite  of  Hadrian, 

i.  105  ;  his  statues,  107. 
Antiope,  statue  at  Sicyon,  iii.  362. 
Antiquities  and  coins  found  at  Kut- 

zopodhi,  ii.  388. 
— ■—,  discovery  and  examina- 

nation  of  some,  at  Phigaleia,  i. 

498 ;  at  Sinanu  and  the  vicinity, 

ii.  41,  42  ;  at  Tripolitza,  48  ;  at 

Klukines,  iii.  169. 
Antirrhium,  point  of,  ii.  148. 
Antirrhium,  iii.  414. 
Antoninvis  Pius,  temples  and  baths 

erected  by,  ii.  422,  423  ;  iii.  235. 
Antony,  Mark,  the  Tegeataj  join 

his  party,  i.  95.  360.  364. 
Apanokhora,  a  quarter  of  Andrit- 

zena,  ii.  17- 
Apanokhrepa,  the  summit  of  Mae- 

nalium,  i.  88  ;  ii.  51. 

Apelaurnm,  position  of,  iii.  112; 
zerethra  of  3Iount  Apelaurum, 
113.  134;  Mountain,  225. 

Apelaurus,  town  of  the  Stymphalia, 
iii.  112. 

Apesas,  IMount,  iii.  325.  327 ;  its 
gorges,  373. 

Aphaea,  hymn  by  Pindar  to ;  nam- 
ed also  Dictynna,  and  Britomar- 
tis,  ii.  435. 

Aphareus,  son  of  Perieres,  i.  162. 
370.  456. 

AphetcB,  a  street  of  Sparta,  i.  162. 
171— 173. 

Aj.hrodite  Hera,  i.  164. 

Apokuro,  population  decreased,  ii. 

Apollo,  his  delight  in  lofty  moun- 
tains, i.  128  ;  his  sanctuary  at 
Epidelium,  214. 

his  great  temple  at  Bassce, 

i.  96  ;  now  called  the  Columns, 
ii.  1 — 12  ;  his  statue  at  Patree 
described,  128  ;  iii.  238.  240,  241. 
248.  265,  266.  357-  359  ;  great 
festival  at  Sicyon,  383 ;  statue  at 
JEgeira,  388. 

-,  various   temjjles,    statues, 

and  appellations . 

Acritas,  i.  162. 

Agyieus,  i.  94. 

Amazonius,  i.  275. 

AmyclcBus,  antique  and  rude 

statue  described,  i.  146.  168. 

AphetcBus,  i.  163. 

Argeus,  i.  442. 

Carneius,  i.  165.  246-  327- 

345.  391. 
,  the  epithet  of,  ii. 

296;  iii.  361. 

Cereatas,  ii.  294. 

Clarius,  iii.  238. 

Corynthus,  i.  441, 442 ;  site 

of  the  Coryntheium,  446. 

Deiradioles,  ii.  410. 

the  Egyptian,  ii.  423. 

Epibaterius,  ii.  445. 

Epicurins,  i.  96.   492  ;  ii. 

1.  33.  37  ;  iii.  247. 

Latous,  iii.  307. 

Lyceius,  temple  at  Argos, 

ii.  401  ;  iii.  360. 

Maleatas,   i.  162 ;    temple 

on  Mount  Cynortium,  ii.  417- 


Onciates,  ii.  102,  103. 

Parrhasius,  ii.  310. 

Pythatis,  i.  161. 



Apollo  Pythms,  temple,  ii.  331  ; 
iii.  137,  131!. 

Tcneates,  iil.  320. 

Thearins,  ii.  444. 

Theowerdus,  iii.  218. 

Apotropsei,    statues   of    the    gods 

called,  iii.  3(!3. 

Appanages  of  the  Sultanas,  ii.  23. 

Appius  Imilds  walls  at  Sparta,  i.  179. 

Aqueducts,  of  Neokastro,  i.  39!] ; 
of  Komau  bricks  at  Patraj,  ii. 
137  ;  at  Corinth,  iii.  243. 

Arachnaum,  Mount,  ii.  417,  418  ; 
iii.  312. 

Armthyrea^  site,  iii.  343 ;  sources 
at,  344. 

Arainus,  i.  274. 

Arakliova,  village  of,  i.  124.  262, 
339  ;  peaked  hill,  ii.  232,  264  ; 
iii.  42. 

• ,  the  Stenuri  of,  iii.  29. 


Arantia,  named  from  Aras,  its 
founder,  344. 

'Arasma,  or  the  anchorage,  i.  226. 

Aratus,  actions  of,  i.  138.  141  ;  ii. 
248  ;  his  victory  at  Mantineia, 
iii.  85  ;  loses  the  battle  of  Ca- 
2jhya,  124.  201  ;  surprises  Co- 
rinth, 254  ;  his  statue  at  Sicyon, 

359  ;  his  heroic  monument,  360. 

the  Younger,  iii.  133. 

Araxus,  promontory,  i.  7  ;  ii.  153. 

Ar/ia,  ii.  126. 

Arcadic  league,  after  the  battle  of 

Leuctra,  iii.  32. 
Arcaijia,  coins  of,  i.  99  ;  cities, 

108.  118;  valleys,  110.  120.  127. 

360  ;  mountains,  366.  368.  486  ; 
ii.  9 ;  climate,  20  ;  decline  of 
Agriculture,  29,  30  ;  sylvan  val- 
ley of  Megalopolis,  31  ;  journey 
through,  94.  219. 

■ ,  its  geography,  ii.  273. 

,  further    description    of 

ancient  and  modern,  ii.  286  et 
seq.  ;  relation  of  military  events, 
iii.  44  et  seq. ;  residence  of  King 
Evander  at  Pheneus,   152. 

Arcadian  mountain  scenery,  i.  489; 
ii.  9.  30. 

Arcadians,  sepulchre  of  those  who 
fell  at  the  battle  in  the  Altis,  i. 
29 ;  the  common  hearth  of  the 
Arcadians,  94 ;  modern  shep- 
herds, 4o7  ;  the  ethnic  families 

of  the  early,  ii.  319  ;  .accus- 
tomed to  swear  by  the  Styx  on 
important  occasions,  at  the 
springs  of  Nonacris,  iii.  162.  168. 
council-chamber  of  the 

Ten  Thousand,  ii.  36. 

Archiroe,  ii.  35. 

Arcadiats,  river,  ii.  85. 

Areas,  i.  94  ;  tomb  of,  106. 

Arch,  principle  of  the  ;  approxi- 
mation to  it  in  Hellenic  masonry, 
ii.  354 ;  employment  of  it  in 
Grecian  buildings,  though  not 
in  temples,  380. 

Archidamus,  King,  defeated  by 
Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  iii.  84. 

Archipelago,  pirates  of  the,  i.  309. 

Architecture,  causes  of  the  excel- 
lence of  the  Grecian,  ii.  7  ;  iii. 

Archives,  edifice  at  Megalopolis 
called  the,  ii.  33. 

Arerie.,  i.  60—65.  419.  456, 

Argeia,  territory  of  the  city  of 
A'fffos,  i.  139  ;  tour  througli  the, 
ii.  326  et  seq. ;  the  route  from 
Argos  to  Blycenae  described,  3G4 
et  seq.  469. 

Arghyro-kasti'O,  near  Blaghuliana, 
ii.  274. 

Argolic  Gulf,  the,  iii.  208. 

Peninsula,  i.  219  ;  ancient 

geography  of  the,  ii.  364.  416  et 

Argolic  Plain,  unhealthy  from  the 
summer  heat,  iii.  337- 

Argon,  the  Plain,  account  of  its 
water-courses,  ii.  480 ;  iii.  54. 
56.  63. 

Argos,  description  of  the  city  of, 
i.  88.  101.  114.  126.  1.38.  142. 
169.  247  ;  ii-  23  ;  the  metropo- 
litan church,  341  ;  population, 
347  ;  the  bishop  of  Anaplia  and 
Argos,  357;  the  LongWalls,  363 ; 
site  of  the  city,  394  ;  the  theatre, 
3!)6  ;  the  stadium,  398  ;  aque- 
duct, 399  ;  the  walls,  400 ;  the 
city  of  Phoroneus,  400  ;  illustra- 
tion of  the  ancient  locality-  of 
temples,  &c.,  401  et  seq. ;  the 
Agora,  404  ;  moniimeuts  and 
temples  of  the  Larissa,  408  ;  the 
city  gates,  411  ;  Argos,  iii.  230. 
232.  262.  305,  306. 

,  Mills  of,  ii.  347. 

,  ])lain  of,  ii.  33i}.  348. 



Argos,  vilayeti  of,  ii.  347> 

Argyra,    ii.   120 ;    near  the   river 

Selenmus,  150. 
city  and  fountain,  iii.  413. 

Argyrokastro,  plain  of,  i.  84. 

Ariou  on  the  dolphin,  a  dedication, 
i.  300. 

Aris,  river,  i.  357.  360  ;  marshes 
of  Limnce,  365. 390. 454 ;  sources, 

Aristandreium,  a  building  at  Me- 
galopolis, ii.  34. 

Aristandrus  of  JMegalopolis,  i.  14G; 
ii.  34. 

Aristias,  son  of  Pratinas,  satirist, 
iii.  341. 

Aristocles  and  Hipponoidas  banish- 
ed  Sparta,  iii.  65. 

Aristocrates,  treachery  of,  i.  467  ; 
his  death,  468  ;  he  was  the  last 
of  the  race  of  Cypselus,  ii.  321  ; 
tomb,  iii.  104. 

Aristodemus,  a  king  of  Messenia, 
who  slew  himself  after  a  victory, 
i.  465  ;  a  chief  of  JMegalopolis, 
ii.  34.  37. 

• the  Good,  tyrant  of 

Arcadia,  ii.  299.  303. 

Aristomeneian  war,  the,  i.  465. 

Aristomenes,  i.  371.  465.  467. 

Aristonautse,  haven  of  the  Pelle- 
nenses,  iii.  217  ;  remains  of,  iii. 
384.  390. 

Aristophanes,  i.  63. 

Aristotle,  opinions  of,  i.  181  ;  ii. 

Arkadhia,  road  to,  i.  23.  49  ; 
plain  of,  58  ;  the  town  and  cas- 
tle, 69  ;  the  skala  and  exports, 
70  ;  river,  73  ;  the  bishopric  of 
Arkadhia  or  Christianopolis,  75  ; 
the  Paraskevi,  a  summit  above 
the  town,  77  ;  Palea  Arkadhia, 
81,  82;  hiUs,  357-  359;  i.  372. 

• mountain  of,  426. 

cape  of,  428. 

the     town    seen    from 

Mount  Cotylium,  ii.  12. 

Armatoli,  employed  to  suppress 
robbers,  ii.  55  ;  comparison  with 
the  system  of  King  Alfred,  106. 

Armenia,  Mount,  ii.  275.  277-  279; 
iii.  96,  97,  98,  99.  106.  225. 

Army  of  Egypt,  English,  ii.  145. 

Armyro,  named  from  a  salt  water 
river,  i.  325.  331.  348. 

Arna,  liver  and  village  of,  i.  260. 

Arnaiit  Oglii,  a  land  proprietor  in 

the  Morea,  ii.  49  ;  his  pyrgo  or 

tower,  94,  269. 
Arne,  fountain,  iii.  48.  54. 
Aroanian  mountains,  the,  or  Mount 

Khelmos,  ii.  265. 
Aroanius,  river,  three  of  the  name 

in  Arcadia,  ii.  210.  241,  el  seqq.^ 

sources,  252  ;  ii.  263  ;  iii.  136. 
Aroe,  disquisition  on  this  name,  ii. 

Arrachion,  his  death  at  Olyrapia, 

i.  491. 
Arsinoe,  the  fountain,  i.  368. 
temple  of,  i.  1 62.  370. 

Artemisinm,  range  of,  i.  99.  101. 

109.  Ill  ;  the  modern  Turniki, 

112,  127. 
Mount,  torrents  from, 

ii.  335  ;  iii.  47- 

in  the  plains  of  Coele 

Ehs,ii.  186. 
Artemidorus,  i.  214. 
Artemisia,  i.  161. 
Artists  of  Sparta,  i.  159  ;  of  Nau- 

pactus,  ii.  127. 
Asea,  river  of,  iii.  42,  43. 
Asclepian  Games,  at  Epidaurus,  ii. 

Asclepieium,  or  temple  of  jEscula- 

pius,  at  Abia,  i.  330  ;  account  of 

an,  iii.  361.  377  ;   at   Sparta,  i. 

172  ;  at  Goriys,  ii.  26. 
Asea,  remains  of,  i.  84  ;  plain  and 

site  of,  121.  123  ;  ii.  46  ;  valley, 

47  ;  the  ruins,   3]  7 ;  celebrated 

fountains  of   the  Alpheius  and 

Eurotas,  iii.  36.  38. 
Ascea,  the,  i.  122. 
Asinffii,  the,  i.  442. 
Asia,  Mount,  on  which  stood  the 

city  of  Las,  i.  273.  276. 
Asimaki  of  KalAvryta,  oppressions 

of,  ii.  255.  283. 
Asimini,  in  Bardhunia,  i.  265. 
Asine,  town  of,  i.  279.  139;  timber 

of  the  neighboui'ing  hills,   435. 

442 ;  ii.  463. 
Asian   Aga,    a    Greek   village,   i. 

Asomato,   kaJyvia,  and  district  so 

called,  i.    296;    the  dilapidated 

church,  297  ;  headland  near  it, 

Asopia,  district  of  the  Sicyouia,  iii. 




Asopns^  vestiges  of  this  town  are 
found  at  Blitra,  i.  22C.  230. 

descriptions  of  this  river, 

iii.  227.  350.  455,  4oG ;  its 
sources  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Gav- 
ria,  343. 

son  of  Ceglusa,  iii.  344. 

Asprokhoma,  i.  353.  351 
Asterion,  the  river  :  it  is  the  name 

of  a  herb,  ii.  392. 
Astr.i,  summit  near  the  town  of 
Dhivri,  ii.   116.  229.  235.  237- 
Astrabacus,  i.  168. 
Astrateia,  Diana  surnamed,  i.  275. 
Astro,  bay  of,   ii.   477-   481  ;   the 
skala,  482  ;  promontory  of,  484. 
Atalante,  sculptured  in  a  pediment, 

i.  95. 
Athanasius  the  miraculous,  Doric 
columns  in  the  church  of  Saint, 
ii.  99. 

monastery  of    St.  ii. 

AtheruBum,  plain  of   Asea   at,  ii. 

Athens,  walls  of,  i.  87;  octastyle 
temple  at,  97  ;  the  Cerameicvis, 
108  ;  scene  of  the  theatre,  155, 
156  ;  remark  of  Thucydides, 
160;  the  Colyttus,  176;  the 
Propylaea,  375  ;  iii.  229.  303. 

the  temple  of  Minerva  Po- 

lias,  ii.  5. 
Athenians,   the,  i.  369.  371.  401. 
492  ;  defeated  in  jEgina,  ii.  439  ; 
rebuild  the  long  walls  of  Corinth, 
iii.  256. 
Athos,  Blount,  i.  301. 
Atja,  a  village,  one  of  the  Pendad- 

ha,  i.  285.  311. 
Atlantides,  the,  i.  60. 
Atreus,  his  treasury  at  Mycenae,  ii. 

Attains,  colossal  statue  of  the  king, 

iii.  361. 
Attica,  et^Tnology  of  the  word,  i. 

210,  301  ;  ii.  14. 
Atzidhes,  ii.  227,  228.  231. 
Atzikolo,  valley  and  river  of,  ii.  22, 
23 ;  village  of  Atzikolo,  and  an- 
cient Arcadian  town  {Gorti/s),  24. 

■  the  river,  292. 

Avarino,  Paleo,  castle  of,  i.  398 ; 

peninsula  of,  401.  411.  424. 
Avarisi,  a  tax  on  chattels,  i.  132. 
Avgherino,  George,  called  Kyr  Ghi- 
orgaki,  i.  23. 

Avgo,  Cape,  iii.  191.  212,  213.  386. 

Anion,  heroum  of,  i.  16.3. 

■  a  pass  of  Messenia,  i.  4  70. 

pass  of  the  Alpheius,  near 

Karitena,  ii.  19,  20. 

near  Nezera,  121. 

Auge,  the  fountain,  i.  93. 
Augeias,  king  of  the  Epeii,  i.  7  ; 

ii.  199. 
AugeiiB,  i.  247. 
Augustus,  the  emperor,  i.  95.  161. 

246.  277.  329.  360.  363;  ii.  124. 
Aurelius,  dedications  to,  i.  293. 
Auriga,  the  constellation,  ii.  445. 
Antonoe,  i.  107- 
Azanes,  the,  an  Arcadian  tribe,  ii. 


Eabaka,  village  of,  i.  180.  285.  311. 

Babas,  pyrgo  and  tjiftlik,  i.  191. 

Babioti,  monastery  of,  ii.  123. 

Babt/ca,  the,  at  Sparta,  i.  181. 

Babylon,  i.  383. 

Bacchiadaj  and  Eetionidffi,  ruling 
families  at  Corinth,  iii.  230. 

Bacchus,  his  temples  at  Tegea,  i. 
94  ;  at  Rome,  96  ;  Bacchus  as  a 
child,  161  ;  at  Brj-seae,  188;  fes- 
tival on  Mount  Larysium,  247. 
254  ;  on  Mount  Ilium,  274  ;  or- 
gies of  Bacchus,  ii.  75 ;  worship 
of  him  at  Elis,  225.  498;  his 
temple  at  Bryseae,  iii.  3 ;  orgies, 
46.  295,  296 ;'  splendid  statues  of 
this  god  at  Sicyon,  356. 

Bacchus,  Acratophonis,  i.  490. 

JEsymnetes,  ii.  129. 

A.iites,  ii.  75. 

Bacchehis,  iii.  237.  359. 

Ca/ydonius,  and  the  Dio-     ^ 

nysiac  festival  at  Patrse,  ii.  129. 
—  Colonalas,  temple,  i.  16.1. 


Cresius,  ii.  409. 

Lampter,  iii.  218. 

Leucyanitas,  iii.  208. 

Lysius,  iii.  237,  359. 

Polites,  ii.  To. 

Saotes,  ii.  444.  471. 

Bagdad,  i.  220. 

Balyra  river,  the  Vasiliko,  i.  390. 

479,  480.  482. 
Banitza,  or  Panitza,  village,  i.  267. 



Banitza,  the  river,  ii.   349 ;  near 

Argos,  3G4. 
Barbel,  >s/t,  ii.  101. 
Barbitza,  the  river  of,  [Alpheius,] 
ii.  28. 

tjiftlik  of,  site  of  a  Paleo- 

khora,  iii.  24.  31.  33.  40.  43. 
Barbopulo  of  TripoHtza,  i.  87. 
Barbosthenes,  IMount,  i.  179. 
Bardhunia,  a  division  of  the  Morea, 
i.  128;  Albanian  colony  of,  130. 
2f>4  ;  produce  and  exports,  242  ; 
adjoining  to  Mani,  2C2.  2G5. 
Barnes,  his  admission  of  a  verse  as 

Homer's,  i.  420.  422. 
Barriers  at  Sparta,  i.  1G2. 
Barseniko,  village,    i.    128.    2G5; 

cultivated  terraces  of,  iii.  2. 
Barthelemi's   Anacharsis,    i.    176. 

Bash,  zevgalati,  iii.  114. 
Basilis   founded    by    Cypselus,    ii. 
291 ;  the  royal  residence  and  ca- 
pital of  Arcadia,  ii.  321. 
Bassw,  temple  of,  i.  96.  492  ;  the 
mins  have  the  local  appellation 
of  the  Columns,  ii.  1 — 9;  the  glen 
of  Bassjfi,  1 1 ;  belonged  to   the 
Phigalenses,  12. 
Bathos,  ii.  28. 

ceremony  of  the  great  god- 

desses  at  this  place,  ii.  291. 
Bathycles,  i.  14?. 
Bathi/lhis,  a  spring  which  flowed 

to  the  Helisson,  ii.  36. 
Bay  tree  of  the  Syrians,  the,  iii. 

Bazeniko,  village  of,   ii.   275  ;  iii. 
103.  118.  120. 

pass  of,  ii.  27G. 

Bear,  the,   ii.   233,   234.    250;  in 

Mount  Taygetum,  iii.  3. 
Bedaat,  duty  upon  exports,  i.  46  ; 

ii.  141. 
Bedeni,    hamlet   of,    ii.    282;    iii. 

Beglerbeg   and    Mirmiran,    expla- 
nation   of  the   Turkish  distinc- 
tions, ii.  359. 
Bekir  EflFendi,  i.  3.  241. 

Bey,  landholder  in  the  IMo- 

rea,  ii.  49. 
Belali,  khan  of,  iii.  95—98. 
Belemina,  situation  of,  ii.  298 ;  its 
perennial  fountains,  iii.  15,  16. 
19 ;  its  remains,  20 ;  the  Her- 
maium  at  the  boimdary  of  La- 
conia,  22 ;  Blount  Belemina,  27. 

Belesh,  on  the  bank  of  the  Ladon, 

ii.  94.  .399. 
Bclishi,  Kato,  village  of,  iii.  53. 
Bellerophon  and  Pegasus,  iii.  234. 

239.  249.  291. 
Benakhi,  a  rich  Greek,  whose  man- 
sion at  Kalamata  was  destroyed 
in  1770,  i.  326. 
Berenthe  city,   and  the  river  Be- 

rentheates,  ii.  290,  292. 
Beylik,  or  Dhimosia,  the  high  road, 

ii.  329. 
Bey-Zaade,  Peter,  son  of  Tzanet- 

Bey.  i.  318. 
Beziane,  village  of,  i.  194.  200.  202. 
222.    228;    hill  of  Beziane,   ii. 
70.  518. 
Bias,  river,  i.  440.  471. 
Birbati,  village,  ii.  47  ;  iii.  35. 
Bird's    Fountain,    the,   on  Mount 

Khelmos,  iii.  169. 
Biskini,  i.  53. 

Bissia,  situation  of,  iii.  315. 
Blthi/nekim,  a  colony  from  Manti- 

neia,  i.  105. 
Biton  carrying  a  bull,  statue  of,  ii. 

Bizande,  Petro,  a  Maniate  of  in- 
fluence, i.  237. 
Bizbardhi,    village  on    a   hill,   ii. 

Black  Sea,  the,  i.  242. 
Blitra,  or  Asopiis,  ruins,   i.   225, 

Boars,  wild,  ii.  87.  215,  216.  2.33. 
Boats  of  Greece  described,  i.  449. 
Bocage,  M.  Barbie  du,  i.  41. 
Boeatice,  the,  i.  214. 
B(BCB,   town  of,  i.   139.   195.  215. 

Boeck,  M.,  opinion  of,  i.  9. 
Boghaz,  the,  a  plain  of  Messenia, 

i.  482,  483. 
Bokhusia,  the  river,  iii,  212.  183. 

184.  403.  407. 
BolcLv,  a  town  of  Triphylia,  ii.  77  ; 

now  Volantza,  207. 
Boliana,  i.  265. 

Bolina,  site  of,  iii.  195  ;  city  near 
the    river    BoHuceus,    iii.     413. 
Boline,  near  to  Patrai,  ii.  126. 
Boluk-bashi,  an  All)ania;i,  i.  342. 
Bonaparte,  tradition  respecting  the 

family  of,  i.  314.  451. 
Books  of  the  monastery  of  Mega- 

spilio,  iii.  177. 
Borali,  Ano,  i.  310. 



Bordhonia,    village   near    IMistr'a, 

i.  125;  iii.  17. 
Boreas,  sacrifice  to  the  wind,   ii. 

Borehim,    IMoiint,    now    Kravari, 

i.  84.  99,  100.  120;  ii.  47-328. 
vestiges    of   a 

temple  dedicated  by  Ulysses,  on 

his  return  from  Trov,  ii.  317  ; 

iii.  34. 
Botia,  a  village  of  Messenia,  i.  77- 
Botza,  a  measure  containing  twenty 

okes,  i.  131. 
Botzika,  village,  iii.  343.  345. 
Boza,    inscribed     marble     in    the 

church  of,  i.  225. 
Braccio  di  Maina,  i.  308. 
Brasidas,  cenotaph  of,  i.  164.  I70  ; 

his  defeat  by  Demosthenes,  414. 
Briareus  settled  the  contention  be- 
tween Neptune  and  Apollo,  for 

the   Isthmus    and   for  Corinth, 

iii.  248.  289. 
Bridge,    simple,  on   the   Katzanes 

river,  ii.  2(13. 
Britza,  Apano,  i.  265. 
Brown,  Captain,  danger  of  his  ship 

near  Pyrgos,  i.  315. 
Bruma  kalyvia,  or  huts,  i.  24. 
Brysece,!.    187,    188;  position   of, 

iii.  2  ;  mysteries  of  Bacchus,  3  ; 

ancient  site,  4. 
Buga,  village  of,  i.  387. 

snowy  summit  of,  ii.  335. 

Bukhioti,  village,  ii.  219. 
Bunus,  son  of  Meixury,  iii.  241. 
Buphaginm  at   the  sources  of  the 

Biq)hagus,  ii.  67-  92.  289. 
■ site  of  the   town,  ii. 

67.  92. 
BiipJuiffus,  river,  ii.  6?.  92. 
Bttphia,  position  of,  iii.  376. 
Buphras,  mountain  near  Pylus,  i. 

Buprasium,  chief  city  of  the  Epeii, 

i.  7;  ii.  102,  183. 
Bum,  plain  of,  iii.  131. 
destroyed  by  an  earthquake, 

iii.  154.  399.  et  seq. 
Buraicus,  the  river,  iii.  405.  408. 
Bi'itia,  village  of,  ii.  277. 
Butter   of   Gastuni,  i.    17  ;  of  Ai 

Vlasi,  ii.  II7. 
Buy^ti,  village,  iii.  107. 
Buzi,  river  at,  i.  57  ;  village   of, 

57.  73;   ii.  484,  485. 
Bvzantium,    ancient   fortifications 

'of,  i.  368. 

Cactus,  the  plant,  ii.  362. 

Cadena,  Porto,  i,  219,  220. 

Cadmeia,  i.  169. 

Cadmus,  i.  I67. 

Caelianus,  Tiberius  Claudius  ^thi- 
das,  inscription  relating  to  him, 
i.  384. 

Ccenepolis,  or  TarMrum,  i.  291. 
293.  300.  302. 

Caesar's,  C.  J.,  Gardens,  i.  96  ;  his 
temple  at  Sparta,  161.  363  ;  re- 
storation of  Corinth  and  Car- 
thage by,  iii.  231. 

Cagaco,  the  fountain,  i.  274.  276. 

Caicus,  plain  of  the,  i.  95. 

Calama,  an  inland  town,  i.  360  ; 
resemblance  to  the  name  Kala- 
mata,  361  ;  village  of  Kalami, 

Calalhinm,  a  mountain  with  a  tem- 
ple and  cavern,  i.  329. 

Calaureia,  island  of,  ii.  442.  450  ; 
town  of,  451. 

Callicrates,  conduct  of,  iii.  203,  204. 

Callimachus,  the  supposed  inventor 
of  the  Ionic  order,  ii.  5. 

Callistephanus,  the  olive  tree 
named,  i.  38. 

Callisto,  tomb  of,  an  artificial  hill, 
ii.  300. 

Callon  of  /Egina,  i.  146. 

Calydon,  teeth  of  the  boar  of,  i.  95. 

Calydon,  spoils  of,  ii.  127- 

Canachus  of  Sicyon,  sculptor,  iii. 

Canathus,  the  spring,  ii.  357.  3G0. 

Candia,  island  of,  i.  242. 

Cannon,  English  brass  ordnance 
at  the  castle  of  the  Morea,  ii.  149. 

Caphareus,  i.  413. 

Caphi/cc,  road  to,  ii.  249  ;  remains 
of  this  town  at  Khotiisa,  275  ; 
the  walls,  iii.  103;  the  battle  of 
Caphyse,  104.  122,  et  seq. 

Caphyatic  rock  in  the  pass  of  Gioza, 
iii.  113. 

Capruscma,  in  the  plain  of  Steny- 
clerus,  i.  467. 

Capitiin  Pash^,  i.  86.  317-  236.  218. 

Cardamylc,  a  town  subject  to 
Sparta,  i.  329  ;  site  designated 
by  the  name  Skardhamula,  331. 



Carnasium,  the  grove,  i.  391.  401 ; 

ii.  295,  29G. 
Carneates,  the  hill,  iii.  344,  345. 
Carneium,   temple  of  Apollo  Car- 

neuis,  i.  274.  329;  statue,  391. 

See  Apollo. 
Camion,  the  sources  of  the,  ii.  294. 
Carnival,  festivities  during  the,  ii. 

CarycB,  its  site  at  Gioza,  iii.  30. 

106.  135. 
Carystus,  celebrated  for  its  wine, 

ii.  323. 
Cascade  of  the  Styx,  called  Mavra- 

neria,  iii.  167,  168. 
Cassandra   of    Troy,    i.   328 ;  her 

monument,  ii.  366. 
Castor,    sculpture   of,    i.    95 ;    he 

founded  the  temple  of  3Iinerva 

Asia,  i.  162,  163.  27-3. 
Castorides,  i.  246. 
Catacomb  of  the  Epidaurii,  i.  216  ; 

catacombs  at  Kalavryta,  ii.  112. 
Cathari,  or  the  Pure,  deities  nam- 
ed, i.  118. 
Cavern,  lofty,    beneath  the  rocks 

of  Mount  Chaon,  ii.  340. 
Caucon,    monument    of,     i.    60  ; 

stream  of  this  name,  ii.  158. 
Caucones,  the,  i.  60. 
Caucones-Pylii,  i.  67. 
Cans,   the   town,    and    temple  of 

TEsculapius,  ii.  251, 
Celece,    mysteries    of    Ceres   cele- 
brated at,  iii.  345,  346 ;  site  of, 

Celenderis,  fortress,  ii.  449. 
Celosse,  IVIount,  iii.  344. 
Cenchrece,  village,  ii.  342,  343. 
Cenchrcia,  iii.  232 — 237;  import- 
ance of  the  pass  of,  255. 
.  sea  of,  iii.  299. 

Cenchrias,  iii.  233. 
Cenerium,  near  Cyparissia,  i.  426, 

Centaurs  on  the  frize  of  the  temple 

of  Apollo  Epicui-ius,  ii.  5. 
Cepheus,  son  of  Aleus,  tradition, 

iii.  119. 
Cephisodorus,  distinguished  in  the 

battle  of  Mantineia,  i.  108. 
Cephisodotus,   Athenian   sculptor, 

ii.  34. 
Cephissus,  temple  of,  at  Argos,  ii. 

Cerameicus,  the,  i.  108. 
Ceraushim,  mountain,  i.   491  ;  ii. 
10.  13.  31.3. 

Cerberus,  grotto  from  which  Her- 
cules dragged,  i.  298,  301. 

Ceres,  grove  of,  i.  59  ;  on  ]\Iount 
Alesium,  111.  119.  292;  temples 
of,  94.  106.  246;  at  Trenarum, 
300  ;  at  JMessene,  369  ;  the  great 
goddesses  Ceres  and  Proserpine, 
ii.  34,  35  ;  temple  at  Patrse,  the 
well  at  which  the  sick  offered  up 
prayers,  130 ;  colossal  sculpture 
of  Ceres  and  Despoena,  308  ; 
temple  near  Nestane,  iii.  4?.  295, 
296.  364.  457.  471. 

Chthonia,  i.  165  ;  ii.  459. 

in  the  Corythenses,  temple, 

ii.  331. 

Eleusinia,  i.  188;    ii.    101. 

271  ;  the  Eleusinium  of  Mount 
Taygetum,  iii.  3.  5. 137;  statue, 

■-  in  Helos,  sacred  grove,  ii. 


Liisia,  ii.  102. 

in    Onceium,     temple,    (of 

Erinnys,)  ii.  101. 

Panachaia,  iii.  189. 

Pelasgis,  ii.  406. 

Prostasia,  mysteries  of,  iii. 


Thesmia,  iii.  137. 

Thesmophorus,  ii.  447. 

Cerigo,  island  of,  i.  194.  254.  268. 

Ceryneia,  extant  walls  of,  iii.  184; 
site  of,  403.  405. 

Cerynites,  river,  iii.  403.  407- 

Chceroiieia,  battle  of,  iii.  199. 

Chalcis,  river,  i.  58.  66  ;  town  of, 
59.  65.  420  ;  ii.  206. 

Chalcocondylas,  references  to  the 
Byzantine  historian,  i.  425 ;  ii. 
44.  173.  275. 

Champlite,  family  of,  i.  10. 

Chandler's  account  of  the  temple 
of  Venus  Catascopia,  ii,  446. 

Dr.,  quoted,  ii.  452  ;  iii. 

289.  299.  310. 

Chaon,  Mount,  sources  of  the  Era- 
sinus,  ii.  340.  342. 

Charadra,  i.  345. 

Charadrus,  the  river,  i.  391.  463. 

stream    near    Argos, 

ancient  custom  related,  ii.  364. 

Cheese,  export  of,  i.  46.  .309 ;  ex- 
ported by  the  Adriatic  ships,  iii. 



Cheimarrhiis,  river,  ii.  338. 

Cheirosoplius,  sculptor,  i.  94. 

C/ielonatas,  cape,  i.  7-  G2  ;  or  Gla- 
rantza,  ii.  175. 

Che/ydorea,  mountain,  iii.  139.220, 

Chersonesxis,  peninsTila  near  Co- 
rinth, iii.  309,  310. 

battle  of,  iii.  310. 

Chiton,  i.  1G8. 

Chcerhis,  the  valley,  i.  330.  332. 

Chmna,  on  Mount  Boreium,  i.  120. 

or  the  Dyke,  ii.  olG.  318  ; 

iii.  .35. 

Christianopolis,  the  see  of  Arkadhia, 
or,  1.  10. 

Chrysis,  the  priestess,  ii,  391. 

Cicero,  reckoned  three  yEsculapii, 
ii.  26. 

Circus  of  Lacedeemon,  i.  156.  176. 
185 ;  ii.  53.3. 

Cissa,  the  fountain,  ii.  281. 

Cisterns,  ancient  bottle-shaped,  ii. 

Cladeus,  a  river  flowing  by  Olym- 
pia,  i.  25.  29,  30.  32.  40. 

Clarivm^  castle  of  the  Megalopo- 
litis,  ii.  323. 

Cleisthenes  of  Sicyon,  iii.  360. 

Cleitor,  its  walls  on  the  heights 
above  the  Klitora  river,  ii.  257. 

. illustration  of  the  walls,  ii. 

258  ;  its  edifices,  260. 

Cleomenes,  king  of  Lacedaemon,  i. 
142.  219  ;  plunders  Megalopolis, 
ii.  29 ;  captures  the  citadel  of 
Argos,  ii.  410,  411.  493.  526; 
after  the  taking  of  Sparta  he  flies 
intoEgj'pt,  iii.  122.  161.  311. 

Clepsydra,  at  IMessene,  the  foun- 
tain, or  Water  of  Secrecy,  i.  367, 
368.  371.  386. 

Cleon,  house  of  King,  iii.  360. 

CleoncB,  river  of,  iii.  324. 

Hellenic  foundations  of,  iii. 

325  et  seq. 

Cleonymus,  i.  219. 

Climate  of  the  maritime  plains 
contrasted  with  that  of  the  Arca- 
dian hills,  ii.  15.  20;  Kalavryta 
very  unhealthy,  111  ;  cold  of 
mountains  injurious  to  people 
living  on  the  coasts  beneath  them, 
142;  fogs  and  chilly  air  of  Ar- 
cadia, iii.  24. 

Climax,  the  road  called,  ii.  413  ; 
iii.  46.  52. 

Cntor,  valley  of,  ii.  109. 

Clul>  of  Hercules,  wild  olive  the 
regermination  of  the,  ii.  444. 

Clyta-mnestra,  statue  of,  i.  147. 

Citacalus,  IMountain,  festival  of 
Diana  on  the,  ii.  119;  the  hill 
of  Kastania,  122. 

Cnucadium,  the  hill,  i.  274.  276. 

Cnncion  at  Sparta,  the,  i.  180,  181. 
276;  iii.  12. 

Cnageus,  i.  I70. 

Coccus  of  the  prinari  oak  trees  in 
the  Morea  yielding  a  crimson 
dye,  i.  250. 

Cockerell,  INIr.,  his  account  of  the 
temple  at  Olympia,  i.  27  ;  dis- 
covery of  a  frize  at  Bassse,  ii.  5. 

Coens,  votive  helmet  inscribed  with 
the  name,  i.  47,  48.  82. 

river,  i.  391  ;  at  the  Dervc- 

ni  of  Kokhla,  392.  482. 

Coins,  ancient,  of  Patrae,  ii.  126. 
146  ;  purchased  at  Barbitza,  iii. 
31  ;  of  St},nnphalus,  113  ;  of  La- 
cedaimon,  239  ;  of  Sicyon,  378. 

Colfenus,  colony  led  by,  i.  442. 

Colchi,  their  worship  of  Minerva 
Asia,  i.  182.  274. 

Colnna,  at  Sj)arta,  i.  163.  I7I. 

Colmiides,  near  Coroiie,  i.  442. 

Colonies,  Roman,  NicopoUs  and 
PatrcB,  ii.  124. 

Columns,  interesting  ancient,  i. 
293.  488  ;  fine  cylinder  of  a  co- 
lumn on  IMount  Cotylium,  ii.  2 ; 
extant  columns  at  the  castle  of 
St.  Helene,  18  ;  of  the  Agora  of 
JMegalopolis,  38  ;  at  a  well  near 
Tripolitza,  47  ;  at  Levidhi,  278; 
column  of  the  Hera?um,  387 ; 
beautiful  Doric  at  jEgina,  435  ; 
unusual  Doric  profile,  iii.  101. 

Combe,  ]\Ir.  Taylor,  his  illustra- 
tions of  marbles  and  antiquities, 
ii.  5. 

Common  Hearth  of  the  Arcadians, 
i.  94  ;  monument  called  the  Com- 
mon Hearth,   I07. 

Comnenus,  Andronicus,  i.  205. 

Conon,  achievement  of  the  Athe- 
nian commander,  iii.  410. 

Constantine,  emperor,  i.  199.  235. 

Constantinople,  i.  10.  14.  86.  126. 
131.  133.  220.  242.  317.  341. 

Co7itoporeia,    foot-road    to    Argos 
from  Corinth,  iii.  328. 
F  F 



Copais  in  Boeotia,  Lake,  iii.  148. 

Coi'aconnasus,  or  Island  of  Crows, 
in  the  Ladon  river,  ii.  90.  102. 

Core,  or  Proserpine,  ii.  34,  35. 

Corfu,  ii.  274. 

Corinth,  i.  138.  142.  176.  224. 
341;  its  iinhealthiness,  ii.  142; 
Roman  colony  established  by 
Julius  Caesar,  iii.  188  ;  arrival 
at  the  city,  228  ;  its  ports,  an- 
cient monuments,  and  long 
vails ;  comparison  of  the  accounts 
by  ancient  and  modern  travel- 
lers, and  its  actual  state,  229 
— 237  ;  existing  remains  of  the 
Roman  edifices,  244  ;  ruins  of 
the  Grecian  buildings,  245  ;  the 
Long  Walls  of  Corinth,  251 — 
254  ;  their  demoUtion,  25G  ; 
great  height  of  the  city  walls, 
253  ;  modern  pronunciation  of 
the  name  Korintho  [Gortho], 
262  ;  strength  of  the  position  of 
Corinth,  302.  322  ;  reflections  on 
the  power  and  influence  of  the 
ancient  city,  322. 

■ Gulf  of,  ii.  348. 

CoRiNTHiA,  the,  iii.  229  ;  re- 
marks on  the  subordinate  posi- 
tions of,  305. 

Corinthiac  gulf,  great  beauty  of  its 
scenerv  and  diversified  coast,  iii. 
313.  397. 

Corinthian  coast,  topography  of  the, 
iii.  308. 

Gulf,  prospect  of   the, 

iii.  1 83  ;  fine  harbours  of  the  N. 
coast,  186. 

war,  attack  on  Corinth 

by  Praxitas  and  the  Lacedaemo- 
nians, iii.  252  et  seq. 

Corinthians,  battles  in  which  they 
participated,  iii.  309. 

Cork  trees,  iii.  52. 

Corn,  export  of,  i.  34.  46,  47  ;  sea- 
son of  sowing  in  Mani,  322. 

Coroebus,  epigram  on  the  tomb  of, 
ii.  75. 

Cnrone,  position  of  the  ancient 
town,  i.  439,  440. 

Coronelli's  obser^'ations  on  Greece, 
i.  130.  210.  307.  324. 

Coronis,  statue  and  worship  of,  iii. 

Corsica,  emigration  from  Vitylo  to, 
i.  314. 

Corypha^ium,  promontory  and  for- 
tress adjacent  to  the  island  Spha- 

gia,  i.  62.  411  ;  description,  413. 

Cori/phaum,  mountain,  ii.  425. 

Corythenses,  the,  ii.  333,  334. 

Cos,  island  of,  i.  48  ;  delightful 
climate  of,  ii.  429. 

Cotton,  cultivation  of,  i.  15. 

CotT/lium,  Mount,  i.  492;  frag- 
ments of  the  temple  of  Apollo 
Epicurius  seen  on  the  hill,  ii.  1, 
et  seq. ;  a  branch  of  the  Lycaean 
range,  10;  named  from  Cotylum, 
near  Phiffaleia,  13;  spring  on, 

Cotyhim,  a  castle  appertaining  to 
the  Phiqalenses,  ii.  12;  its  site 
may  be  determined  by  the  disco- 
very of  a  temple  of  Venus,  1 3  ; 
i.  493. 

Council-chamber  at  ^Megalopolis,  ii. 

house  at  OhTnpia,  i.  34. 

Cranae,  island,  i.  247. 

Cranelum,  at  Corinth,  i.  I76. 

Cranes,  carriers  of  smaller  birds, 
ii.  50. 

Crat/iis,  Mount,  iii.  138  ;  the  hill 
of  Zari'ikhla,  150.  157- 

sources    of  the    river,  iii. 

138;  river  below  Klukines,  157  > 
ravine  of  the  Akrata,  172  ;  river, 
394  ;  its  sources  near  jEgae,  406, 

Cresinm,  ridge  of,  i.  99.  121  ;  ii. 
318;  katavothra  on  the  southern 
side  of  3Iount,  iii.  42. 

Cresphontes,  Dorian  conqueror, 
territory  acquired  bv  him,  i.  364. 
369.  457.  458. 

Crete,  island  of,  i.  I70.  200.  207  ; 
the  education  of  Jupiter,  ii.  310. 

Creusis,  at  Livadostro,  iii.  315. 

Crius,  river,  iii.  392,  393. 

CrocecB,  i.  249.  257. 

C7-07m,  or  Cromnus,  walls  of,  ii.  44 ; 
vestiges  of  the  city,  294  ;  at  Sa- 
mara, 297.  323. 

Crommyon,  vestiges  of  this  town, 
iii.  307,  308. 

capture  of,  iii.  256. 

Croneium.,  Mount,  i.  25.  29,  30.  35. 
38.  42  ;  ii.  203. 

Crotona.,  and  the  river  Crathis  in 
Italy,  iii.  4I7. 

Crows,  island  of,  ii.  74. 

Crucifixion,  the,  i.  340. 

Cnmi,  the  fountain,  i.  59.  420; 
ii.  300. 



Crypte,  or  Secret  Entrance  to  the 

stadium  at  Olympia,  i.  39. 
Curetes,  the,  i.  3G9.  371. 
Currant  plantations  of  the  plain  of 

Patra,   ii.    123,    125  ;   estimated 

value  of  them,  154. 
Currants,   or  dwarf  grapes  of  the 

Morea,  ii.   125  ;   their  perfume, 

141  ;  cultivation,  348. 
Customs ,  modern  and  ancient,  i.  448. 
Cyathus  offering  the  cup  to  Her- 
cules, iii.  342. 
Cyclopes,  their  masonry  exemplified 

in  the  remains  of  Tiryns,  ii.  350 ; 

their  works    at    jM)'cena»,    305 ; 

altars  of  the,  iii.  291.  29G. 
Cylarabis,  a  gyTnnasium,  ii.  407. 
Cylarabus,  son  of  Sthenelus,  tomb, 

ii.  407. 
Cyllene,  Mount,  i.  7 ;   the  highest 

mountain  of  Arcadia,  iii.  139. 
site  at  Glarentza,  ii.  1G3  ; 

the  harbour,  ii.    174;    iii.    111. 


CyntBtha,   its    situation,    ii.    109 ; 

dissensions   of   the    citizens,   iii. 

129 ;    destruction    of    the    city, 

130;  its  site  at  Kalavryta,  179  ; 

Arcadian  city,  iii.  404. 
Cynisca,  heroum  of,  i.  166. 
Cynortas,  tomb  of,  i.  163. 
CynosttrcB,  i.  178. 
Cynosurenses,  the,  i.  175.  178. 
Cynuraji,  the,  ii.  320  ;  their  towns 

determined,  323  ;   Cynuria,  493. 
Cyparissia,  town    of  Messenia,  i. 

229.  372.  426.  482. 
CyparissicB,  i.  62.  T2-  82. 
C\'parissian  mountain,  i.  76.  226. 

_J gulf,  392. 

Cyparissus,  i.  293. 

Cyphaiita,  port,  ii.  501. 

Cypress  trees,  i.  218 ;  great  cypress 

at  Patra,  ii.  147  ;  cypresses  called 

the  Virgins,  245. 
Cypresses,  grove  named  the  Cra- 

neium,  iii.  234. 
Cypsela,   the    fort    taken    by  the 

Spartans,  ii.  322. 
Cypselus,  box   of,  i.   36  ;  king  of 

Arcadia,  458  ;  race  of,  ii.  321  ; 

his  offering  of  a  statue  of  Jupiter 

of  hanmiered  gold,  iii.  275. 
Cyrus,  sanctuary  of  jEsculapius  at, 

iii.  219.  223. 
Cythera,  island  of,  127.  223. 
Cytherus,  the  river,  ii.  192. 


DAEDALUS,    Statues    by,  ii.   295 ; 

works  of  the  sculptor,  iii.  240. 
Dalion,  river,  i.  59- 
Damophon    of    Messene,    colossal 

sculptures   by,   i.    369 ;    ii.   36, 

369;  iii.  189. 
Danae,  brazen  chamber  at  Argos, 

in  which  Acrisius  confined  her, 

ii.  382  ;  description,  409. 
Danaus,  throne  of ;  his  competition 

with  Gelanor,  ii.  402  ;  his  daugh- 
ters, 405—477-  479. 
Daphne,   account  by  the  poets  of, 

ii.  267. 
Dardanus,    casern    noted   for   the 

birth  of,  i.  60. 
Davia,  river  of,  or  the  HeUsaon,  i. 

116  ;  vale  of,  ii.  51;  village,  52. 
Death,  statue  representing,  i.  170. 
Deine,   fresh  water   rising  in   the 

sea,  near  Genethlium  in  Argolis, 

ii.  480,  481  ;  iii.  47.  56. 
Deiras,  the  hill,  at  Argos,  ii.  400; 

the  gate  of  Deiras,  400.  411. 
Delamanara,    antiquities     at     the 

ruined  church,  ii.  349. 
Delikli-baba,    rock    off    the  island 

Sphacteria,  i.  400. 
Deliklitzi,  village,  i.  434. 
Delimemi,  i.  354. 
Delphi,  treasuries  at,  i.  39;  tomb 

of  Areas  transported  by  command 

of  the  oracle,    107;  the  oracle, 

Delus,  ravaged  by  Metrophanes,  i. 

Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  i.  179  ;  his 

conquest  of  Athens  and  attack 

upon  Sparta,  iii.  84. 
son  of  Antigonus,  cap- 
tures Sicyon,  iii.  250.  3G6.  etseq. 
son  of   Philip,    i.  370, 


St.,  or  Ai  Dhimitri,  on 

the   coast  near    Vitylo,   i.    320, 

Demiro,  in  the  plain  of  the  Euro- 
tas,  iii.  16. 

Demosthenes,  commander  of  the 
Athenian  armament  in  the  Pe- 
ninsula of  Pylus,  i.  401,  et  seq. ; 
death  of  the  orator,  ii.  452. 

Dentheliatis,  a  district  of  Messenia, 
i.  364. 

F  F  2 



Deomeneia,  brazen  statue  of,  1. 108. 

Dera  in  Messenia,  i.  467. 

Derrhiiim,  statue  of  Diana  Der- 
rhiatis,  iii.  3.  5. 

Derveni,  guard-house  of  a  pass  ; — 
Mount  Smerna,  i.  52.  54  ;  of  the 
Steniiri,  124.  190.  193. 

bridge  of  the,    near  the 

khan  of  Tara,  ii.  2G9. 

Dervish  Bey,  i.  191. 

Despcena,  statue  of,  ii.  10.  295 ; 
colossal  sculpture  of,  308  ;  tem- 
ple of  the  '  Mistress  ',  306,  307. 

Devils,  a  quarrel  between  two  de- 
mons on  Mount  Saeta,  iii.  148. 

Dhafni,  Paleo,  i.  265. 

Dhamala,  former  importance  of  the 
bishopric  and  town  of,  ii.  446. 

Dhekatia,  the  tithe,  i.  3.  11. 

Dhiakofto,  stream  joining  the  sea 
at,  ii.  Ill  ;  river  of,  iii.  396. 

Dhiasylo,  explanation  of  the  word, 
iii.  106. 

Dhiavolitza,  town  of,  i.  481.  483. 

Dhidhavra,  village,  iii.  395. 

Dhikho,  a  ravine  so  named,  i.  285. 

Dhikova,  vestiges  of  a  temple  at, 
i.  267-  277- 

Dhimandra,  village,  i.  483.  485. 

Dhimitzana,  town  on  a  moun- 
tain-ridge, i.  82  ;  situation  above 
the  Alplieius,  ii.  19.22;  studies 
in  the  school,  60  ;  romantic  cha- 
racter of  the  position,  and  an- 
cient vestiges,  63  ;  iii.  125. 

Dhioforti,  hill  of,  ii.  10,  11.  18  ;  it 
is  the  proper  Lycaurm,  19  ;  the 
lowest  falls,  20  ;  Dhioforti  and 
Tetr.izi  are  the  highest  points  of 
the  Lyc?ean  range,  27 ;  this 
mountain  is  the  sacred  summit 
of  OljTnjHis,  ii.  313  ;  the  modern 
name  is  significant,  314.  316. 

Dhipotamo  river,  formed  of  the 
Pidhima  and  Mavrozumeno,  i. 

Dhivri,  town  of,  ii.  116.  229.  236. 
et  seq. 

Dhomoko,  remains  of  Hellenic  walls 
at,  ii.  204  ;  the  modern  town 
once  important,  238 ;  the  river, 

Dhoriza,  i.  265. 

Dhoxa,  monastery  of,  iii.  157. 

Dhrago'i,  i.  488. 

Dhrepano, — Cape    Drepanum,    iii. 

Dhuliana,  village,  ii.  326,  327- 

Dhuliana,  river  of,  ii.  327.  333. 

Dia,  or  Hebe,  temple  of,  iii.  344. 

Diaeus,  conduct  of,  iii.  203. 

Diana,  various  particulars  of  the 
goddess's  celebrated  temples,  fes- 
tivals, and  statues,  i.  146.  162. 
274.  329.  364;  ii.  127-  214.  460. 
523  ;  iii.  233.  239.  266.  295, 296 ; 
her  temple  at  .-Egeira,  388. 

jEffincea,  i.  165. 

Agrotera,  ii.  37. 

Alplieiwa,    at    Letrini,    ii. 


Alpheionia,  or  Alpheiusa,  i. 

58.  189. 

CaUiste,  temple,  ii.  300. 

Cedreatis,  iii.  100. 

—  Cnacalesia,  iii.  119. 

Cnagia,  i.  I70. 

Cnaieatis,  i.  122. 

Cordax^  ii.  209. 

DaphncBa^  temple,  i.  274. 

Dictynna,  i.   162.  274.  276. 

Ephesia,  ii.  33 ;  temple  and 

festival  at  Scillus,  214.  216. 
Hegemache,  i.  165. 

Hegemone,  i,  93  ;  ii.  307- 

Hemeresia,  ii.  110;  iii.  179. 

Hiereia,  ii.  317- 

Issoria,  i.  165.  177- 

Laphria,  ii.  127. 

Leucophryene^  i.  147. 

■  Limncea,  i.  165;  iii.  359. 

Limnatis,  i.  122;  ii.  129- 

— ■ Lyceia,    temple     built    by 

Hippolytus,  ii.  444. 

Lycoatis,  ii.  304. 

Mysia,  iii.  14. 

Nemidia,  ii.  158. 

Orthia,  i.  168;  ii.  341. 

Patroa^  iii.  360. 

Peitho,  ii.  405. 

PhercBa,  ii.  409;  iii.  363. 

—  <t>u<T(pi^os,  i.  369. 

Pyroiiia,  iii.  138. 

Soteira,  ii.  34  ;  her  temple 

founded  by  Theseus,  ii.  443 ;  iii. 


Stymphalia,  temple,  iii.  113. 

Triclaria,  temple,  iii.  413. 

Diagon,  river,  ii.  85  ;  or  the  stream 

called  the  Dalion,  69.  208. 
Dictynna,  temple  of,  i.  162.  274. 
Dictynneium,  i.  173.  274. 
Dike,  the  battle  at  the  Great,  i. 

460.  467. 
DindjTnene  and  Attes,  temple  of, 

ii.  128.  162. 



Diocletian,  i.  293. 

Diodonis,  his  description  of  the 
Theban  invasion  of  Laconia,  iii. 
29  ;  quoted  with  respect  to  Sicy- 
on,  iii.  366,  36?. 

Diogenes  of  Sinope,  his  statue  in 
Lechaeum,  iii.  234. 

Diolcus,  of  the  Isthmus  of  Corinth, 
iii.  297.  300. 

Diomedes,  i.  432  ;  founds  the  tem- 
ple of  Minerva  Oxyderces,  ii. 
410;  temples  dedicated  by,  ii. 
445.  465. 

Dionysias,  the  fountain,  i.  72. 

Dionysium,  the,  i.  163.  171- 

Diophanes,  commander  of  the  A- 
chaian  forces,  i.  388 ;  son  of 
Dieeus,  statue  of,  and  elegy,  ii. 

Dioscuri,  temples  and  statues  of 
the,  i.  106.  163.  165.  182.  249. 
257.  328.  369 ;  called  the  Great 
Gods,  ii.  260  ;  statues  by  Dipre- 
nus  and  Scyllis,  of  them  and  their 
sons,  and  of  Hilaeira  and  Phoebe, 
in  ebony,  ii.  407- 

Dioscurium,  explanation  of  the 
name,  ii,  186;  iii.  132;  in  the 
Phliasia,  350. 

DipcBu,  its  ruins  on  a  rock  near  the 
Helisson,  ii.  52. 

Discipline,  military,  of  the  ancient 
Greeks,  iii.  82. 

Dium,  in  JMaeedonia,  i.  138  ;  de- 
stroyed by  the  jEtolians,  iii.  132. 

Djamitiko,  i.  483. 

Djezair,  Eyalet  of  the,  or  govern- 
ment general  of  the  Islands,  i. 

Djidjori,  village  and  river,  i.  396. 

Djimova.     See  Tzimova. 

Djirdje,  i.  485. 

Djoia,  near  the  Alpheius,  i.  23. 

Dobo,  the  Igiimenos  of  the  monas- 
tery of,  ii.  177- 

Dodwell,  Mr.,  researches  of,  ii.  312. 

Dolgorouki,  Russian  attempt  under 
this  officer  upon  ]Moth6ni,  i.  208. 

Donnelly,  Capt.,  R.  N.  i.  285. 

Daniisa,  town  of,  iii.  217- 

Dorceia,  i.  166. 

Dorceus,  i.  167- 

Dorians,  the,  i.  163.  458. 

Doric  temple,  i.  37  ;  capitals,  134  ; 
dialect,  293.  331.  384;  Doric 
partition  of  the  Peloponnesus, 
364,  365  ;  shafts  and  columns, 
ii,  4  ;  dialect,  505. 

Doric  architecture,  characteristics 
of  the  celebrated  temples  of  anti- 
cpiitv,  iii.  249.  See  the  Addi- 
tionc'il  Note,  268 — 284. 

Dorimachus,  victorious  leader  of 
the/Etolians,  iii.  123   129.131. 

Dorium,  ruins  of,  i.  391 :  Blount, 
484,  485. 

Dotadas,  the  IVIessenian,  i.  458, 

Dream  and  Sleep,  statues  of,  iii, 

Drepanum,  Cape  Dhrepano,  iii. 
413,  414.  417. 

Diomus,  i.  165.  I67.  174 — 176, 

Dryopes,  the,  i.  442.  463. 

Drvops,  leader  of  the  Asinaji,  i, 

Dumena,  iii.  183. 

Durali,  i.  231. 

Dyme,  beautiful  bay  near,  ii.  153; 
position  of,  160  ;  iii.  227- 

Dyspoiithtm,  emigration  of  its  in- 
habitants, ii.  193. 


Earth,  altar  of  the,  i.  93.  161, 

162;  statue  of,  ii.  130. 
Eurysteriuts,  temple  at  the 

place  named  G<bus,  iii.  406. 
Earthquake,    Bura    destroyed    by 

one,  iii.  399  el  seq. ;  at  Vostitza, 

Earthquakes  in  the  Morea,  i.  341 ; 

effect  of  them  uj)on  the  ancient 

Greek  structures,  ii.  7.  113.  132; 

at    Patra,   143  ;    destruction    of 

Helice  and  Bura,  iii.  154. 
Eastern  aspect   common  to  Greek 

temples,  ii.  31.3. 
Easter,    mode   of    celebrating   the 

festival  by  the   Greeks,   i.   206. 

351.  358.  476;  iii.  209. 
Echeia;,  i.  345. 
Echemus,  monument  and  pillar  of, 

i.  94, 
Edrene,  i,  220, 
Edris   Bey,  commandant  at   Xeo- 

kastro,  i.  399. 
Eel,  the,  ii.  100. 
Egesta,  or  Segcsta,  its  great  teni- 

l)le,  iii.  280. 
'Eghina,  gulf  of,  iii,  226.  See  JE<ji. 

Egypt,  bricks  baked  in  the  sun,  i. 

2  ;  maize  and  dhurra  of,  12. 



Egyptian,  i.  210.  491. 

Eira,  site  of,  i.  4(iii.  48G.  501  ;  ii. 

Blount,  the  IMessenians  block- 
aded bv  the  Lacedaemonians,  i. 
467,  468. 

Elaeiim,  i.  485. 

Elafonisi,  i.  215.  227;  ii-  518. 

Elaium,  Mount,  i.  485.  492.  499. 

Elaphns,  its  confluence  ^\ith  the 
river  Helisson,  ii.  303.  .305 

Elatus,  son  of  Areas,  i.  94. 

Electra,  river,  i.  391.  482. 

Eleia,  the,  i.  1  ;  plain  of  Elis,  2  ; 
remarkable  rock  of  Portes,  4  ; 
coast  of  the  Eleia,  7  ;  the  Eleian 
hills,  21  ;  extent,  67.  362.  485; 
territory  of  the,  ii.  14.  151.  154  ; 
its  ancient  geography,  179.  219  ; 
its  numerous  temples,  231. 

Eleian  prophets  named  lamidae,  i. 
162,  163. 

Eleians,  their  possessions  and  wars, 
i.  369;  ii.  77.  193.  196;  they 
presided  at  the  Olympic  contest, 
213;  they  <)ccu])ied  Psopliis,  246. 

Eleii,  the  ;  Triphylia  inhabited  by 
tlie  three  tribes  of  Epeii,  Eleii, 
and  Minyae,  63.  67  ;  dialect  of 
the  Eleians,  330. 

Elenitza,  mountain,  ii.  43. 

Eleuthero-Lacones,  cities  of  Laco- 
nia  formed  by  Augustus  into  the 
community  bearing  this  name, 
autonomous  and  freed  i'rom  the 
rule  of  Sparta,  i.  278,  279.  291. 
312.  329  ;  iii.  6  ;  Prasi»,  ?. 

Eleuthero-Laconic,  i.  219.  264. 

Ella,  Ai,  i.  253  ;  hill  of,  above  An- 
dritzena,  ii.  16. 

Elias,  Kyr,  i.  450.  474. 

Saint,  chapel  of,  at  Sklavo- 

khori,  i.  134  ;  mountain  of,  282  ; 
peak  of,  or  Blakryno,   191.  321. 

Elis,  site  of,  i.  4  ;  the  Peneius,  5; 
name  of  Ephyra,  6  ;  decennial 
archons,  8  ;  masonry,  28  ;  the 
community  of  Elis,  59  ;  roads  to 
the  city,  63.  372 ;  deficiency  of 
ancient  buildings,  ii.  178  ;  mo- 
iniments  destroyed  by  Agis,  197; 
brick  walls  visible,  219  ;  general 
account  of  the  ancient  city,  220 ; 
iii.  227. 

EUinikokastro,  local  name  of  an- 
cient ruins  ;  site  of  Andania,  i. 
388.  478. 

river  of,  i.  483. 

Elos,  plain   of,    i.  190—198.  224. 

229,  230.  232   263.  485. 
Elymia,  situation  of,  iii.  75- 
Embolus,  the,  an  entrance  into  the 

Hippodrome  at  Olympia,  i.  41. 
Emir  Aga,  a  Turk  of  Kalavrvta,  ii. 

Emlatika  Khoria,  the,  an  appanage 

of  the  Sultan's  sister,  i.  477  ;  i'- 

Enarsephorus,  i.  166. 
Endeia,  i.  362. 
Endreus,  statue  of  Blinerva  Aka 

made  by,  i.  95. 
Endymionaeum,     gi'ove    called,    i. 

England,  invitation  of  a  Greek  to, 

i^  323. 
English  travellers,  their  habits,  ii. 

Enipeus,  river,  ii.  192. 
Ejihspe,  ii.  102. 
E/iope,  i.  453. 
Enyahus,  i.  167.  182. 
'Epakto,  the  author  embarks  at,  ii. 

Epaminondas,  his  military  achieve- 
ments, his  fortifications,  and  his 

policy,  i.  112.  143,  144.  174.  177- 

183. '369.  374.  473;  ii.  41  ;  iii. 

25.  29.  76  et  seq.  ;  tomb  of,  51  ; 

his  heroic  death,  82  ;  his  tactics, 

Epeia,  a  name  of  the  city  Cororte, 

i.  441. 
Epeii,  the,  i.    6.   67 ;  attacked  by 

Hercules,  418  ;  their  boundary, 

ii.    ICl  ;    governed  by  Angelas, 

Epeitnn,  town  of,  ii.  206. 
Ephebeium,  the,  i.  185. 
Ephebi,  the,  i.  165,  166.  182. 
Ej)hesus,  victory  of  Lysander  at, 

i.  169. 
Ephoreia,  i.  161. 
Ephori,  magistrates  mentioned    in 

inscriptions  at  Kvparisso,  i.  161. 

Ephyra,   a  city,    afterwards    Elis, 

i.  6,  7- 
Epidau)-ii,  the,  i.  216. 
Epidaurus  Limera,  i.  195.  210,  211. 

213—215.  217.  219.222. 
,  road  to,    ii.    416  ;    the 

sacred  grove,  417  ;  repute  of  the 

city  of,  429  ;    fortifications  and 

public  edifices,  430  ct  scq. 
Epidelium,  i.  215. 



Epieicia,  the  fortress,  iii.  373 — 

Epimelides,  i.  441. 

Epimenides,  i.  102,  163. 

Epioiie.  vii'e  of  TEsciilapius,  statue 
of,  ii.  422.  431. 

Epitadas,  Spartan  commander  in 
Sphacteria,  i.  406. 

EpUalium  on  tlie  left  bank  of  the 
Alpheius,  i.  65  ;  ii.  196 ;  site  of 
Thryon,  or  Thryoessa,  198. 

Epochus,  i.  95. 

Epopeiis,  temples  at  Sicyon  built 
by,  iii.  363. 

£rana,  town  of,  i.  426. 

£rasinus,  i.  1 92  ;  sources  of  the 
river,  ii.  340.  342.  470  ;  the  river 
of  Stymphalus,  iii.  113.  145. 

Ergata;,  hermaic  statues  of  the  five 
gods  called,  ii.  37. 

Erinnys,  the  goddess,  ii.  102. 

Erymanthus,  river,  ii.  02.  75  ;  its 
junction  with  the  Alpheius,  89; 
its  rise  in  Mount  Lampeia,  196  ; 
at  Psophis,  241  et  seq. 

■ mountain  appertain- 
ing to  IMount  'Olono,  ii.  69.  185. 

Eubcea,  IMount,  the  Herseimi,  ii. 

Eucleides,  Athenian  sculptor,  iii. 

Eucosmns,  i.  168. 

Eumenides,  temples  of  the,  ii.  294  ; 
iii.  353  ;  at  Ceryneia,  405  ;  these 
goddesses  were  also  called  Sem- 
nffi,  352. 

Euphaes,  king  of  Messenia,  i.  402; 

•    his  death,  464. 

Euphemion,  Quintus  Plotius,  i. 

Euphron,  tyrant  of  Sicyon,  iii.  348. 

Eupolis  of  Athens,  comic  writer, 
iii.  358. 

Euripidas,  yEtolian  commander, 
ii.  246.  248  ;  iii.  132,  133.  420. 

Euripides  quoted,  i.  148  ;  his  al- 
lusions to  Cyclopean  walls,  ii. 
365 ;  bis  epithet  for  Laconia,  iii. 

Europe,  exports  from  Greece  to 
Western,  i.  131.  352. 

European  vessels,  i.  317-  324. 

Eurotas,  river,  receives  the  Pan- 
deleimona  torrent,  i.  127;  course, 
129.  134;  its  vale,  135;  remark- 
able acclivity,  137  ;  level  on  the 
waterside,  153  ;  the  bridge,  17 1. 

181  ;  the  Dromus,  174  ;  ford, 
176  ;  rocky  ravine,  191  ;  junc- 
tion of  the  Erasina,  192  ;  nar- 
row vale  or  anion,  194.  278.  302  ; 
source,  ii.  317  ;  valley  of  this 
celebrated  river,  iii.  12  ;  caverns 
and  a  Hellenic  wall,  13  ;  river 
Iri,  18  ;  deep  glen,  19;  course 
underground,  37  ;  curious  fable, 

Eurybiades,  i.  108. 

Eurycles,  governor  of  Laconia,  i. 
223.  291  ;  bath  of,  iii.  239. 

Eurycydium,  grove  named,  i.  00. 

Euryleonis,  statue  of,  i.  I70. 

Eurynome,  i.  492. 

Eurypon,  i.  172. 

Enrypylus,  monument  of,  ii.  128. 

Eurysthenes,  i.  457  ;  ii.  532. 

Eurytus,  son  of  Melaneus,  i.  391. 

and   Cteatus,    monument 

of,  iii.  320. 
Eiitcea,  position  of,  ii.  319  ;  iii.  31 

Eutresii,  the,  ii.  320. 
Eva,  city,  i.  9 ;  hill,  142;  ii.  478. 

493  ;  Mount,  529,  530. 
Evan,  Mount,  above  Messene,    i. 

80  ;    adjacent   ruins,    359.    300. 

368.  376.  382.  384.  394. 
Evander  leads  a  colony  from   Pal- 

lantium  to  Rome,  the  origin  of 

the  name  Palatine,  i.  118,  119  ; 

visited  at  Pheneus  by  Anchises, 

iii.  152. 
Evenus,  accumulation  of  soil  at  the 

mouth  of  the  river,  ii.  148. 
Evgazii'i,  tlie  wind,  iii.  207- 
Evil  Counsel,  i.  260. 
Evloghia,  a  disease  of  sheep,  i.  19. 
Evorux,  i.    188  ;    chase  for  Itears, 

stags,  and  other  animals  at,  iii.  3. 
Excavations  made  at  some  ancient 

Grecian    sites,   ii.   5  ;    by   Lord 

Elgin  at  Mycen.p,  373. 
Executions  in  the  JMorea  :  exposure 

of  the   culprits  after  death,  iii. 

36  .■;  impaling,  93. 
Exokhori,   the  southern  quarter  of 

Mistra,  i.  130. 
Eyalet  of  the  Djezair,  i.  45. 

False  information   given   by  the, 
Greeks  to  travellers,  ii.  I77,  17JJ. 



Fanari,  cultivation  and  crops  near, 

i.  3;  road,  50,  51.  75;  ii.   12; 

the  castle,  10  ;  description  of  the 

town,    68 ;     intaglio    purchased 

there,  80. 
Fanaritiko,    IMount,   villages    and 

cultivation  at  the  foot  of,  ii.  15  ; 

the  hill  described,  16.  68  ;  view 

from    its    s.  E.    peak    Zakkiika, 

69;  the  western  summit,  81. 
Farmisi,  i.  354.  358. 
Fates,  the,  i.  161  ;  led  by  Jupiter, 

ii.  307. 
Fauvel,  Monsieur,   his  researches 

at  Olympia,  i.  33. 
Feshes,  red  caps   fitting   tight  on 

the  head,  i.  132. 
Filia,   or  Fyla,  village,  i.  388 ;  ii. 

Filiatra,  quantity   of  oil  the  pro- 
duce of,  i.  74. 
Filokali,     monastery    on     JMount 

]\Iovri,  ii.  163. 
Finger,  monument  of  the,  relating 

to  Orestes,  ii.  294. 
Finiki,  village  of,  i.  201.  204.  222. 

Finikiotika,  i.  222. 
Fir,  forests  of,  ii.  116. 
Flamboritza,    ^'alley    of,    iii.    222, 

Flamininus,  T.  Q.,  i.  173.  .388. 
Flax    cultivated    in    Achaia    and 

Eleia,  ii.  166. 
Floka,    village   above    the    Pissean 

valley,  i.  24.  26 ;  ii.  192. 
Fonia,  river  of,  ii.  95. 

mountain  of,  iii.  142.  150. 

village  and  kalyvia,  iii.  114 

—117.  141.  147.  156. 
Foniatiko,  river,  iii.  141,  142,  143. 

Fonissa,   the  river,   iii.   220.   385. 

Fonts,  baptismal,  i.  499. 
Formica  Leo,  the,  and  its  conical 

habitation,  ii.  89. 
Forest  scenery,  ii.  232. 
Fortresses,  character  of  the  early 

Greek  cities,  ii.  319. 
Fortune,    temples  of,    i.    362 ;  iii. 

237  ;  temple  at  Megalopolis,  ii. 

34  ;  colossal  statue  at  Elis,  224  ; 

statue  described,  iii.  388. 
Acrcea,  temple  at  Sicyon, 

iii.  359. 
Frango-Limiona,  the  harbour  call- 
ed, iii.  313. 

Frangovrysi,  or  Frank-spring,  a 
fountain  near  Tripolitza,  i.  84. 
117  ;  plain  of  Frangovrysi,  ii. 
45  ;  the  khan  and  rivulet,  46 ; 
paleo-kastro  of,  iii.  34 ;  khan 
and  fountain  of,  34 ;  the  emissory 
of  the  stream  of  the  Taki,  42 ; 
sources  on  the  East,  38,  39  ;  the 
emissory  of  the  Saranda  Poiamo, 

Frank  princes  of  the  Morea,  ii.  21. 
27 ;  ecclesiastical  edifices  of  the 
date  of  their  principalities,  87- 
89;  Frank  conquest,  136.  173. 

Franks,  devastations  committed  by 
them  in  the  3Iorea,  i.  306. 

French,  jealousy  of  the  Turks  with 
respect  to  the,  ii.  49. 

Friday,  Good,  observance  of,  i.  340. 

Fridjala,  i.  354.  476. 

Fuka,  :iIount.  iii.  325.  328. 


GaidhaRa,  ridge  of,  iii.  174. 

Galata,  castle  of,  ii.  104. 

Galataki,  bay  of,  iii.  235. 

village  of,  iii.  235. 

Galaxidhi,  iii.  186. 

Gallo,  Kavo,  or  Acritas,  i.  435. 

Garbelea,  i.  262. 

Garbino  wind,  i.  283. 

Garbitza,  i.  192. 

Gardhiki,  village  near  a  mountain 
pass,  i.  82  ;  former  importance 
of,  ii.  45  ;  iii.  18. 

Gargaliano,  wine  of  this  village,  i. 
74.  389.  398;  island  of  Proti, 

Garea,  its  site  near  Dhuliana,  ii. 

Gareates,  river,  ii.  332. 

Gaseptum,  i.  162. 

Gastuni,  the  author  lands  here 
from  Zante  in  1805,  i.  1  ;  river 
of  (iastuni  or  Peneius,  town  de- 
scriljed,  2  ;  water,  8  ;  sea-ports, 
10  ;  imposts,  11  ;  crops,  13;  the 
metayer's  mode  of  agriculture, 
15  ;  the  kazasi  or  district,  44  ; 
exports,  46,  47 ;  neglect  of  edu- 
cation,  ii.  177. 

Gates  of  ancient  towns,  remark- 
able examples,  ii.  25. 

Gafheatas,  vale  and  river,  ii.  294. 
322,  323. 



Gatheates,  the  river  of  Ghianeus, 

iii.  23. 
Gauls,  their  invasion  of  Greece,  ii. 

Gavria,  romantic  hill,  iii.  343  ;  the 

name,  345. 
Gdhani,  village,  i.  82. 
the    torrent,   ii.    45  ;    iii. 

Gell,   Sir  William,  travels  of,  ii. 

Gems  and  coins  on  which  the  cele- 

brated  statues  of  antiquity  were 

represented,  ii.  80. 
Ge?iethlium,   Theseus  born   at,   ii. 

448—480  ;  of  Argolis,  iii.  47- 
George,  plain  of  St.,  iii.  107- 

mountain  of  St.,  236.  349. 

town   of,    iii.    335,    33G ; 

its   healthy    situation   and    cool 

climate,  337- 
• church  of,    at  Arkadhia, 

and  vest'ges  of  antiquity,  i.  7I5 


feast  of,  i.  47G. 

GertB,  fortress  near  Sicyon,  iii.  376. 
Geraneia,  hill  of,  iii.  312. 
Geranthro',  situation  of,  iii.  6. 
Gereiiia,  its  cavern  ;  site  occupied 

by  Kitries,  i.  323 ;  the  Homeric 

Enope,  329.  361. 
Geronteium,   ridge,    iii.    115,    116. 

Ghelini,  hamlet  of,  iii.  224.  226. 
Gheorghitika,  ii.  328. 
Glieraki,    commanding    site,    and 

Hellenic   ve.^tiges,    iii.    8.      See 

Ghermotzana,     or     Ghermotzani, 

monastery   of,   ii.    116;  village, 

121.  235.  240. 
Ghianeus,   or   laneus,   village,  iii. 

23  ;  s.  w.  spring  of  the  Alpheius 

copious,  il). 
Ghiorgaki,    Kyr,    [Avgherino,]    i. 

22,  23. 
Ghiorghio,  i.  235.  267- 
Ghiorgbitza,  village  of,  i.  125  ;  iii. 

Ghirinia  of  the  IMorea,  i.  13. 
Gliyftissa,  Cape,  iii.  211. 
Ghvmnovuni,  hill  of,  iii.  214.  222. 

224,  225. 
Giants,  bones  of  one  of  the,  ii.  37- 
Gibraltar,  i.  202. 
Gioza,  in  the  plain  of  Pbeneus,  iii. 

106;  pass  of,  118.  141—148. 
Gita,  i.  287,  288,  289.  310. 

Gitiadas,  i.  146.  169. 

Glarentza,  or  Glarantza,  its  mined 
castle,  harbour,  and  vestiges  of 
Ci/llene,  i.  10.  46;  ii.  173,  174; 
Cape  Glarentza,  176. 

Glatza,  i.  73. 

Glance,  fountain,  iii.  240. 

Glaticiis,  the  torrent,  ii.  123.  154. 

Gligoraki,  Antony,  or  Andon,  Bey 
of  Mani,  i.  234,  et  seq. ;  241. 
253.  269.290.  318. 

Dhimitrio,  i.   316.326. 


John.  See  Tzanit-Bey. 

Thodhoro,  i.  236. 

Glympeis,  i.  139. 

Gli/mpia,  near  the  Cynurian  passes, 
iii.  9. 

Glyppia^  town,  iii.  7i  ^• 

Gofo,  tisli  of  a  great  size,  iii.  211. 

Gonoessa,  pointed  hill  named  also 
Donoessaand  Donussa,  iii.  385. 

Good  Friday,  i.  340. 

God,  temple  of  the,  ii.  303. 

Goranus,  i.  265. 

Gordian,  i.  293. 

Gorgasus,  i.  344. 

Gorges  of  mountains  in  the  Morea, 
pass  of  Mount  Taygetum,  i.  473; 
between  the  Karitena  hill  and 
Dhioforti,  ii.  21  ;  of  Tjimbaru, 
46 ;  near  JMaguliana,  59 ;  of 
Nezera,  a  pass  of  great  strength, 
120  ;  pass  of  Mount  Kravari,  iii. 
34  ;  near  ^'ostitza,  184. 

Gorqus,  in  the  Thelpusia,  iii. 

Gortyidus  river,  otherwise  the  Lu- 
sius,  ii.  24.  26.  59.  290.  292. 

Gortys,  site  of  this  ancient  town 
near  Atzikolo,  ii.  24  ;  the  Ascle- 
pieium,  26;  city  of,  and  temple 
of  j'Esculapius,  290. 

Gothic  church  in  ruin,  near  the  Al- 
pheius, ii.  87  ;  delineations  of  its 
pointed  windows,  88. 

Goths,  i.  185. 

Graces,  temples,  &c.  of  the,  i.  146, 
147.  165;  ii.  223,  224. 

Grain ;  cultivation  of  the  IMorea, 
i.  148. 

Granitza,  village  of,  iii.  118. 

Great  Goddesses,  or  Ceres  and  Pro- 
serpine, their  peri  bolus  and  sta- 
tues at  JNIegalopolis,  ii.  35,  36  ; 
their  ceremony  at  Bathos,  291. 

Greatest  Gods,  statues  of  day  of 
the,  ii.  118. 



Greek  church,  the,  i.  289  ;  studies 
pursued  by  such  as  are  intend- 
ed for  the  priesthood,  ii.  61. 

Greeks,  modern,  their  personal  ap- 
pearance, hardihood,  and  active 
exertions,  iii.  172,  173. 

Gregoras,  Nicephorus,  i.  186. 

Gi'ivi,  village  of,  i.  435. 

Grosso,  Kavo,  i.  286, 287,  288,  289. 
303.  306.  311.  321. 

Gryllus,  son  of  Xenophon,  i.  107, 
108  ;  said  to  have  slain  Epami- 
nondas,  iii.  82. 

Guildford,  Earl  of,  collection,  iii. 

Gulianika,  i.  265. 

Gumruk,  the,  i.  11. 

Gurtziili,  village,  i.  103.  109,  110. 

hill  of,  iii.  95.  97- 

Guzumistra,  ruins  of  an  ancient 
city  near,  iii.  420. 

Gymnasia,  various,  i.  107-  370. 
381.  490  ;  at  Megalopolis,  ii.  36. 
38  ;  at  Elis,  220. 

Gytheates,  i.  278. 

Gythium,  city  of,  i.  233  ;  the  ruins 
called  Paleopoli,  244,  et  seq. ; 
valley  of  Gythium,  260  ;  vicinity 
of,  273 ;  coarse  white  marble, 


Hades,  temple  of,  i.  59  ;  ii.  224. 
Hadrian,  the   Emperor,  his  public 

works  in   Greece,  i.   105.    113; 

ii.  48;  iii.  49.  112.  243. 
HcBmmiicB,  founded  by  Hiemon,  son 

of  Lycaon,  ii.  317- 
Hagno,   statue  of  the  nymph,   ii. 

•6b.  310. 
. fountain  on  ]\Ioimt  Lycae- 

um,  ii.  310. 
Halicarnassus,  the  Queen  of,  i.  161. 
Halice,  town  of.  ii.  462. 
Halil  Bey,  Turkish  proprietor,  ii. 

Haller,  Baron,  researches  of,  ii.  5. 
Harbours  of  the  ancient  Greeks ; 

breakwater,  and  other  works,  ii. 

Harby,  Sir  Clement,  ii.  134. 
Harmony  of  the  Greek  masonry, 

or  accurate  adaptation,  ii.  6. 
Harpinna,   city,   and    the    stream 

JIurpiiinatcs,  i.  31  ;  ii.  209.  211. 

Harpleia,  position  of,  iii.  3.  5. 
Hassan  Aga,  i.  3. 

Bey,  i.  207-  209,  210.  232. 

263.  316.  318  ;  ii.  64. 

the  Grand  Vezir,  i.  209. 

Hawkins,  ]\Ir.,  iii.  246. 

Hebe,  i.  106. 

or    Ganpneda,    temple    at 

Phlius,  iii.  340. 

Hecate,  temple,  and  image  by  Sco- 
pas  of,  ii.  407  ;  temple  at  /Egi- 
na,  the  triple  fonn  of  her  statues, 

Helen,  i.  182. 

castle  of  St.,  ii.  315. 

Helena,  i.  182. 

Helene,  i.  167 ;  l>ath  of,  iii.  233. 
235  ;  the  warm  sources  near 
Cenchreiee,  319,  320. 

St.,  ancient  fortified  town 

called  the  Castle  of,  ii.  18. 

Helice,  a  city  of  Achaia,  destroyed 
by  an  earthquake,  iii,  154.  399 
et  seq.  ;   405. 

Helisson.,  the,  i.  116,  117  ;  now 
the  river  of  Davia,  ii.  28  ;  di- 
vided Megalopolis,  32.  38  ;  the 
Stena,  52  ;  its  rise  and  jimction 
with  the  Alpheius,  291  ;  iii.  383. 

the  town,  ii.  54. 

HellanodicfB  and  Agonists,    their 

entrance  into  the  Altis  at  OljTn- 

pia,  i.  35. 
Hellen,  family  of,  iii.  196. 
Hellenes,  i.  384. 
Hellenic  masonry,  note  explaining 

the  various  orders  of  the,  i.  53. 
walls,    i.   193.    210—212. 

221.  256.  276.  296.  300.  313.324. 

331,332.346.  354.  366. 
towns,  various  ruins  and 

sites  of :  Messene.,  i.  366 — 395  ; 

castle  of  St.   Helene,  ii.   18,  et 


state    of    society   in   the 

strictly    Hellenic    ages,    ii.    14  ; 

study  of  the  ancient  tongue,  61. 
Hellenium,  i.  162. 
Helmet     having    an     inscription, 

purchased  at  Pyrgo,  i.  47. 
Helos,  i.  144.  197-  226.  230.  279; 

gates  at,  Shalesi,  the  site  of  the 

temple   of    Ceres    at,    ii.    305  ; 

course  of  the  Eurotas  at,  iii.  37. 
Helote,  character   of  a  modern,  i. 

197  ;  insun-ection,  or  third  Mes- 

senian  war,  471. 
Helotes,  the,  i.  471. 



Jlcracleid,  a  town  of  the  Pisatis, 
ii.  192;  site  of,  193. 

Heradeidae,  their  corKjuests  in  the 
Peloponnesus,  i.  G.  199  3G4. 457 ; 
their  return  into  it,  ii.  355. 

Heracleium,  the  teinple  near  Man- 
tineia,  iii.  58.  GO.  G3. 

llercea,  chief  town  of  the  lower 
plain  of  the  Alpheius,  i.  9  ;  ii. 
20.  75  ;  at  the  village  of  Aiaiini, 

Ileraeenses,  the,  ii.  74. 

Hera;eus,  son  of  Lycaon,  ii.  74. 

llerfeiiin,  the  Argolic  ;  temple  of 
Juno  Argeia,  ii.  387,  3!S{5 ;  its 
exact  site,  391,  392. 

■ or    the    promontory   of 

Juno,   iii.  314. 

• ,  Corinthians  who  retreat- 
ed to  it  for  security,  iii.  317  et 

Hercina,  i.  127. 

Hercules,  histories  and  particulars 
respecting  him,  temples,  &c.  : 
i.  94.  105.  1G9.  182.  24G.  273. 
298.  301.  330.  3G4.  418;  ii.  37. 
208 ;  wooden  statue  hv  Ditdalus, 
295.  459.  474;  iii.  238.  240; 
temples  of,  326.  3GI  ;  square 
statue,  3G3.  522. 

- — Btiraicus,  oracular  sta- 
tue of,  iii.  406. 

and    Hehe,    silver  altar 

with  sculptures  representing 
their  marriage,  ii.  390 ;  mar- 
riage of,  iii.  2G8. 

,   he    destroys  the    birds 

called  Stymphalides  with  his  ar 

rows,     iii.     113  ;     trench     and 

chasms  of  the  Pheneatice,  136  ; 

this  supposed  work  of  Hercules 

can    yet    be    traced,   151.    2GG  ; 

slays  the  Nenieian  lion,  329. 
Herniiv,   or  statues  of  Hermes,  of 

a  square  form,  i.   371  ;  ii-  479. 

Hermoea,  games  celebrated  at  Phe- 

neus,  iii.  137- 
Hermspum,  near  Phcedrin,  ii.  286; 

statue  of   ]Mercury,  297  ;    near 

Belemina,  iii.  22. 
Hermes,  the  god,  i.  93.  161.  274. 

343.  370.  373.  391  ;  ii.  37-  158. 

174  ;  iii.  137.  238. 
Dolhis,  statue  of  a  square 

form,  bearded,  and  having  a  hat, 

iii.  218. 
Hermes,  Polyijius^  ii.  414. 

Hermione,  i.  275  ;  city  of,  ii.  458. 

Herodes,  T.  C.  Atticus,  l)uilt  the 
Odeium  at  Corinth,  iii,  240.  290. 

Herodotus,  i.  176. 

Hesiod,  his  personification  of  the 
river  Styx,  iii.  161. 

Hetoemocles,  statue  of,  i.  164. 

Hexamili,  village  and  tower,  iii. 

Hierothysium,  i.  370.  381. 

Hierum  of  Epidauria,  the  Romans 
solicited  the  assistance  of  jEscu- 
lapius  in  curing  a  pestilence,  ii. 
426 ;  reflections  regarding  this 
edifice,  427  et  seq. 

High  Cross,  mountain  ridge,  iii. 

Hilaeira,  statue  of,  i.  168.  370. 

Hippaphesis,  i.  41,  42.  44. 

Ifippocrene,  statue  of  Hermes  at 
the  fountain,  ii.  444.  447. 

Hijipodameia,  suitors  of,  ii.  209. 

Hippola,  i.  279.  287.  300. 

Hippolaitis,  i.  300. 

Hippolytus,  i.  163  ;  dedication  of 
horses  by,  ii.  422  ;  sacred  inclo- 
sure  at  Troezen  of,  445  ;  his 
house,  445  ;  his  chariot  over- 
turned, 448. 

Hipposthenes,  i.  167. 

Hippothous,  i.  95. 

Hodja-bashi,  i.  231.  327- 

IIolcus,  the,  i.  12. 

Homagyrium  at  JEginm^  council 
of  the  Greeks  held  there  by 
Agamemnon,  iii.  190. 

Homer,  various  references  and  quo- 
tations, i.  GO.  247.  286.  303.  329, 
330.  343.  360,  361. 392.  422.  450. 
456.  485  ;  ii.  189.  354.  36?  ;  iii. 
5.  112.  217  ;  his  description  of 
the  river  Styx,   161. 

Horace,  his  observation  respecting 
the  public  magnificence  of  the 
early  Romans,  ii.  9. 

Horse,  monument  of  the,  iii.  14. 

Horses,  breed  of  Arcadian,  ii.  29. 

Hotirs,  figures  of  the,  ii.  35. 

Hussein  Aga,  i.  265.  2(i9. 

the  Capitan  Pasha,  ii.  345. 

Huts,  description  of  some  curious, 
ii.  91. 

Hyacinthus,  i.  146. 

IJyamein^  i.  457-  459. 

Hvdroj)hobia  cured  at  the  fountain 
i      'Alyssus,  iii.  180. 
I  Hygicia,  i.  96 ;  statue   Iiy  Scopaj, 



ii.  25 ;  temple  dedicated  to,  ii. 

Hypaesia,  i.  61. 

Hypana,  a  city  of  Triphj'Ha,  i.  59  ; 
ii.  7C-  84,  85. 

Hypatodorus,  his  statue  of  Miner- 
va at  Aliphera.,  ii.  76,  77-  80. 

Hyperesia^  or  ^geira,  iii.  387. 

Hypermnestra  and  Lynceus,  ii. 

Hyperteleatum,  i.  227- 

Hypsi,  i.  267.  274.  276—278. 

Hj'psoeis,  i.  485. 

Hypsus,  situation  of,  i.  267-  272  ; 
ii.  300. 

Hyrmina,  or  Ormina,  the  penin- 
sula of  Khlemutzi,  ii.  176. 

IJyrmine,  town  mentioned  by  Ho- 
mer, ii.  176.  182. 

Hyrnetho,  tragic  story  of,  ii.  430. 

Hysise,  the  remains  of,  ii.  332 — 
337  ;  victors'  of  the  Argives  at, 

Iambic  verses,  i.  293. 

lanaki  Gligoraki,  named  Katzano, 
i.  235.  268. 

lanataki,  Kvr,  iii.  20. 

lanni,  Ai,  i.'  145.  236. 

Ibrahim  EfFendi,  i.  274. 

Bey,  village  belonging  to 

Nuri  Bey,  iii.  227- 

Icarius,  father-in-law  of  Ulysses, 
iii.  15. 

Ichthvs,  Cape,  opposite  to  Zakytho, 
ii.  182.  186.  190. 

Ictinns,  architect,  i.  493  ;  his  man- 
ner of  strengthening  columns 
against  the  horizontal  action  of 
earthquakes,  ii.  8. 

Icraka,  Port,  i.  219;  ii.  501. 

• Cape,  i.  219;  ii.  496. 

leraki,  ancient  site,  i.  186.  193. 
425  ;  iii.  8. 

lero,  Sto ; — the  temple  of  .Escula- 
pius,  ii.  420;  the  seclusion  has 
caused  the  degree  of  preservation 
of  the  sacred  edifices,  427. 

lerokomio,  monaster)^  of,  ii.  137- 

Ignatius,  metropolitan  bishop  of 
Arta,  ii.  274. 

Ikonomopulo,  Kjt  Ghiorghio,  of 
Navarm,  i.  399-  428. 

Ikonomu,  Papa  Alexi,  ii.  68. 

Ilium,  i.  273,  274.  276. 

Illyrians,  i.  141  ;  iii.  88. 

Imbat,  i.  450;  in  the  Argolic  Gulf, 

iii.  337. 
Imlak,  i.  354. 
Imposts,  severity  of  them  upon  the 

towns  of  the  3Iorea,  ii.  23. 
Iiiachus,  river,  ii.  364. 

the  river  god,  ii.  367. 

Inert  Plain,  tha'A^yov,  iii.  47,  48. 

54  ;  course  of  the  waters  fi'om, 

55,  et  seq.,  63.  81.  94. 
Infernal  Regions,  i.  298. 
Ino,  i.  440  ;  ii.  496  ;  iii.  291. 

,  Lake,  i.  217- 

Inscriptions    at    3Ioth6ni    of    the 

Venetians,  i.  431. 

—  PatrfB,  ii.  138. 

Insurrection    in    Greece,    remarks 

upon  the,  i.  448. 
Intaglio  of  Minerva  armed,  ii.  80. 

beautiful  antique,  ii.  284. 

loannina,  i.  347,  348. 

lolaus,  i.  95. 

Ionic,  i.  188.  313;  early  specimens 

of  Ionic  architecture,  ii.  4,  5. 
lops,  i.  162. 
Iphicrates,  endeavours  to  obstruct  a 

subterraneous  water- course  with 

sponges,  iii.  145.  253.  255.  316. 
Iphigeneia,  statue  of,  iii.  388. 
Ire,  i.  330.  453. 
Irene,    St.,  i.    1 50 ;  metokhi   and 

church,  iii.  397.  399. 
Iri  river,  i.   125,  126.  174;  iii.  18. 

See  Eurotas. 
Isa  Cassa,  a  Turk  of  Koroni,  i.  436. 
Isidore,  St.,  i.  66.  68. 
Isis,    i.    371 ;    temple  of,  built   at 

Troezen  by  the  Halicarnassenses, 

ii.  446.  458  ;  iii.  233.  244  ;  tern.. 

pie  and  statue   at  Phlius,  341, 


JEgyptia,  iii.  241. 

Pelagia,  iii.  241. 

Ismail  Effendi,  i.  3. 
Issoria,  i.  177- 
Issorium,  i.  177. 

Isthmian  Games,  iii.  289.  292. 

Istluuus  of  Coi'inth,  i.  35.  305 ; 
rugged  hill  of  the,  iii.  255  ;  ex- 
tent of  the  Isthmus,  description 
of  the  ancient  line  of  defence, 
wall,  and  canal  attempted  from 
sea  to  sea,  297,  £i  seq. 

Italy,  i.  242. 

Italian  fortiiication,  i.  286. 

Ithomc,  Blount,  or  mountain  of 
Vurkano,   i.   78.  80.  358,   359, 



300.  308.  371.  383.  385.  471  ; 

ii.  11. 
Ithame  destroyed  by  the  Spartans, 

i.  405. 
Iiim,  town  of  the  latae,  iii.  19. 
Izina,  i.  320. 

Janissaries,  the,  i.  447. 

Jardanes,  i.  08. 

Jardanus,  river,  supposed  to  be 
the  same  as  the  Acidas,  ii.  190. 

Jerusalem,  patriarch  of,  i.  200. 

John,  St.,  i.  45.  57.  72  ;  village 
and  monastery  of,  ii.  188. 

Theologos,  St.,  village  on  a 

steep  height  above  the  Eurotas, 
iii.  12. 

Joseph,  person  styling  himself 
Prince,  i.  434. 

Julian,  the  emperor,  i.  185. 

Juniper  berries  exported  from  Pa- 
tra,  ii.  142. 

Juno,  name  of  the  goddess,  i.  9  ; 
her  temple  was  the  most  ancient 
building  at  Olympia,  i.  34.  30  ; 
the  chrj'selephantine  statues  by 
ancient  sculptors,  43  ;  statue  by 
Praxiteles,  100.  101  ;  the  He- 
raeum  near  Argos,  ii.  388.  401  ; 
temple  of  the  goddess  at  Acragas, 
iii.  284  ;  Hersum  near  Mycenae 
rebuilt,  334  ;  temple  at  Phlius, 
349  ;  Heraeum  of  Sicyon  founded 
by  Adrastus,  303. 

AcrtBu,  ii.  410 ;  iii.  314.  380. 

jEgophagiis,  i.  107- 

Antheia,  ii.  400. 

Aphrodite  Hera,  i.  104. 

Argeia,  i.  104.  171. 

ButicBa,  iii.  241. 

—  Ht/percheiria,  i.  104. 
Prodomia,  iii.  304. 

Teleia,  ii.  30. 

Jupiter,  his  temple  at  Olympia,  i. 
9  ;  his  great  altar,  34  ;  temple 
in  the  Altis,  35  et  seq. ;  colossal 
statues  in  the  pediments  or  aeti, 
43 ;  temple  of  a  soft  conchite 
limestone,  97 ;  altar  and  temple, 
275.  277  ;  ivory  of  his  statue 
restored  by  Damophon,  309  ;  in- 
closure  sacred  to  Jupiter  Lycseus, 
at  3Iegalopolis,  ii.  32  :  the  sta- 
tues  in  his   great   temple,    34. 

290  ;  nursing  and  education, 
310  ;  his  statue  brought  from 
Trov,  410.  401 ;  temple  at  vEge- 
ira,  'iii.  .387. 

Jupiter,  Agoraus,  i.  101. 

Apesantius,  iii.  327. 

Capetolius,   iii.  240.  244. 


Charmo7i,  iii.  51. 

Chthonius,  iii.  238. 

Cosmetas,  i.  109. 

Croceatas,  i.  249. 

Epidotus,  i.  100. 

Euanemus,  i.  104. 

Hamaggrius,  iii.  189. 

Hypatus,  brazen  statue  at 

Sparta,  iii.  137. 

Hypsistus^  iii.  238. 

— ,  the  Infant^  i.  371. 

—  Ithomatas^  i.  328. 

—  Larisscmis,  ii.  410. 
Lecheatas,  ii.  70. 

LyctBus,  i.  122  ;  sanctity 

of  the  temenus,  310  ;  altar  and 
fable,  311. 




statue.     111. 
the     sacred 

portion  of,  iii.  2. 

Nemeius,    description  of 

the  temple,  iii.  327.  331  et  seq. 
Olympius,    great    temple 

of,  i.  9.  34.  103.  105;  ii.  128. 

Panhellenhis,    iii.    247  i 

temple,  275  ;  magnificent  tem- 
ple at  yEgina,  440. 

Phyxius,  altar  to,  ii.  405. 

Plusius,  i.  182. 

Pythaeus,  ii.  523. 

Soter,  i.  100,211  etseq.; 

ii.  445. 

Sthenius,  altar  of,  ii.  447- 
Teleius,  i.  93. 
TropcBus,  i.  103. 
JCenius,  i.  101. 


Kabato,  mill  of,  ii.  208.  272. 

Kadir-oglu,  village  of,  i.  435. 

Kady,  i.  120  ;  of  Tripolitza,  un- 
just interference  in  matters  of 
property  by  the,  ii.  284,  285. 

Kaio,  Porto, 'i.  203,  204.  289.  295, 
290.  .302.  305— .308.  318. 

Kakaletri,  village  beneath  Tetrazi, 



i.  487  ;  ii- 1 1  ;  Hellenic  walls  at, 

Kakavulia,  district  named  the  land 
of  Evil  Counsel,  i.  291.  335. 

Kaki  Skala,  road  so  named,  iii.  396. 

Kakolangadhi,  convent  of,  ii.  120. 

Kakorema,  river,  i.  438. 

Kakotari,  ii.  230. 

Kakuri,  village  of  Mount  Arme- 
nia, ii.  279  ;  iii.  96. 

Kalagonia,  i.  157-  172- 

Kalamaki,  Bay  of,  iii.  285—287. 

Port,  iii.  308. 

Kalamata,  description  of  the  town 
and  vicinity,  its  climate,  &c.,  i. 
324.  326.  342—362.  388;  ii.  15; 
map  illustrating  the  district  in- 
land from  Kalamata,  iii.  17,  18. 

Kalambokki,  i.  12—15.  23.  46. 102. 
125  ;  cultivation  of,  iii.  353. 

Kalami,  i.  351.  362  ;  the  monas- 
tery of,  ii.  24. 

Kalanisia,  islands  of  the  Corinthiac 
Gulf,  iii.  314.  380. 

Kalanistro,  large  village,  ii.  120. 

Kalano,  village  of,  ii.  120. 

Kalavryta,  town  of,  i.  101.  115; 
its  fine  sources,  ii.  109,  110  ;  the 
vilayeti.  111  ;  river  of,  114;  iii. 
397.  408  ;  site  of  Cyntetha,  179. 

Kalimani,  source  of  the  Ladon  ri- 
ver, ii.  235. 

Kallogria,  castle  of,  its  masonry, 
ii.  163,  164;  the  lake  and  fish- 
ery, 165.  167. 

Kalogrio,  convent  of,  ii.  120. 

Kaloskopi,  called  by  the  Venetians 
Belvedere,  acropolis  of  the  city 
of  Elis,  i.  4  ;  ii.  225. 

Kalpaki,  village  of,  Orchomenus, 
ii.  276 ;  iii.  53.  99.  102.  106 ; 
hiU  of,  99. 

Kaltezia,  village  of,  iii.  24. 

Kamares,  or  Kamari,  village,  i. 
354.  476;  iii.  213;  pyrgo  of 
Nuri  Bey,  384  ;  the  khan,  384, 
385  ;  ancient  ruins,  391. 

Kambasi  on  Mount  Lykodhemo,  i. 

Kambos,  i.  73,  74. 

Kamenitza,  river  of,  ii.  122  ;  vil- 
lage of,  155. 

Kamili,  Cape,  i.  205.  215. 

Kandili,  IVIount,  ii.  277  ;  ^^le  of, 
277;  monastery  of,  iii.  105,  106; 
village  of,  106;  river  of,  122. 

Kapareli,  village  of,  iii.  53. 

Kapitanaki,  Ghiorghio,  i.  315. 

Kapitani,  the,  i.  319. 

Kapitanei,  i.  208. 

Kapitan  Pasha,  i.  45.  316. 

Kapsa,  village  of,  ii.  279  ;  vale  of, 
280,  281. 

Kara  Osman  Oglu,  his  government 
in  Asia  ]Minor,  ii.  23. 

Karamustafa,  i.  75. 

Karavostasi,  metokhi  of  the  con- 
vent of  Nezera,  ii.  159  ;  Hel- 
lenic remains,  160. 

Karina,  i.  287. 

Karitena,  town  of,  i.  83.  116.  346; 
castle  of,  ii.  19  ;  romantic  gorge 
betwixt  the  mountains,  19.  21  ; 
the  suburb  Xero-Karitena,  22  ; 
description  of  the  town  and  cas- 
tle, 22  ;  the  name  Karitena,  292. 

Karlili,  the  musellim  of,  ii.  152. 

Karmiri,  Mount,  ii.  260. 

Karnesi,  village,  ii.  107  ;  gorge  or 
pass,  109.  256  ;  the  name  simi- 
lar in  sound  to  Carnasium,  261  ; 
the  river  of,  261  ;  hill  of,  260  ; 
iii.  181. 

KarteroH,  i.  116. 

Karvela,  i.  255.  257. 

Karya,  village  and  hill  of,  ii.  413  j 
iii.  141. 

Karyatiko,  or  hill  of  Karyes,  i.  486 ; 
a  high  summit  of  Mount  Lycae- 
um,  ii.  11.  27;  its  sides  grown 
with  oaks  and  chestnuts,  31.  70. 

Karyes,  in  the  vilayeti  of  Kari- 
tena, i.  486;  ii.  27.  315. 

Karyopoli,  i.  252.  258.  262.  264. 
267.  280. 

Kassidhi,  ruin  of  a  monument  at, 
iii.  308. 

Kassimi,  near  Sinanu,  i.  42. 

Kastaniain  Mani,  i.  262.  316.  318. 
339;  iii.  115,  116. 

3Iount,  ii.  270.  274 ;  iii. 

103.  125.  148. 

valley,  iii.  114. 

Kastanitza,  town  of,  i.  202.  316  ; 
ii.  504;  pass  of,  523;  iii.  10. 

Kasteli,  village,  ii.  256  ;  plain  of, 
iii.  209. 

Kastelia,  village  and  remains  of  an- 
tiquity, i.  438.  440. 

Kastri,  village  of,  ii.  461 ;  iii.  16 — 

Kastritza,  vestiges  of  a  Hellenic 
fortress  at,  ii.  117. 



Kastritzi,  iii.  I7. 

Kastro  Tornese,  description  of  the 

mined  castle,  ii.  171>  172. 
Katakolo,    Cape,    i.    11.    21  ;    the 

ancient  Ichthys,  ii.  182. 
skala  of,  i.  11.   22.  45. 

Katavothra,  descriptions  of  various, 

i.    201  ;  ii.    275.   317.   328  ;  iii. 

36-40.  55.  13G.  143.  146. 
Katergaki,  i.  299. 
Katjarii,  ii.  235. 
Katjaunianika,  the,  i.  271. 
Katokhori,  i.  130,  131. 
Katilna,  Palea,  ii.  250  ;  river  of, 

Katzana,  or    Katzanes,   river  and 

plain  of,  ii.  262  ;  gorge  of  this 

stream,  264. 
Katzano,  his  pyrgo  at  Skutari,  i. 

235.  268.  270, 
Katzulia,  village,  ii.  104. 
Kavkalidha,  island  near  Cape  Gla- 

rentza,  ii.  175. 
Kaza,  i.  44,  45.  87- 
Kazasi,  the,  i.  44.  72.   196.  342. 

347.  353.  366  ;  of  Modon,  429  ; 

of  Londari,  ii.  42. 
Kefalari,  mills  of,  ii.  3.38. 

river  of,  ii.  340.  34.3. 

Kefalokhoria,  villages  thus  deno- 
minated, i,  148  ;  ii.  110. 
Kefalonfa,  island  of,  i.  309  ;  ii.  16. 

Kekhries,  port  of,  iii.  235  ;  bay  of, 

235.  309. 
Kelefa,  i.  257.  264.  313.  320. 
Kelefina  river,  i.    125,126.  180; 

ii.  522  ;  iii.  26. 
Keradji,  or  carrier,  i.  49. 
Kerasia,  village  of,  iii.  35. 
Keratries,  i.  80. 
Kerpeni,  ii.  105.  113;  ridge  of,  iii. 

Kesari,  village  and  valley,  iii.  225, 

Kesili,  village  of,  iii.  192. 
Khai^ffa,  i.   11.  48.  50,  51.  58.  65, 

66,  68. 
— paleo-kastro  of,  i.  47 — 

53.  427. 
Khalandritza,  village  with  several 

iiiined  churches,  ii.  122. 
Khania,  i.  207- 
Kharatj,  or  capitation  tax,  i.  69- 

Kharia,  i.  285. 

Kharti,  annual ;  or  acquittance  of 

all  direct  taxes,  ii.  278. 
Kharvati,  arrival  at,  ii.  365. 
Khassia,  village  and  monastery,  ii. 


river  of,  iii.  392. 

Khelmos,  descrij)tion  of  this  great 
hill,  with  its  aspect  in  all  quar- 
ters, i.  82  ;  ii.  43,  108.  11.3.  236. 
257.  262.  265.  277 ;  iii.  20.  23. 
40.  168.  172.  182. 

Khimara,  town  of,  i.  269  ;  ii.   64. 

Khio,  i.  131.  347. 

Khlemutzi,  ridge  of  rough  uncul- 
tivated hills,  ii.  170  ;  village,  and 
knoll  on  which  stands  the  Kas- 
tro Tornese,  I7I. 

Khoriasi,  258. 

Khosova,  ii.  252. 

Khotman  Oglu,  i.  10.  45,  46. 

Khotussa,  village  of,  ii.  275  ;  iii, 

Khranapes,  i.  217- 

Khrepa,  i.  88.  100.  116,  11 7. 

Khristea  Khristodhulo,  Captain,  i. 
315.  318.  320.  476. 

Khristodhulos,  the  Proestos,  iii. 

Kineta,  village  of,  iii.  307,  308. 

Kionia,  near  Mazi,  columns  from, 
ii.  169. 

Kita,  village,  i.  336. 

Kitries,  i.  207.  316,  31?.  321.  323, 
324.  332.  348. 

Kiveri,  village,  ii.  477- 

Kladha,  zevgalati,  iii.  12. 

Kleftes,  or  robbers  in  the  I\Iorea, 
i.  380.  474;  ii.  152. 

Klemendi,  village  of,  iii,  225, 

Klenes,  hamlet  near  the  site  of 
Cleouffi,  iii.  325. 

Klidhi,  or  key,  the,  Derveni  so 
named,  i.  58.  484. 

Klima,  village  of  Mount  Kondo- 
vuni,  i.  395. 

KHnitza,  mountain,  ii.  62. 

Klisilra,  i.  75.  78 ;  village  of,  387, 

Klitora,  ii.  256. 

Klitoras,  river  of,  ii.  108. 

Klokos,  mountain,  iii.  184;  hill 
and  village  of,  iii.  403. 

Klukines,  several  villages  named 
the,  iii.  159,  160.  172;  river 
below  the  villages  is  the  Crathis. 



Klukiniatiko,  or  Akrata,  the  river,  | 

Hi.  157. 160. 174. 

Knight,  3Ir.,  i.  9. 
Kokhla,  derveni  or  guard-house  of 
the  pass,   i.   81.  372;  forest  of, 
397.  482.  484  ;  village  of,  ii.  9C. 
Kolina,  village,  ii.  519  ;  iii.  19.  30. 
Kolokotroni,   George,  captain  of  a 
band  of  Kleftes,  or  banditti,   i. 
385.    474 ;    one   of  the    family- 
slain,  ii.  153. 
Kolokythia,  i.  194. 
Kolokythi,  i.  264.  308. 
Kompigadhi,  village,  ii.  119.  121. 
Konak,  i.  221. 
Kondovuni,  Mount,   i.   73,  74.  77, 

78.  366.  382.  395.  420  ;  ii.  12. 
Kondozoni,  hill  near  Coryphasium, 

i.  398.  416. 
Kondurioti,    Captain    George,    i. 

Konidhitza,  village,  iii.  16. 
Konstantinus,  i.  366.  482. 
Koraka,  or  Potami,  port  of,  i.  11. 

Korakolithi,   IMount,  a  summit  of 

Taygetum,  iii.  17- 
Korombili,  Mount,  iii.  314. 

—,  rocky  hill,  iii.  381. 

Koroni,  fortress  of,  i.  80.  240.  251. 
312.  354  ;  olive  trees,  435  ;  in- 
habitants, 436 ;  the  anchorage, 

. village  deriving  its  name 

from  Coronis,  mother  of  jEscu- 
lapius,  ii.  420. 
Koryf i.  Mount,  ii.  385 ;  iii.  220.  259. 
Kotrobutzia,  hamlet  of,  iii.  24. 
Kot5'khi,  i.  11.  46;  fishery  of  this 

lagoon,  ii.  168. 
Krano,  i.  481  ;   route  from  Sinanu 

to,  ii.  297. 
Kravari,  a  rocky  hill  near  Pallan- 
tium,  i.  116.  121;  ii.  47;  iii-  34. 
. a  district  in  u&olia,  popu- 
lation diminished  by  oppressions, 
ii.  152. 
Kremasti,  ii.  497;  "'•  11» 
Kremidhara,  i.  252.  268. 
Kremidhi,  Cape,  i.  205.  211.  219. 
Krevata,  ruin  of  this  opulent  fa- 
mily, i.  130;  death  of  Krevata, 
131 ;  casino,  150  ;  mansion,  326. 

khan  of,  i.  125  ;  iii.  28. 

Krya  Vrysi,  hill  of,  ii.  116  ;  iii.  28. 

Vrysis,    source    of   the   Al- 

pheius,  i.  1 23  ;  iii.  42. 

Kulogli,  ii.  227.  235. 

Kuma,  the  summit  named,  ii.  328. 

Kumani,  ii.  235. 

Kumaro,  Mount,  i.  248.  254.  260. 

Kumunduro  Bey,  i.  317,  318;  his 
defeat  by  Tzanet  Bey,  332.  334. 

Kumusta,  i.  265. 

Kunupeli,  i.  11.  46  ;  port  and  an- 
cient remains,  ii.  168. 

Kunupia,  village,  iii.  11. 

Kurtaga,  village  on  Kondovuni,  i. 

Kurtesi,  village,  iii.  325. 

Kurtissa,  Cape,  i.  261.  320,  321. 

Kurt  Tjaus,  village  of,  i.  354. 

Kurtzolari,  rocky  peak,  ii.  163. 

Kurtzuna,  i.  192.  265. 

Kurunios,  a  village  of  Mount  Ly- 
caeum,  ii.  27- 

Kuskuni,  village  of  iMani,  i.  336. 

Kutufari,  John,  i.  316. 

Kutufarina,  the,  or  Alpheius,  li. 

-  source  of  the,  a  tribu- 

tary of  the  Alpheius,  iii.  22. 
Kutzinii,  village  of,  iii.  23. 
Kutzomadbi,  vineyards  of,  iii.  336. 
Kutzopodhi,  remains  of  antiquity 

at  the  village  of,  ii.  387,  388. 

394.  415. 
Kutzo^•a,  village  of  Taygetum,  i. 

Kutzukumani,  i.  353.  358. 
Kuvala,  i.  75. 
Kuvelo,  pass  leading  to  this  village, 

ii.  114. 
KjTJarissia,   i.  150   ;    village  near 

Karitena,  ii.  27  ;  appearances  of 

an  ancient  site,  28  ;  the  torrent 

Vathyrema,  293.  497- 
Kyparisso,  remarkable  vicinity  of, 

i.  261.  288.  290—308. 
KjTiaki,  Aia,  i.  135—137.   144— 

147.  427. 
Kytries,  i.  237- 
Kyvelaki,  Ghiorghio,  i.  316. 

LACEDiEMON,  observation  of  Thu- 
cydides  respecting  the  city  and 
public  edifices,  i.  159  ;  coinage, 
223.     See  Sparta. 

son  of  Taygete,  he- 

roum  of,  i.  182. 



Lacedasmonia,  metropolitan  see  of, 
i.  114.  187;  the  province,  2G4 

Lacedifmoiiian  army,  constitution 
of  the,  iii.  GO  ;  battles  fought  at 
Mantineia,  GO — 9:). 

Lacedaemonians,  held  the  Helotes 
in  the  light  of  slaves,  i.  199  ;  the 
Dioscuri  venerated  in  Laconia, 
345  ;  subject  towns,  300  ;  con- 
test at  Pylus,  401  ;  martial  dis- 
position the  result  of  the  institu- 
tions of  Lycurgus,  4G1  ;  the 
Spartans  defeated  by  the  Argives, 
ii.  342  ;  478 ;  ruggedness  of  La- 
conia mainly  contributed  to  the 
power  and  inviolability  of  Sparta, 
iii.  25  ;  war  against  Mantineia, 
and  battles  before  that  city,  57- 
63.  90  ;  contest  with  the  Athe- 
nians and  Corinthians  at  Sicyon, 

Laco,  C.  J.,  son  of  Eurycles,  i. 
291,  292. 

Laco-Doric,  i.  301. 

Laconia,  eastern  mountains,  i. 
121;  the  Laconicc,  122;  inva- 
sion of  Philip,  138  ;  invaded  by 
Epaminondas,  143;  description 
by  Euripides,  148;  Dorian  con- 
quest, 163;  the  roads  of,  I7I  ; 
overrun  by  Pvrrhus,  179 ;  sea- 
shore, 212;  cities  of,  22G.  278 ; 
marble  quarries,  249  ;  the  coast, 
273.  304  ;  products,  324  ;  bound- 
ary, 328.  330 ;  earthquakes,  341 ; 
territory  and  possessions,  3G1 — 
3G4 ;  the  Heracleidae,  457  ;  ii- 
469  ;  tour  to  Mistra,  iii.  1  ;  Her- 
mee  marking  the  boundaries  and 
confines,  22  ;  ruggedness  of  the 
coast,  mountains  of  the  inte- 
rior, 25  ;  all  the  passes  lead  to 
Sparta,  2G  ;  invasion  by  the  The- 
bans,  Argives,  and  Eleians,  29. 

Laconic,  Gulf,  i.  194.  301  ;  coast, 
213.  302.  304  ;  mythology,  257  ; 
promontory,  2G2 ;  towns,  277- 
279  ;  winds,  283  ;  Laconic  re- 
pHes,  325. 

Ladas,  tomb  of,  iii.  15 ;  stadium 
of,  96. 

Ladocus,  son  of  Echemus,  ii.  316. 

Ladon,  river,  ii.  59  ;  the  island  of 
Crows,  or  Coraconnasus,  90 ; 
the  Rufea,  95 ;  ford,  99  ;  beau- 
tiful banks,  and  depth  of  the 
stream,  100;  description,  105. 
228  ;  its  source,  235  ;  interest- 


ing  i-emarks,  266  ;  course  and 
tributaries,  273  ;  fountains  of  the 
Ladon,  iii.  139. 

Lady's  Bridge,  the ; — on  the  river 
Ladon^  ii.  105. 

Lafka,  under  the  summit  of  Ski- 
pezi,  iii.  114. 

Lagana,  village,  ii.  227-  231. 

Laghia,  i.  2G3.  273.  308. 

Lago,  the  river,  iii.  408. 

Lago-Potamo,  iii.  174,  175. 

Lagoons  of  recent  formation  on  the 
coasts  of  the  Mori'a,  i.  414  ;  ii. 

Lagovuni,  mountain,  ii.  499. 

Lais,  tomb  of,  iii.  234. 

Lakanadha,  village,  i.  435. 

LaUa,  town  of,  i.  2.  25.  31.  46.  55  ; 
ii.  53  ;  distant  view  of  the  town, 
71.  202. 

Lalusi,  or  Lalusia,  village,  ii.  122. 

Lambiri,  village,  iii.  186 ;  bay  of, 
194;  khan  of,  194.  210;  har- 
bour of,  410.  416. 

Lambri,  or  Easter  Sunday,  i.  351. 

Lambro,  Major,  i,  236.255.271- 

Lamia,  battle  at,  iii.  199. 

and  Auxesia,  expedition  of 

the  Athenians  to  vEgina  to  carry 
oiF  the  statues  of,  ii.  439. 

Lampeia,  mountain  of  Arcadia,  ii. 
62.  183.  237.  253. 

Langadha,  town  of,  i.  320  ;  in  the 
vilayeti  of  Karitena,  ii.  22 ;  river 
of  I^angadha,  95. 

Lapersae,  or  Dioscuri,  i.  257. 

Laphaes  of  Phlius,  statues  bv,  iii. 

Lapi,  i.  75. 

LapitlicBum  of  Taygetum,  iii.  3. 

Lapithus,  an  Arcadian  mountain, 
i.  64.  67,  68.  71. 

Larissa,  the,  at  Argos,  ii.  395  ;  ac- 
curate polygonal  masonry  of  the 
fortress,  395  ;  the  hill  a  conspi- 
cuous feature  of  Argos,  399  ; 
temples  and  monuments  in  the 
Larissa,  408. 

Larissiis,  river  of  the  E/cia,  ii. 
166.  170  ;  its  sources,  183. 

Larysium^  i.  247.  254. 

Las,  i.  257.  273,  274,  275.  277. 

Lasio)i,  city  of,  ii.  200. 

Latona,  i.  48.  106.  161.  168.  485. 

Lavdha,  the  hill  of,  ii.  18;  the  two 
G  G 



villages   thus   named,  near   tlie 

Alpheius,  ii.  19.  25. 
Laura,  monastery  of  St.,  ii.  109. 
Learclius,  i.  1G9. 
LeehcBum,  port  and  bay  of,  iii.  232 

—239.  297-  300—304.  316. 
Leda,  i.  168. 
Leftro,  i.  J62.  315.  320,  321,  322. 

Leghorn,    i.    132.  240,  241,  242. 

317.  ^ 

Lekhena,  i.  10.  40 ;  its  bazar,  and 

mosque  in  ruins,  ii.  168.  238. 
Lekhuri,  ii.  252. 
Leleges,  colony  of,  i.  413. 
Lelex,  i.  102. 

Lenidhi,  mountain  above,  ii.  496. 
Leochares,  i.  37. 
Leodhoro,  or  Lodhoro,  Greek  ruin 

named  the  Castle  of,  ii.  60. 
Leonidaeum,  i.  38. 
Leonidas,  king,  i.  164.  175. 
Leoiitium,  city,  iii.  419. 
Lepreatae,  the,  i.  60  ;  ii.  196. 
Lepreatis,  ancient  district  of,  i.  59, 

60.  484. 
Lepreum,  town  of,  i.  59,  60.  68 ; 

site  of,  56. 
Lepreus,  i.  63. 
Lerna^   ceremonies   in    honour   of 

Ceres,  called  the  Lernaea,  ii.  471 ; 

fountain   at    Corinth,    iii.   241. 

Lernaea,  fire  carried  by  the  Argives 

to  the,  iii.  138. 
Lerne,  ii.  338.  340. 
Lesche,  i.  104,  105.  167. 

Pcecile,  i.  175,  176.  178. 

Lessa^    the  mountain  Arachnwum 

above,  ii.  417  ;  valley  of  Lessa, 

Lestenitza,  river  of,  i.   24 ;  valley 

of,  25. 
Letrini,  the  site  of,  i.  22  ;  lagoon 

of,   ii.    167  ;  vestiges  at  the  vil- 
lage of  St.  John,  187. 
Leuca,  i.  279.     See  Leuce. 
Leucas,  i.  138. 

Leucasia,  the  river,  i.  390.  481 
Leucasium,  vestiges  of,  ii.  272. 
Leuce^  site  of  this  town  in  the  plain 

of  Finiki,  i.  201.  220—230  ;  iii. 

Leucippus,  i.  309,  370. 
Leucone,  monument  of,  and  foun- 
tain Leucon'ms,  ii.  318. 
Leucothea,  the  goddess  Ino,  i.  440 ; 

iii.  239.  291. 

Leuctrum,  or  Leuctra,  site  of  the 
town  of,  ii.  322. 

—  victory  of  the  Thebans 

at  Leuctra,  under  Epaminondas, 
i.  103.  143.  183.  307.328—331; 
iii.  255. 

Leucyanias,  torrent,  ii.  195.  208. 

Levant,  the,  i.  347- 

Levanter,  i.  283.  320. 

Levidhi,  village  of,  ii.  270.  278  ; 
plain  of,  275.  277. 

Lichas,  the  Lacedajmonian,  ii.  332. 

Ligudhista,  i.  248. 

Limeni,  tlie  port  of  Tzimova,  i. 
312.  310. 

Lime-stone,  ancient  buildings  of, 
ii.  5 ;  temple  of  Jupiter  at  Olym- 
pia  of  a  conchite  lime-stone,  0. 

LimncB,  the  ancient,  i.  360.  363, 
304,  365.  461. 

LimncBum,  i.   168.  177.  287. 

Limnatse,  the,  i.  175.  177" 

Limona,  a  village,  i.  232. 

Linistena,  a  large  village  of  Mount 
Fanaritiko,  ii.  15. 

Lion,  cave  of  the  Nemeian,  iii. 
327.  329. 

Liopesi,  village  of,  iii.  354. 

Liva,  or  government,  i.  44,  45. 

Livarzi,  village  of,  ii.  252. 

Livy  quoted,  i.  172.  183.  280. 

Lochi,  or  divisions  of  the  Lacedae- 
monian  troops,  iii.  01.  06. 

Loghi,  village  and  pyrgo,  i.  396. 

Londari,  town  of,  i.  81.  115.  346. 
354.  372.  485  ;  population  of  the 
town  and  description  of  the  dis- 
trict, ii.  42—44.  323;  iii.  I?. 

Longa,  village  in  the  district  of 
Koroni,  i.  438. 

Longaniko,  village  of,  iii.  20. 

Longastra,  town,  i.  125.  150. 

Longo-Potamo,  iii.  228. 

Longoviirdho,  river,  i.  428. 

Lopesi,  village,  ii.  121.  240. 

Loti,  village  of,  ii.  94. 

Love,  temple  and  grove  of,  i.  328. 

Lilbista,  mountain  of,  iii.  194. 

Lucina,  temples  of,  statues,  &c.,  i. 
39.  93.  105.  309  ;  ii.  37.  400; 
temple  and  statue  at  iEgium, 
iii.  188  ;  temple  near  Tenea, 

Lukavitza,  village  of,  ii.  226. 

Luku,  monastery  of,  ii.  486,  487- 

river  of,  ii.  486.  SIL 



£w.«i,  town  of",  in  tlie  neiglibonrhood 
of  the  Styx,  and  Nonacris,  iii. 
Ifi8;  temple  of  Diana,  179;  site, 

Lnsiata^,  the,  ili.  130. 

Liisins,  or  Gortynius,  river,  fable 
resi)ecting  it,  ii.  2!)0. 

Lutra,  the  Bath  of  Helene,  iii. 

Palea,  i.  356,  357-  3G1. 

liycsean  Games,  the,  ii.  310.  314. 

LyccBum,  Mount,  i.  76.  78,  79.  82. 
357.  486.  491  ;  ii.  10  ;  the  lofty 
round  summit  Mount  Dliioforti 
is  the  proper  Lyceum,  19  ;  re- 
mains of  antiquity,  27  ;  descrip- 
tion of  the  Lycaean  mountains, 
70  ;  temple  of  Pan,  310. 

Lycaon,  i.  93. 

Lycimnius,  son  of  Electryon,  ii. 

Lijcoa,  site  of,  ii.  52  ;  remains  of, 
304  ;  properly  Lycaea,  iii.  41. 

hycone^  peaked  mountain,  iii.  341. 

Lycosura,  walls  of,  and  temple  of 
Pan  ;  the  most  ancient  city,  ii. 
309 ;  ruins  discovered  by  Mr. 
Dodwell,  312. 

Lycnrgus,  lawgiver,  of  Sparta,  i. 
158.  166.  170. 

king  of  Sparta,  i.  139. 

141.  362;  iii.  9. 

Lycrtria,  iii.  143. 

Lycus  of  Pharae,  iii.  420. 

liydiades,  of  Megalopolis,  ii.  77- 

Lykodhemo,  Mount,  i.  366.  398  ; 
anciently  Temathia,  435. 

Lykorema,  pass  of,  iii.  129.  134. 

Lykoviini,  i.  191—193. 

Lykureiko,  the,  or  river  of  Lykuria, 
ii.  266. 

livkiiria,  kefalokhori,  ii.  266 ;  iii. 

hill,  iii.  141.  148.  151. 

Lykurio,  Hellenic  walls  on  the 
Anapli  road,  ii.  418;  site  of  Les- 
sa,  419. 

Lyma.r,  the,  a  tributary  stream  to 
the  river  Neda,  i.  491.  ii.  10;  its 
rise,  16. 

Lynceus,  history  of  Hypermnestra 
and  of,  i.  163  ;  their  tomb,  405. 

Lyrceia,  road  to,  ii.  413. 

Lyrcus,  statue  of,  ii.  414. 

Lyres,  ancient,  ii.  250;  of  the  shell 
of  tortoises,  332. 

Lysander  of  Sparta,  i.  169. 


Macaria,  i.  352. 
Macarius,  i.  291.  29.3,  294. 
Macedonians,  i.  179.  273.  280. 
IMachaerion,  account  of  kim,  iii.  82. 
Machanidas,  account  of  his  being 

defeated    and    slain    by    Philo- 

prcmen,  iii.  87  et  seqq. 
Machaon,  i.  329.  345.  370. 
Macistia,  i.  58.  65.  485. 
Macistii,  the,  i.  59. 
Macistus,  or  Platanistus,  i.  60.  428; 

ii.  205. 
Maeander,  river,  i.  147.  440. 
Maeandrus,  river,  i.  491. 
M(B7ialla,  a  division    of   Arcadia, 

iii.  3.3. 
MaenaHi,  the,  ii.  .320  ;  iii.  61. 
Mesnali7im,  the  Plain,  ii.  305. 
Manalus,  city,  ii.  52  ;   road   from 

IMegalopolis  to,   302 ;    ruins  of, 

304  ;  hippodrome  and  stadium, 


Mountain,  or  the  Mee- 

nalinm,  i.  88.  99.  107—118;  the 
mountain  pass  near  Tripolitza, 
ii.  51  ;  its  pines  and  iirs,  55  ; 
its  snow,  275  ;  the  hill  is  sa- 
cred to  the  god  Pan,  303,  304. 

Mcera,  iii.  97. 

Maestrale,  wind,  i.  450. 

Magnesia,  city  of,  i.  147  ;  i'-  23. 

Magiila,  i.  150.  157.  175.  18.3. 

Maguliana,  village  of,  ii.  22.  274  ; 
the  river  is  the  Mylaon,  56.  58. 

3Iahmud  Aga,  i.  341. 

Mahomet  the  Second,  ii.  45.  172. 
275  ;  iii.  17;  his  conquests  in  the 
IMorea,  191. 

Maina,  i.  307,  308.     See  Mani. 

Maize,  i.  15. 

Maini,  i.  186.  264.  .307-  425. 

Makheleria,  the  pass  of,  ii.  118. 

Makho,  hamlet  of,  ii.  176. 

Makryaraki,  or  the  Long  Ridge,  i. 
251.  255.  259. 

Rlakryno,  i.  252.  261.  321. 

IMakrypliighi,  or  Makryplai,  moun- 
tain, i.  78.  346.  354.  372.  388. 

il/ffteff,  a  town  of  the  yEgytis,  ii. 

Malea,  Cape,  i.  205.  213.  215.  226. 
278.  310. 

G  (i  2 



Malekiane,  i.  4G. 

Malevo,  Mount,  i.  88.  124  ;  ii.  5G. 
511;  iii.  17-  33?. 

Malcvri,  i.  257-  2G3. 

Mallus,  river,  unites  with  the 
Synis,  ii.  295. 

Malnisey  wine,  so  named  from  Mal- 
vasia,  or  Monemvasia,  1.  205. 
See  Monemvasia. 

Malcetas,  or  Molottus,  river,  ii.  58. 

Malta,  i.  70-  348. 

Malvasia,  i.  205. 

MamaUlka,  village  of,  ii.  107- 

Mamaiis,  river,  ii.  85. 

Jlanari,  village  of,  iii.  35. 

Mandhra,  or  sheepfold,  i.  488. 

Mandinia,  Palea,  i.  324.  331, 

. Megali,  324. 

Manesi,  village,  ii.  115. 

Mani,  imposts  and  monopolies  re- 
tained by  tlie  bey,  i.  132 ;  fron- 
tier of  this  division  of  the  Morea, 
195  ;  its  eastern  coast,  200  ;  pa- 
cification of  Mani,  209  ;  Andon 
Bey,  and  Tzanet  Bey,  of  3Iani, 

234.  209  ;  the  Gligoraki  family, 

235.  2(;9  ;  state  of  society,  237. 
270  ;  the  Maniates  and  their 
style  of  warfare,  239  ;  agricul- 
tural produce  and  exports,  241, 
242  ;  population,  243  ;  Cape  Ma- 
tapan,  252  ;  pyrgo  of  a  Maniate 
chief,  253  ;  prinokokki  gather- 
ed on  the  hills,  258  ;  observance 
of  fasts,  259  ;  district  of  Mesa 
Mani,  or  land  of  Evil  Counsel, 
260.  262  ;  number  of  towns  and 
villages  stated,  263  ;  Kato  Mani 
and  Exo  Mani,  263;  bishoprics, 
264  ;  disposition  of  the  Maniate 
women,  270  ;  traits  of  a  Kaka- 
vuliote  chieftain,  283.  290  ;  dis- 
trict of  Tzimova,  285  ;  promon- 
tories and  harbour,  286 ;  inte- 
resting ruins  at  Kyparisso,  290  ; 
description  of  the  coasts  of  Mani, 
294 ;  Cape  Tcenarum,  or  Matapan, 
299.  301  ;  Maniate  honey,  305  ; 
the  Kakavuliotes  described,  308; 
captaincies  and  captains  of  Mani, 
315;  best  district  of  Mani,  318; 
modern  Greek  poem  descriliing 
the  manners  and  the  geography 
of,  332-339. 

M anise,  the  goddesses  called,  (the 
Eumeiiides,)  ii.  293. 

Manners,  state  of,  ii.  177- 

ftlanthurenses,  the,  i.  96.  120. 

Manthuric  plain,  the,  ii.  47. 

JMantineia,  general  description 
of  the  public  buildings  of  the 
ancient  city,  its  history,  &c.,  i. 
88.  99—1 15.  324.  377  ;  level  site 
of  the  new  city,  ii.  41  ;  descrip- 
tion of  the  Mantinice,  iii.  45  ; 
roads  from  Argos,  46. 

interesting  details  of 

the  memorable  battles  of,  i.  107  ; 
the  first  action,  iii.  57 — 67  ;  the 
second  action,  76 — 84  ;  the  third 
action,  87—93;  Agesipolis  over- 
turns the  walls  by  a  stratagem, 
69,  70  ;  rebuilding  of  the  city, 
71  ;  the  poh'gonal  masonry,  72; 
retreat  of  Agesilaus  from  before 
the  walls,  73,  7^ ;  victory  of 
Demetrius  Poliorcetes,  84 ;  death 
of  Agis  IV.  king  of  Sparta,  85  ; 
temple  of  Neptune,  and  trophy, 
85  ;  ruins  of  the  ancient  Manti- 
neia,  or  Ptolis,  96. 

Mantinenses,  i.  95.  107  ;  "•  41. 

Mantinic  plain,  ii.  279 ;  the  great, 
iii.  54. 

IMantinice,  approaches  from  the 
Isthmus  of  Corinth  to  the,  i. 
102.  109  ;  iii.  45. 

Map  of  Messenia,  i.  392. 

Maratha,  village,  ii.  289. 

INIarathon,  battle  of,  ii.  330. 

Marathonisi,  its  anchorage,  i.  225  ; 
sea  port  and  fortress,  234  ;  chief 
inhabitants,  235.  240.  253  ;  the 
customs,  243;  the  island,  [Cra- 
nae'\  247  ;  site  of  Migmiium,, 
248  ;  scarlet  dye  an  export,  250. 

—  or   Fennel  island,    i. 


Marble,  white,  temples  of  this  ma- 
terial have  particularly  sulfered 
by  the  masons  of  modern  times 
converting  the  marble  into  stuc- 
co, ii.  27- 

Marbles  and  Antiquities  of  the  Bri- 
tish Museum,  ii.  5. 

Mardonius,  i.  161. 

MarganecB,  town  of,  ii.  193. 

IVIari,  Kato,  answering  to  the  site 
of  Marius,  iii.  11. 

Mariem  Sultana,  ii.  347- 

Marina,  i,  486,  487. 

Marius,  town  of  the  Eleuthero- 
Lacones,  iii.  6  ;   Kato  Mari,   11. 

IMarkasi,  village  of,  iii.  224.  226. 



Marmara,  Sta,  Hellenic  ruins  called 
the,  ii.  515,  51G.  524. 

iii.  40.  42. 

Marmari,  Porto,  i.  295. 

Marmaro,  i.  77-  48G. 

Marmax,  tomb  of  the  horses  of,  ii. 

Maro  and  Alpheius,  i.  1G3. 

Mars,  the  god,  i.  93.  182 ;  altar  of, 
ii.  37. 

• Aphneius,  temple  of,  ii.  31 8. 

Marsyas,  i.  106. 

Mases,  site  at  Kiladhia,  ii.  4C3. 

Masonry,  Hellenic,,  and  remark- 
able wrought  stones  in  Grecian 
walls  and  ruins :  bridge  of  Ma- 
vrozumeno,  i.  480  ;  the  second 
order  of  ancient  masonry  at 
Phigaleia,  497  ;  in  the  castle  of 
St.  Helene,  ii.  18  ;  polygonal 
order  in  the  walls  of  Gortys,  25  ; 
fortifications  on  the  hill  of  Pla- 
tiana  of  the  third  order  of  ma- 
sonry, 82  ;  durability,  180  ; 
Hellenic  polygonal,  339  ;  mason- 
ry styled  Cyclopian,  350.  365  ; 
dimensions  of  some  large  wi'ought 
stones,  371  ;  fine  specimen  of 
the  second  order  of,  395. 

Matapan,  southei'n  cape  of  Europe, 
i.  237.  262.  277.  292—310. 

Matesh,  village  near  Lavdha,  ii. 

MavraVuna,  or  Black  Hills,  ii.  159, 

Litharia,  the  Black  Rocks, 

iii.  387-  390. 

Mavria,  a  village  near  the  Alpheius, 
or  river  of  Karitena,  ii.  27- 

Mavrioro,  mountain  above  Pellene, 

iii.  220.  223.  392. 
Mavrokurla,  i.  193. 
Mavromati,  village  of,  i.  75  ?  ^•n- 
cient  vestiges,  367  ;  rivulet,  376. 
381  ;  inscription,  383  ;  fortifica- 
tions of  Messene,  392.  395. 
JMavromikhali,  Gika,  i.  280.  282. 
284.  290.  295.  305.  315. 

Kyr  Petro,  i.  312. 

Mavro-potamo,  i.  54. 
Mavrovuni,  castle  of  Tzanet  Bey 
at  this  village,  i.  251.  253;  pros- 
pect from  it,  254.  323. 
Mavroyeni,  interpreter,  i.  209. 
Mavrozumeno,  river,  i,  357-  359. 
,372.  478.  481.  483. 

Mavrozumeno,  bridge  of,  descrip- 
tion, i.  479,  480. 

Mazeitika  Kalyvia,  ii.  108.257.  262. 

Mazi,  village  of,  ii.  168.  257.  262. 

Medeia,  iii.  240. 

Medes,  the,  i.  161  ;  iii.  198. 

IMedici,  family  of,  i.  450. 

Medusa,  tumuhis  said  to  contain 
the  head  of,  ii.  406. 

Megalopolis,  capital  of  Arcadia, 
i.  81—85.  116.  121.  123.  156. 
371  et  seq.  ;  ii.  20  ;  picturesque 
valley  and  site  of  the  great  city, 
28  etseq.;  enoi-mous  theatre,  32. 
39  ;  edifices,  and  the  stadium, 
37-  39  ;  source,  36.  39;  masonry 
of  an  interesting  bridge  of  anti- 
quity, 38  ;  walls  and  circum- 
ference, 42  ;  roads  from  ]\Iega- 
lopolis  to  all  the  surrounding 
cities,  comparison  of  the  ancient 
and  modern  localities,  289. 

Megalopolitans,  i.  120.  493. 

Meganites,  river,  iii.  185. 

Megara,  city  of,  iii.  262.  306.  308. 

Megaspilio,  great  convent  formed 
out  of  a  cavern,  ii.  11 1  ;  metokhi 
of  this  convent,  165  ;  architec- 
tural contrivances  of  this  curious 
monastery,  iii.  I76.  211. 

Mehmet  Aga,  a  dehli  bashi,  i.  203. 

commandant  of  Mo- 

thoni,  i.  430. 

of  Patra,  ii.  146. 
Mehmet-Pasha,  named  Vanli,  i.  86. 
Meilichiis,  stream,  ii.  138;  iii.  413. 

Mekka,  Kaaba  of,  i.  45. 
MelcBiiecB,  site  of,  ii.  66.  92  ;  de- 
serted town,  ii.  289. 
Melaneus,  founder  of  (Echalia,  i. 

Melangavi,  or  Black  Cape,  on  which 

stood     the     Heraeum    of    Juno 

Acraea,  iii.  314.  380. 
Melangeia,  iii.  46. 
Melaos,  i.  201. 
3Ieleager,  i.  95. 
Meletius,  errors  of  this  author,  ii. 

Meliastas,  fountain  of  the  ;  temple 

and  orgies  of  Bacchus,  iii.  46. 
Melicertes,  or  Palaemon,   altar  of, 

iii.  289  ;  statue,  290. 
IMeligala,  i.  78. 
Mehgu,  town  of,  ii.  483.  510. 

huts  of  the  Melighi6tika 

kalyvia,  ii.  494. 



Melissi,  i.  25;^. 

Melpeia,  melody  of  the  pipe  disco- 
vered at,  ii.  311. 

Meranonian,  i.  3G8. 

Memphis,  pyramids  of,  ii.  2. 

Menelais,  plane-tree  and  fountain : 
the  tree  planted  by  Menelaus, 
iii.  120. 

Menelaium,  i.  138—141.  178  ; 
Mount,  191. 

Menelaus,  house  of,  i.  165.  182. 
199.  201  ;  his  cities,  454. 

shield  taken  by  him  from 

Euphorbus,  ii.  389. 

Menzil,  the,  i.  49. 

IMercury,    birth    of    the    god,  iii. 


Acacesius,  temple  of,  ii. 


Cyllenius,  temple  of,  iii. 

139.  222. 

Mesolonghi,  its  currant  plantations, 
ii.  141  ;  derivation  of  the  name, 

Mesoriighi,  village  of,  iii.  159.  169. 

Messatis,  ii.  126 ;  its  situation, 

Messe,  or  Messa,  i.  287- 

Messeis,  fountain  called,  i.  182. 

Messene,  description  of  thecitvand 
existing  ruins,  i.  287.  366—383  ; 
wars  with  Lacedsemon,  461 ;  the 
new  town  founded,  472  ;  its 
walls,  473. 

datighter  of  Triopus,    i. 

369.  456.  481. 

Messenia,  chapter  on  this  pro- 
vince, i.  ^8  ;  wheat  crops,  322  ; 
boundary,  328,  329.  303.  305  ; 
exports,  348  ;  Messenian  valley, 
352  ;  ancient  cities,  360.  453. 
457;  invasion,  362 ;  re  •establish- 
ment of  ]Messenian  independence, 
363;  five  divisions  of  IVIessenia, 
364  ;  the  great  Messenian  plain, 
325.  354.  358.  .372.  .382  ;  ancient 
geography,  389  ;  map,  392  ,  to- 
pographical descriptions,  425  et 
seq.  ;  summary  of  the  wars  with 
Sparta,  401  et  seq- ;  the  Anion  of 
Slessenia,  or  valley  of  KokUa, 
described,  484  ;  iii.  227. 

Messenians,  history  and  other  par- 
ticulars of  the,  i."  328.  360—371. 
393.  461—471  ;  ii.  14. 

j\fcssoa,  a  quarter  of  Sparta,  i. 

Messoatae,  the,  i.  175.  177- 

Messola,  i.  453.  457-  459. 

Metayer,  system  of  cultivation  by 
the,  ii.  144,  145. 

Methana,  peninsula  of,  ii.  442. 

or  Methane^  ii.  453. 

Methe,  or  Intoxication,  painting 
of,  ii.  421. 

Methone.  See  Mothoni.  i.  428. 

Methydrium,  important  town  of 
Arcadia,  ii.  67'  59 ;  route  from 
IMegalopoHs,  299  ;  founded  by 
Orchomenus,  300. 

3Iet6khi,  i.  306. 

Metrophanes,  i.  214. 

Metroum,  or  temple  of  the  Mother 
of  the  Gods  at  Olympia,  i.  35, 
36.  38. 

Mezapo,  i.  280.  286,  287.  310. 

Micleia,  situation  of,  ii.  418. 

Migonium,  i.  247,  248. 

Mikri  Mandinia,  i.  324. 

Mila,  i.  78,  79. 

Milea,  town  of,  i.  261—264.  316. 
320.  339. 

Milesii,  the,  i.  320. 

Milia,  i.  261. 

Military  architecture,  ii.  386  ;  spe- 
cimen of  a  perfect  Hellenic  for- 
tress, 419. 

force    of   the   Morea    in 

1805  0,  ii.  283. 

Milo,  i.  200. 

IMina,  village  of,  i.  287.  346. 

Minerva,  temple  and  statue  of  the 
goddess  at  Sparta,  i.  162,  163  ; 
her  temple  and  statue  at  Aliphe- 
ra,  ii.  75-  77>  79  ;  intaglio  of  the 
goddess  armed,  80  ;  temple  at 
Triti«a,  118;  temple  and  statue 
at  Dyme,  162  ;  at  Epidaurus, 
212  ;  at  Gythium,  246  ;  statue 
of  JMinerva  wounded,  with  the 
purple  bandage,  290  ;  iii.  265  ; 
sculpture  on  the  Panhelleniuni 
of  yEgina,  ii,  466  ;  iii.  238;  tem- 
ples, 363  ;  statue  at  yEgeira, 

temples  and  statues  of 

the  goddess  under  various  de- 
nominations, and  local  dedica- 
tions : — 

Agoraa,  i.  161. 

Alea,  celebrated   temple 

of,  i.  92—107.  143.  300.  328  ;  ii. 

Aiiemotis^    temple    and 

statue,  i.  432. 



Wiiierva  Asia,  i.  273,  274. 

AxiojKenus,  i.  XiYJ. 

Celctdheia,  i.  1G2. 

— ChalcicEGus,  temple  in  the 

Acropolis  of  Sparta,  i.  161).  446. 

Chalhutis,  iii.  240.  249. 

-Cisscea,  remarkable  wood- 

en statue  of,  ii.  430. 

Coria,  ii.  260. 

Coryplicea,  ii.  418. 

-  Cyparissia,  i.  72.  226. 


Eryune,  i.  169. 

Hippia,  i.  96. 

Machanilis,  ii.  303. 

■ Ophthalmitis,  i.  I70. 

Oxyderces,  ii.  410. 

Panachais,     temple 

statue,  ii.  128. 

Pareia,  statue,  iii.  14. 

Polias,     her    temple     at 

Athens,  ii.  5. 

■ Poliatis,  i.  93. 

Sa'itis,  temple  of,  ii.  174. 

Salpinx,  ii.  406. 

Sciatis,  ii.  299. 

Soteira,  temple  on  Mount 

Boreium,  iii.  34. 

Sthenias,  ii.  445. 

Tritonia,  iii.  136. 

—  the  fort  of,  iii.  416. 

Minoa,  i.  210.  212—215. 

Minthe,  the  hill  of,  i.  59.  68  ;  ii. 

Minyae,  i.  67. 

Minyas,  treasury  of,  at  the  Boeotian 
Orchomenus,  ii.  378  ;  its  con- 
struction and  key-stone,  379. 

Minyeius,  the  river,  i.  60.  05.  419- 

Miraka,  village  of,  i.  25.  32 ;  ii. 

Mirrors,  Greek,  ii.  131. 

Mistra,  town  of,  i.  125  ;  local  go- 
vernment, 126;  the  castle,  127; 
Misokhori  and  Katokhori,  130; 
the  inhabitants,  149  ;  name  of 
Mistra,  186;  produce,  196,'  cy- 
presses, 218  ;  merchants,  250  ; 
the  bishop,  258 ;  inscription, 
287  ;  family  of  KrevatS,  326  ; 
earthquakes,  341.  347  ;  ii-  282  ; 
Castle  of  IMistra  revisited,  iii.  1  ; 
the  town  on  the  site  of  Messe, 
5 ;  inscription  suggesting  this 
idea,  6 ;   important  post,  27. 

Blocenigo,  Aloys,  his  tower  at  the 
great  port  of  yEgina,  ii.  439. 

Mohammed  Bev,  i.  191. 

IMolaitiko  Pyrgo,  i.  228. 

INIolaos,  i.  222. 

Moldavia,  i.  209. 

Molottus,  river,  ii.  58. 

Molycria,  an  jEtolian  town  situated 
on  the  cape  Antirrhium,  ii.  150. 

Monemvasia,  wheat,  i.  196  ;  the 
hills,  201,  202 ;  origin  of  the 
name  of  this  fortress,  203 ;  the 
bay,  205 ;  visit  to  Palea  AIo- 
nemvasia,  the  niins  of  Ejndau- 
rus  Limeru,  210;  the  port,  211. 
213.  215  ;  sepulchres  of  the  Epi- 
daurii,  210  ;  the  citadel,  218  ; 
Tui'kish  proprietors,  221  ;  eccle- 
siastical province,  264.  307. 

Money,  table  of  Greek,  i.  16. 

Monks  in  the  Morea,  their  condi- 
tion and  possessions,  i.  385. 

Monoladha,  village,  and  tower  ap- 
proached bv  a  draw-bridge,  ii. 

MoHEA,  the  establishment  of  a 
Frank  principality,  Venetians 
and  French,  i.  10;  Mora,  or  the 
IMorea,  governed  by  a  vezir,  45  ; 
its  towers,  or  pyrgi,  50  ;  date 
of  the  name  Morea  for  the  Pelo- 
ponnesus, 186.  425  ;  Greek  anec- 
dote, 188  ;  buffaloes,  197  ;  salt- 
petre, 200  ;  insurrection,  208  ; 
Albanian  costume,  209,  210  ; 
price  of  wheat,  218.  341  ;  Italian 
nomenclature  of  the  harbours, 
219.  .300;  population  of  3Iani 
and  of  the  Morea,  243,  244  ; 
system  of  government,  272  ; 
commerce,  324  ;  inland  trade, 

march    of   Mahomet    II. 

through  it  in  1458,  ii.  275;  his 
conquests,  iii.  191. 

account  of  the  Pashalik, 

ii.  346,  347. 

Pasha  of  the,  exeaition 

commanded  by  him,  iii.  338. 

castle  of  the,  ii.  147;  iii. 

414  ;  it  is  called  Kasteli,  iii.  195. 
Morno,    river,    near    'Epakto,    ii. 

Morritt  of  Rokeby,  Mr.,  i.  313. 
Mostenitza,  village  of,  ii.  239.  241. 
3Iostitza,  torrent  and  orchards  of 

this  village,  ii.  255,  256. 
Mosto,  lake  of,  ii.  483  ;  river,  484  ; 

the  marsh,  495. 
jyiother  of  the  Gods,  the,   i.  163. 

23  L  369 ;  her  temple  at  fliega- 



lopolis,  ii.  33 ;  altar,  308  ;  roof- 
less temple,  ii.  31?  ;  temple,  iii. 

Mothoni,  i.  131  ;  expedition 
against,  208  ;  district,  429 ;  the 
sea-port  and  fortifications,  430. 

Moukhla,  bishop  of,  i.  114,  115. 

Movri,  Mount,  a  root  of  'Olono,  ii. 
155.  1G5.  184. 

Mukata,  i.  11. 

Mukatasi,  i.  14,  15. 

Mukhla,  or  Mokhli,  ruins  of,  ii. 
335  ;  captured  bv  Mahomet  II., 

Mulki,  tower  of,  iii.  382. 

Mulberry  plantations,  ii.  50  ;  gar- 
den at  Lekhena,   1G9. 

Mullet,  the  gray,  i.  440  ;  ii.  100. 

Mummius,  Lucius,  i.  304  ;  marble 
inscribed  with  his  name,  ii.  48. 

,  capture  of  Corinth  by, 

iii.  231.  292. 

Munychia,  iii.  232. 

Museium,  or  Sanctuary  of  the 
3Iuses,  at  Troezen,  ii.  443. 

Muses,  statues  of  the,  i.  169.  369  ; 
ii.  36,  37. 

Museum,  British,  frize  from  Bas- 
see,  ii.  5. 

Music,  the  influence  of,  iii.  129. 

Mustafa  Aga,  i.  3.  46.  50;  ii.  71- 

Bey,  of  Koroni,  i.  436. 

■ Pasha,   made   prisoner  at 

Abukir,  iii.  409. 

Mycen^t,,  city  of,  i.  256  ;  the  de- 
scription by  Pausanias  accords 
with  actual  appearances,  ii.  365  ; 
position  on  a  rugged  height, 
366  ;  the  extant  ruins  date  from 
the  Heroic  ages,  369  ;  the  Gate 
of  Lions,  365.  369  ;  the  Spilia, 
or  treasury,  374  ;  breccia  stone 
of  the  ruins,  376  ;  excavations 
by  Lord  Elgin  and  Mr.  Cocke- 
rell,  373.  377  ;  similar  treasu- 
ries, 382-384;  they  are  called 
the  Furni,  or  Ovens,  385. 

Mylaon,  river,  receives  the  yus, 
the  Achelons,  the  Celadiis,  and 
Naphihis,  ii.  58.  301.  311.  316. 

or  Molottus,  ii.  271. 

]Myron  of  Priene,  i.  461. 

IVIyi'opolis,  the  stoa  so  named,  ii. 

Myrsinus,  town  of  the  Epeil,  ii. 
169.  182. 

IMyrtia,  village  of,  i.  22. 

Myrtihis,  sepulchre  nf,  iii.  13/. 

Myrtle,  fable  of  Phaedra's,  ii.  445. 
Myrtoessa,  statue  of  this  nymph, 

ii.  35. 
Myrtuntium^  the  Homeric  Myrsi- 

Ttus,  ii.  169.  182. 
MyscBum,   festival    in    honour    of 

Ceres  at,  iii.  219.  223. 
3Tysia,  and  temple  of  Ceres  Mysia, 

ii.  392. 
Mytilini,  i.  317- 
Myzithra,  i.  186.  307-  425. 


NaBis,  i.  173.  178.  280;  ii.  525  ; 

his  battle  fought  against  Philo- 

pcemen,  iii.  89. 
Naia,  i.  275. 

Napoleon,  the  Emperor,  i.  314. 
Nasi,    the    place   named,    ii.   270, 

271  ;  explanation   of  this  word, 

272  ;  sources  of  the  river  Tragus 
at,  iii.  119.  122. 

Navarin,  or  Navarino,  i.  70.  74. 
344.  366.  399 ;  visit  to  the  for- 
tress of  Neokastro,  400  ;  name 
explained,  411  ;  iii.  186.  See 

Nuupactus,  town  of,  i.  369.  371- 
471  ;  strait  of,  iii.  208. 

Nauplia,  iii.  232.     See  Anapli. 

Naxia,  island,  i.  310. 

Neda,  sources  and  tributaries  of  the 
river,  i.  56—59.  72,  73.  76.  345. 
371.  469.  485-492  ;  ii.  10.  15. 

the  nymph,  ii.  35.  310. 

Nedon,  i.  344,  345. 

Neith,  held  in  honour  at  Sais,  ii. 

Neleus  and  the  Pelasgi  occupy  Fy- 
Itis,  i.  413.  456. 

tomb  of,  iii.  291. 

Nemea,  grove  of,  i.  34  ;  river,  iii. 
228.  373;  the  plain  and  great 
temple  of  Jupiter,  also  vestiges 
of  the  Stadium,  330. 

Nemeian  forest,  the,  iii.  329. 

games,  the,  iii.  327-  333. 

Neokastro,  fortress  of,  i.  74  ;  aque- 
duct of,  398  ;  the  skala,  399  ; 
the  fortress,  400. 

Neokhori,  with  a  pvrgo  of  Shem- 
seddin  Bey,  i.  258.  267  ;  "•  170- 
326,  327. 

Neptune,  his  temple  at  IMantineia, 
i.  102.  Ill  ;  the  Lake  of  Nep- 
tune, 247  ;  statue,  299  ;  temple 



and  grove  at  Taenarum,  300. 
302  ;  temple  at  Messene,  3G9  ; 
temples  on  Rhium  and  Antirrlii~ 
urn,  ii.  150  ;  picture,  189  ;  fable 
respecting  the  dryness  of  the  Ar- 
golic  plain,  367.  458  ;  oaken 
temple,  iii.  49  ;  the  Posidium 
near  Mantineia,  85 ;  at  Orcho- 
menus,  100.  317  ?  his  temples 
frequently  stood  on  capes.  111; 
destruction  of  Helice  and  Bura 
ascribed  to  the  anger  of  Nep- 
tune, 154  ;  his  statues  at  Le- 
chaeura  and  at  Cenchreiae,  233  — 
— 239 ;  his  contention  with  Apol- 
lo for  Corinth  ;  his  temple  at 
the  Isthmus,  248  ;  description 
of  the  Posidonium,  28G  -  292  ; 
the  temple  burnt,  317  ;  statue 
of  Neptune  at  Helice  ;  his  anger 
against  that  city,  400. 

Asphalius,  i.  161. 

Domatitcs,  i.  166. 

— ^ Epoptas,  ii.  38. 

Gceauchus,   i.    144.    174. 

182.  246  ;  temple  at  Sparta,  iii. 

Genesius,  ii.  477-  481. 

• Genethlhis,  i.  167. 

Heliconius,  iii.  211  ;  ve- 
nerated by  the  lonians,  iii.  401. 

Ilippius,  ii.  58;  iii.  49. 


Hippocurius,  i.  165. 

Phytalmius,  ii.  447. 

Pronclystius,  ii.  406. 

Samius,  temple  of,  i.  59, 

60.  428. 

Tanarms,    temenus,     i. 

162;  temple,  300. 

Nereides,  the  nymphs,  iii.  291. 

Nereus,  i.  246.  329. 

Neris,  town,  ii.  478.  493.  510. 

Nero,  the  Emperor,  1.  42  ;  ii.  474  : 
revolution  effected  l)y  him  in  the 
condition  of  Greece,  iii.  204, 
205  ;  his  attempt  to  cut  a  canal 
across  the  Isthmus  of  Corinth, 
298,  et  seq. 

Nerovitza,  castle  of,  a  Hellenic  site, 
ii.  68 ;  delineation  of  the  for- 
tress, 72  ;  ruins  of  Aliphera,  74. 
79;  the  hill  of  Nerovitza,  81. 

Nestane^  village  of ;  camp  of  Philip 

son  of  Amyntas,  iii.  47.  54.  62 ; 

hill  of,  81. 

Nestor,    i.  329.    370 ;    house   and 

monument  of  the  king  of  Pylus, 

413 ;  juvenile  exploits,  418.  456 ; 
his  battle  with  the  Arcadians,  ii. 
191.  199. 

Nezera,  pass  of,  ii.  118;  village 
called  Great  Nezera,   120. 

Nicephorus  Gregoras,  i.  307. 

Nicetas,  Captain  of  the  Kleftes,  i. 
205.  215;  iii.  21.  .36. 

Nicholas,  St.,  a  high  peaked  moim- 
tain  near  Neokastro,  i.  428 ; 
monastery  of,  iii.  20. 

Nicias,  i.  370  ;  painting  by,  ii. 

Athenian   commander,  iii. 

309,  310. 

Nicippe,  i.  I07. 

Nicomachus,  i.  344. 

Nicomedes,  i.  370. 

Nicopolis,  colony  founded  by  Au- 
gustus, ii.  124.  127. 

Nicostratus,  defeats  the  Macedo- 
nians under  Androstlienes,  iii. 

Nightingales,  in  the  Peloponnesus, 
ii.  80. 

Niko,  Kyr,  of  Vyzitza,  ii.  97- 

Nikoraki,  Konstantino,  i.  315. 

Nile,  its  origin  in  ^Ethiopia,  ii. 

Nimnitza,  stream  descending  from, 
ii.  56  ;  ancient  walls,  57  ;  moun- 
tain above  the  village,  58. 

Nisi,  town  of,  i.  74.  197-  348.  353, 
354.  358.  365.  380.  476  ;  river 
of,  or  the  Great  River,  i.  482. 

Nomia,  i.  287.  310 ;  mountains 
and  temple  of  Pan  Noraius,  ii. 

Nomian  mountains,  the,  ii.  27- 
311.  315. 

Nonacris,  DipoencB,  and  Callicc,  the 
townships  of  the  Tripolis,  ii. 

in     Arcadia,    near     the 

river  Styx,   iii.    156.    162.    164, 



daughter  of  Lycaon,  iii. 

Notarci  of  Trikkala,   proprietor  of 
currant  plantations,  ii.  348. 

,  Dr.,  iii.  221.  264. 

Pauiitzo,  his   library,   iii. 


Sotiraki,  iii.  221. 

Notena,  monastery  of,  ii.  234. 
Nuri  Bey,  of  Corinth,  i.  341  ;  ii. 

114.    117.    227;    iii-    2.57-263. 

285 ;    refuses  permitsiou  to  the 



Authoi-   to  visit    the   Acro-Co- 
rinthus,    iii.    267  ;    ^is    palace, 
26 1  ;  his  possessions,  33G. 
Nussa,  river  of,  ii.  241. 
Nymphas,  sources,  ii.  294.  297- 
iV«/OT;j/taj«a,  fouutain,  iii.  118. 


Oaks,    forests    of   the    Mantinic 

Plain,  ii.  334. 
:  the  forest  Scotita,  ii.  515. 

Oak  trees,  dwarf,  ii.  20  ;  forest,  ii. 

159 ;  the  ancient  forest    Soron, 

249  ;  various  kinds  in  Arcadia, 

iii.    51  ;    the   oak   of    Dodona, 

Octavia,  sister  of  Augustus,  temple 

of,  iii.  238.  244. 
Odeium  at  Patrse,  ii.  128.  133 ;  of 

Herodes  at  Athens,  128. 

at  Corinth,  iii.  240. 

Odyssey,  quotations  from   the,   i. 

(Ea,  in  the  island  of  ^gina,    ii. 

(Eantheia^  town  of,  iii.  387. 
(Ebalus,  i.  167- 
ffihotas,  distich  upon  his  statue  at 

Olympia,  ii.  162. 
(Echatia,  i.  391.  454,  455. 
(Edipus  exposed  by  Laius,  iii.  321. 
CEniadcB  in  Acarnania,  iii.  132. 
Qlnoe,  or  Boenoe,  near  the  river  Pe- 

neius,  i.  7  ;  ii-  193. 
the    mountain  Artemisium 

above,  with  a  temple  of  Diana, 

ii.  412,  413. 

. fortress  of,  iii.  314—320. 

(Enomaus,  sepulchre  at  Olympia, 

and  stable  of,  i.  29. 
(Enus,  i.  181.     See  Babyca.    The 

river,  [or  the  Kelef  ina,]  ii,  531  ; 

iii.  26. 
CErMSSce,  islands,  i.  433.  443. 
(Etylus,    i.    300.    302.    313.    327- 

Oil,  the  produce  of  Filiatra,  i.  74 ; 

of  Mothoni,  433  ;  exported  from 

Koroni,  437. 
Olbius,  river,  iii.  117;  trench  dug 

by  Hercules,  136.  142. 
'Olenus,  Bishop  of,  i.  10. 
— ■  fllount,  the  sources  of  the 

Peirus  and  Selinus  rivers,  ii.  254 ; 

site  of  the  town,  ii.  121.  15G. 

Oligarchies  and  democracies  of  an- 
cient (ireece,  iii.  203. 

Oligyrtus,  remains  of  the  castle  of, 
iii.  114;  mountain  and  pass,  129. 

Olive  tree,  called  Strepte,  twisted 
by  Hercules,  ii.  417. 

OlmicB,  Cape,  iii.  314. 

'Olono,  range  of  mountains,  i.    4. 

24.  128;  ii.  114;  the  highest 
summit,  118;  easiest  ascent  to 
it,  121  ;  various  summits  de- 
scribed, 184,  185.  195. 

Olurus,  a  maritime  castle  depend- 
ent on  Pellene,  i.  484  ;    iii.  224. 

Olympia,  i.  4.  23 — 33.  35 ;  i-uins 
at,  32.  40—44.  58.  369.  491. 

Olympiad  of  Coroebus,  i.  8. 

Olympias,  the  fountain,  ii.  291. 

Olympus,  i.  142  ;  the  Sacred  Sum- 
mit, ii.  310;  it  is  Mount  Dhio- 
forti,  or  Lyca'um  Proper,  313. 

Omblos,  monastery  of,  ii.  123. 

Omer  Tjius,  gardens  of  this  village, 
iii.  325. 

Omphalion,  i.  370. 

Oucus,  ruler  in  Onceium,  ii.  102. 

Oneia,  the  mountains,  iii.  307-  311. 

Oneitim,  or  Geruneia,  mountain,  its 
passes  seized  by  Peisias  the  Ar- 
give  leadei',  iii.  255,  256.  311. 

Onugnathus,  Cape,  i.  215.  226, 

Opheltes  and  Lycurgus,  sepulchres 
of,  iii.  327. 

Ophis,  Agesipolis  turning  this  river 
against  the  walls  of  IVIantineia 
overthrows  them,  i.  103;  ii.  280; 
iii.  56.  70 ;  katavothra  of  this 
stream,  ii.  54. 

Opus,  town  of,  ii.  202.  204. 

Oracle,  Delphic,  i.  1 80.  469 ;  iii.  82. 

Orchomeiiia,  the,  i.  101  ;  embank- 
ment and  chasm  at  Nasi,  iii.  1 19. 
127,  128. 

Orchomenus,  the  site,  ii.  276  ;  an- 
cient city,  iii.  99  ;  the  lake,  99  ; 
the  plain,  96.  99  ;  the  northern 
plain,  102. 

of  Boeotia,  treasury  of 

Minyas,  ii.  378. 

Orchomenus,  founds  Methydriuniy 
ii.  59. 

Orders  observable  in  the  Hellenic 
masonry  of  different  ages  and 
perfection  :  the  second,  or  poly. 
goHal  order,  walls  of  Gorlys,  ii. 

25.  See  Masonry, 



Orestes,   i.    IGl.    247 ;  insane,  ii. 

293,294;  sepulchre  of;  liis  bones 

removed  to  Sparta,  332 ;  tent  of, 

a  building  at  Trcpzen,  444. 
Oresthasium,  i.  491  ;  the  temple  of 

Diana   Hiereia,  ii.  317  ;    Ores- 

teium  on  IMouiit  Tzimbaru,  318. 
Orems,  I\Iount,  iii.  130.  142  ;  now 

called  Skipezi,  151. 
Oriolos,  village  of  JMount   Movri, 

ii.  163;  the  river,  ICG. 
Orlov,  expedition  of  the  Russians 

to  the  Morea,  i.  208. 
(h-necB,  temple  of  Diana  in,  ii.  414 ; 

town  and  river  of,  iii.  350,  351. 
Oros  of  jEgiua,  the,  ii.  433. 
Orthokosta,  convent  of,  ii.  502. 
Ortilochus  of  PharcB,  i.  343. 
Oryx,  town  of,  ii.  271,  272. 
Osm^n,  hodja-khcin,  ii.  64. 
Ostrucine,  cavern    of  the  hill,    ii. 

Ovens  the ;  caverns  thus  named, 

iii.  13. 
Ovid,  quoted  respecting  Helice  and 

Bura,  iii.  399. 
Ovrio-nisi,  or  Ovrio-kastro,  island 

of,  iii.  313. 
Oxiit,  peak  on  the  coast  near  Me- 

sol6nghi,ii.  1G3;  island Oxia,  163. 
Oxylus  the  ^tolian,  i.  C.  8  ;  tomb 

of,  ii.  223. 


Pabaka,  i.  285. 

rwstum,  or  Posidmiia,  description 
and  dimensions  of  the  temples  at, 
I      i.  98.  134;  ii.  4;  iii.  277- 

Painting  of  the  Argonauts,  by  Mi- 
con,  iii.  50. 

Paintings,  of  the  school  of  Sicyon, 
iii.  361. 

Pdlcea,  town  of,  iii.  6 ;  named  Pleia 
by  Livy,  8. 

Pala-mon,  or  flielicertes,  iii.  239  ; 
his  altar,  289 ;  he  is  carried  by 
the  dolphin,  289,  290  ;  his  sanc- 
tuary restored  by  P.  L.  P.  Ju- 
ventianus,  291 — 296. 

Palamedes,  son  of  Nauplius,  ii.  358. 

Palamidhi,  steep  and  lofty  moun- 
tain :  this  name  is  connected  with 
the  traditionary  history  of  Nau- 
l)lia,  ii.  358  :  the  Author  obtains 
jiermission  to  visit  the  fortress  ; 
description,  360. 

Palati,  or  the  Palace,  a  ruin  near 

the  bank  of  the  river  Alpheius, 

ii.  87. 
Palatine  Hill,  i.  118. 
Palea  Bukha,  i.  11. 

Lutra,  i.  356,  357. 

Paleo  Episkopi,  i.  86.  99. 
Paleo-Anapli,  ii.  350. 
Paleofanaro,  Hellenic  site,  ii.  210. 
Paleokastro,  a  general  modern  name 

for   Hellenic  sites  and   ruins,  i. 

47.  52.  83.  117.  354.  356.  360 ;  ii. 

Paleokhora,  i.  311. 
Paleopoli,  coins  offered  at,  i.  5.  100 

—  112,  244.  248.   251.   259;   ii. 

219.  225. 
Paleovuni,    Mount,  in  jEtolia,  ii. 

Paliuri,  the  shrub  :  rhamiuis,  orzi- 

zyphus  Faliurus,  ii.  90.  HI. 
Palladium,  the  statue  of  Minerva 

at  Argos,  brought  from  Troy,  ii. 

Pallantium,  Plain  muddy  and  rug- 
ged, iii.  35. 
site  of  the  citv,  i.  100. 

112—115.  119;  iii.  36.' 
Pallas,  i.  119. 

Palus,  or  Polus,  plain  of,  ii.  300. 
FamisKS,  river,  i.  68.  328.  360,  361. 

364,  365.    368  ;   its  rise  to  the 

southward  of  Skala,    390 ;    de. 

scription,     439.     444  ;    sources, 

478.  482. 
Pan,  deity  of  Arcadia,  i.  122 ;  ii.  75; 

statue  of  Pan   Si/noeix,   ii.   32 ; 

Scoleitas,  33  ;  Lyternts,  446. 
temple  of,  ii.   303  ;    Mount 

Mffinalium,  sacred  to,  304. 
perpetual  lire  maintained  be- 
fore his  statue,  309  ;  temple  of 

Pan  Nomius,  311. 

the  god,   his    appearance  on 

Mount  Parthenium,ii.  330,  331 ; 
oak  sacred  to  Pan,  332. 

and  Bacchus,  worshipped  at 

the  sources  of  the  Erasinus,  ii. 
341,  342. 

his  temple  on  Lycaeum,    ii. 


Panachaicum,  JMount,  ii.  139.  154. 

Panaghia,  '  on  the  Precipice,'  mo- 
nastery of,  iii.  336. 

Pandeleimona,  the  torrent,  near 
yparta,  i.  127—131.  150;  its 
rocky  opening,  iii.  1. 

I'auhelleuium,  dimensions  and  stvh^ 



of  architecture  of  the  temple  of 
Jupiter  Pan/iellcnius,  iii.  275. 

Panhelleuium  of  /Egiua,  its  sculp- 
tures, ii.  4G6. 

Panitza,  i.  25?.  267- 

Panormus,  the  port,  iii.  413 ;  naval 
action,  415. 

Panormus,  Port,  iii.  195. 

Papa,  Cape,  lagoon  near,  ii.  ICO  ; 
the  promontory,  iii.  207,  208. 

Papadha,  Hellenic  ruins  at  this  vil- 
lage, ii.  92. 

Papadhopulo,  or  Papasoghi,  i.  87  ; 
Kyr  lanni,  ii.  114.  284. 

Paparagopulo,  Dhimitri,  i.  80. 

Papari,  i.  83  ;  village,  ii.  45 ;  iii. 
24.  40. 

Paphia,  i.  327- 

Papasoghi,  Anagnosti,  governor  of 
Aios  Petros,  i.  100. 

Paputzi,  tjiftlik  of,  iii.  3V.  34. 

Paracyparissii,  i.  227. 

Paradhisi,  village,  iii.  354. 

ParcBbasium,  the  sepulchre  of  Me- 
galopolitans,  slain  by  Cleomenes, 
ii.  290.  292. 

Parakhora,  i.  257. 

Parasiro,  i.  258. 

Paraskevi,  Aia,  i.  69.  TG. 

Paravunaki,  ridge  of,  ii.  337. 

Parnon,  Mount,  now  Malevo  of  St. 
Peter's,  i.  137;  ii.  491  ;  iii.  42. 

Paromia,  village  of  Mani,  i.  336. 

Paroreatae,  i.  (iO.  67. 

Paroria,  built  by  Paroreus,  ii. 

Parrhasia  and  Eutresii,  named  by 
Homer  as  cities,  ii.  320. 

Parrhasii,  the  ;  towns  colonized  by 
them,  ii.  320,  321. 

Parthcnia,  river,  ii.  209.  211. 

Parthenium,  Mount,  i.  89.99.  114. 

Parthenium,  rugged  rocks  of  the 
pass  of ;  now  called  the  Partheni 
derveni,  ii.  329;  kiosk  and  foun- 
tain, 330. 

Parthenon,  the,  i.  27.  9?.  493 ; 
beauty  of  the  masonry,  ii.  3.  6.  8 ; 
can  be  distinctly  seen  from  the 
Acro-Coi'inthus,  iii.  259. 

Pasha-Vrysi,  or  Fountain  of  the 
Pasha,  ii.  296,  297. 

Pasha  of  the  Morea,  ii.  152;  his 
dispersion  of  the  banditti,  282  ; 
his  discipline  of  civil  officers, 
283;  344;  payment  for  his  ap- 
pointment, 346. 

Pashi  Capitan,  i.  204.  208.  243. 
269.  271. 

fountain  of  the,  i.  81.  327. 

Pasqualego,  Mr.,  i.  68. 

Passage  from  Vostitza  to  Xylo- 
kastro,  iii.  210,  et  seq. 

Passava,  plain  of,  i.  251,  252  ;  visit 
to  the  ruins,  254  ;  the  fort  of 
Passava,  255  ;  Hellenic  wall  in 
the  ruined  fortress,  256 ;  pro- 
spect from  the  hill,  257 ;  plant 
growing  on  tlie  hill,  and  resem- 
bling asparagus,  25t) ;  the  river, 
260.  264.  266;  Mount  Asia, 
276  ;  the  river  Smenus,  277- 

Patissia,  i.  201.  222.  230. 

Patra,  metropolitan  of,  i.  10. 

or  Patras,  the  Putrce  of  the 

ancients,  i.  88.  127.  131  ;  its 
name,  monuments,  edifices,  and 
records,  ii.  123.  125,  ciscy. ;  its 
population,  140;  town  unhealthy, 
142  ;  villages  in  the  district  of 
Patra,  144  ;  agriculture,  the  me- 
tayer, 144.  348;  iii.  195.  207— 

PatroB,  iii.  227. 

Patreus,  founder  of  Patra,  ii.  126  ; 
his  sepulchre,  128. 

Paus,  ruins  of  the  fortress,  ii.  249, 

Pausanias,  monument  of,  i.  1 64. 

king  of  Sparta,  ii.  202. 

corrupt  text  of,  ii.  287- 

describes  an  action  fought  at 
Mantineia,  iii.  84.  N.  B.  The 
author  cites  Pausanias  the  Greek 
traveller,  passim  ;  and  offers 
translations  of  many  of  his  de- 
scriptions ;  thus  making  a  com- 
parison of  modern  Greece  with 
its  ancient  condition. 

Pausias,  pictures  by,  ii.  421. 

Pavlitza,  village :  walls  of  Phiffaleia, 
i.  57.  73.  489,  et  seq. 

Pedasus,  i.  454. 

PegcB  of  the  Megalopolitis,  ii.  271. 
317  ;  the  Fountains,  iii.  38  ;  the 
stream,  41. 

Pegasus,  iii.  239,  240.  291. 

Peirae,  situation  of,  ii.  157. 

Peiraum,  iii.  315,  316,  317. 

Peiraeus,  the  harbour,  iii.  312, 

Peirene,  fountain  at  Corinth,  iii. 
233.  237.  242. 

Peirithous,  i.  95. 

Peirus,  or  river  of 'Olonu,  ii-  118. 



121  ;  the  bridge  Polykhronia, 
122.  154. 
Peitho,  temple  at  Sicyon,  iii.  359. 
Pelagus,  wood  of  oaks  and  cork 
trees,  i.  102.  113;  ii.  334;  iii. 

the  oracle  warns  Epami- 

iiondas  to  avoid  the,  iii.  82. 
Pelasgi,  under  Neleus,  i.  413. 
Pelasgus,    tomb    at    Argos  of,   ii. 

Peleus,  i.  95. 

Pelias  slain  at  lolcus  by  his  daugh- 
ters, iii.  50. 
Pellana,  site  of,  iii.  13—16.  19. 
Pe/lene,  manufactures  of,  iii.  389. 

■ on  Mount  Chelj/dorea,  iii. 

141  ;  site  of,  215  ;    description 
of  the  ancient  town,    217  ;    its 
temples  and  statues,  218. 
Pellenenses,  boundary  of  the,    iii. 

Pelopium,  site  at  Olympia  of  the, 

i.  34.  38. 
Peloponnesus,  i.  185, 186. 230.  279. 
352.  378.  492  ;  temples  of,  ii.  6  ; 
geological  construction  of  the 
Peloponnesus,  its  subterraneous 
rivers,  &c.,  iii.  153. 
Peloponnesian  war,  origin  of  the, 

ii.  433  ;  iii.  312. 
Pelops,  islands  of,  ii.  455. 
Pendadha,    villages   named  collec- 
tively the,  i.  285.  314. 
Peneius,   the  river,  i.    1  —  II  ;  its 
sources,  ii.  116;  its  depth,  176. 
Penelope,  iii.   238 ;  her  choice    of 
Ulysses,   and    dedication    of  the 
statue  of  JEdo    by  Icarius,    14, 
15  ;  her  tomb,  96. 
Peninsula  of  Greece,  i.  200 ;  cool- 
ness of  climate  in  the  interior, 
ii.  20. 
Pentelehim,  fortified  place,  iii.  156. 
Penthesilea,  i.  187. 
Perakhora,  village  of,  iii.  191.  380; 

peak  of,  380,  381. 
Perch,  ^A'/i,  ii.  100. 
Pergamum,   in  Asia  Minor,  emi- 
grants to,  ii.  23. 
Pericles,  i.  493. 
Perieres,  son  of  jEolus,  i.  456. 
Perilaus  slaying  the  Spartan  Othry- 

ades,  statue,  ii.  405. 
Peristomium  brought  from  Corinth, 

iii.  264,  265. 
Perivolia,  village  of,  iii.  17,  18. 
Perori,  i.  129.  133.  145. 

Perpeni,  ii.  518. 

Perseus,  Mycense  foiinded   by,  ii. 

355 ;  iii.  327. 
Persian  Stoa,  i.  161. 
Persians,  their  invasions  of  Greece, 

i.  161  ;  iii.  198. 
Persova,  i.  89.  123  ;  village  of,  ii. 
327,   328,    329;  zerethra  near, 
iii.  56. 
Perstera,  village  of,  iii.  159.  172. 
Pesili,  stream,  i.  399. 
Petali,    Cape,    i.   252.   256.   266. 

Petalidhi,  ancient   remains   at,   i. 

396.  438,  439. 
Peter's,  St.,  i.  87  ;  ii.  2. 
Petmes,    or  syrup  of  the   juice  of 

grapes,  ii.  285. 
Petra  Oleida,  rocky  hill,  and  town 
on  the  Peirus  river,  ii.  182,  183. 
Petrina,   village   of,    i.   265  ;    iii. 

Petrinitza,  village  of,  iii.  132. 
Petropoli,  i.  323. 
Petrosaca  on  IMount  Maenalium,  ii. 

Petrovuni,  i.  236.  259. 
Petruki,    flat  topt    rocky  summit, 

iii.  175  ;  mountain,  396. 
Petrilni,  Kyr,    i.   282,    284.    314. 

Petza,  island  of,  ii.  344,  345.  463. 
Phaedra  and  Hippolytus,  ii.  445. 
PhcBdria,  ancient  village,  ii.  295. 
Phaenna,  i.  146. 
Phaethon,  iii.  238. 
Phagus,    edible  acorn   of  the,   iii. 

PhalcBsice,  near  Gardhiki,  ii.  298. 
P/uilanthus,  city,  its  ruins  on   the 

mountain  Phulanlhum,  ii.  300. 
Phara,  i.  330. 

P/iarce,  or  PhercB,  i.  327.  332.  443. 

360  —  366  ;  inscription,  ii.  155  ; 

the  site,  158. 

Pilaris,   in  the  plain  of  Sparta,  i. 

182.   362.  466;  Homeric  town, 

iii.  2,  3. 

PIteia,   i.    420;    port  of,    ii.    188, 

189  ;  it  is  at  the  foot  of  the  hill 

of  Pondikokastro,   191;  iii.  124. 

Pheias,  the  island,  near  Cape  Ka- 

takolo,  iii.  124. 
Phcllia,  I.  182;  river,  iii.  2.  4. 
PhcUoe,  description  of,  iii.  389. 
Phcnealicc,  described,   iii.  135,  et 



Pheneus,  the  emissorv  of  tlie  river 
of,  ii.  2(JC. 

road  from  Orchomeniis, 

iii.  IOC;  site  of  the  city,  117; 
road  from  Stymphahis,  135  ;  an- 
cient inundation,  136  ;  the  an- 
cient  city  described,  136,  137  5 
conical  hill,  139  ;  the  lake  of 
Pheneus,  146  et  seq. 

PhercB,  town  of,  i.  179;  betwixt 
Pvlus  and  Sparta,  423.  453 ;  ii. 

Phidias,  works  of,  i.  37,  38.  43; 
ii.  224 ;  statue  Ijy  him  in  the 
temple  of  Minerva  at  Pellene,  iii. 

Phiffaleia,  citv,  and  fortifications  at 
Pavlitza,  i.'96,  97.  485,  486.  490 
—.500;  ii.  1.  13.  18. 

Phigalenses,  the,  i.  378.  486.  491, 
492 ;  ii.  6. 

Philidas,  a  commander  opposed  to 
King  Phihp,  ii.  76,  77- 

Philip,  son  of  Demetrius,  king  of 
Macedonia,  his  enterprizes 
against  the  Grecian  states,  i.  138. 
143.  178.  273.  279.  370  ;  ii.  33. 
76.  204.  245;  iii.  132. 

Philippeium,  the,  i.  36.  43.  364  ; 
at  Megalopolis,  ii.  33  ;  fountain, 
iii.  47. 

Philippides,  his  supposed  interview 
with  Pan  previous  to  the  battle 
of  ]\Iarathon,  ii.  330,  331. 

Philolaus,  i.  227. 

Philopcemen,  actions  of  this  cele- 
brated commander,  i.  94.  178. 
280  ;  ii.  524  ;  iii.  8  ;  his  gallant 
behaviour  in  the  Third  Bat- 
tle of  Mantineia,  87,  et  seq. 

Phliasia,  valley  of  the,  iii.  339. 

Phliasii,  their  defence  of  their  citv, 
iii.  346,  347.  375. 

Phlius,  its  plain  called  Phliasia, 
iii.  107  ;  site  of  this  city  at  Po- 
lyfengo,  iii.  339  ;  description, 

Phlius,  the  Argonaut,  iii.  345. 

Phocis,  i.  368. 

Phocus,  slain  by  Peleus,  tomb  of, 
ii.  434. 

Phrebffia,  the  lake,  ii.  449. 

Phoebe,  i.  168.  184.  370. 

Phffibeum,  i.  144.  166.  172,  173. 
182.  185. 

Phwbia,  iii.  376. 

Phoenicus,  port,  i.  434.  443. 

Phcsni.v,  river,  iii.  193.  413. 
Phoezi,  monument  of  the,  iii.  50. 
Pholoe,  Mount,  ii.  185  ;  celebrated 
in    Grecian    poetiy,    194.    196  ; 
the  Peneius  and  Ladon  rivers, 

Phormio,  house  of,  i.  168. 
Phoroneus,    son   of  Inachus ;    the 

Asty  Pharonicum,  ii.  400,  401. 
Phranza,    Byzantine   historian,    i. 

425  ;  ii.  44.  172  ;  termination  of 

his  annals  in  1477^  "••  190. 
Phrixa,  city  of,  i.  32  ;  ii.  77-  207- 

Phrixiis,  stream,  ii.  341. 
Phylace,    ancient    town,    i.     122. 

Physician,  a  Corfiote,  in  practice  at 

Tripolitza,  ii.  284. 
Pialf,  i.  91.  97—99. 
Plana,  village  of,  ii.  53  ;  source  of 

the  Helisson,  54. 
Pictures,    particulars  of  some  an- 
cient, ii.  189. 
Pidhavro,  village  near  Epidaurus, 

ii.  430.  456. 
Pidhima,   river,  or  Arts,  i.  357  et 

seq.  366.  390  ;  village  of,  sources 

of  the  Aris,  i.  477» 
Pigadhia,  i.  252. 
Pigeons,  wild,  of  Mistra  and  Me- 

zapo,  iii.  6. 
Pikcrni,  or  Pikernes,  i.  109.  Ill  ; 

road  to,  iii.  53. 
Pilafi,  peaked  hill,  i.  389. 
Pindar,  i.   17C;   testimony  of  the 

poet  respecting  Pisa.,  ii.  212. 
Pine,  forests  of ;  the  species  named 

Strofilia  described,  ii.  165  ;  pine 

clad  hills,  226. 
Pirates,   Cihcian,  ii.   162;   Greek, 

iii.  258. 
Pisa,  valley  of,  i.  24—30  ;  the  an- 
cient, ii.  209  ;  its  situation  near 

Olympia,  211. 
PisatiB,  the,  i.  8 ;    sometimes  pre- 
sided at  the  Olvmpic  games,  ii. 

212,  213. 
Pisatis,   district  named  the,  i.  58. 

65.  418;  boundaries,  ii.  186. 
Pisistratus,  collection  of  the  poems 

of  Homer  by,  iii.  217. 
Pitanatae,  i.  164.  175. 
Pitane,  i.  176,  177- 
Pitch  from  the  foi-est  on  the  Pe- 

rakhora  mountain,  iii.  380. 
Pittheus,    judgment   chair   of,    ii. 




Pityiisa,  islaiMl  of,  ii.  4G4. 

Pladitcri,  village,  ii.  262. 

Plague  in  1791,  its  ravages,  ii.  359. 

Plane  trees,  ii.  90,  159. 

Planets,  seven  cMslumns  symbolical 
of  the,  iii.  14. 

Platamodes  in  Messenia,  i.  42G, 

Platanistas,  i.  174.  178,  179. 

Plataniston,  the  fountain,  i.  440  ; 
river,  ii.  10,  11.  311.  313. 

Platanistus,  i.  GO.  154.  IGG.  426  ; 
near  Khaiaffa,  427  ;  ii-  205. 

Platanodes,  promontory,  i.  427  ;  ii- 

Platanos,  village  of,  ii.  502. 

PJatiana,  Hellenic  town  on  the  hill 
of,  i.  75  ;  ii.  82  ;  the  village, 

Platza,  i.  2G2.  2G4.  315.  320. 

Pleistoanax,  king  of  Sparta,  ii. 

Pliny,  i.  278.  304.  320 ;  agrees 
with  Pausanias  and  Athenseus 
in  describing  vocal  fish,  ii.  263, 

Plutarch,  i.  I76,  177.  180.  183. 

Pluto  carrying  oiF  Proserpine,  iii. 
149.  295,  296. 

Pnyx,  the,  i.  248. 

Podaleirius,  i.  370. 

Podhogora,  village,  ii.  106.  272. 

Precile,  i.  I67. 

Poem  descriptive  of  Mani,  with  a 
translation,  i.  332—339. 

Poliana,  i.  320. 

Polichna,  site  of,  iii.  10. 

Folichne,  near  Andania,  i.  391. 

Pollux,  i.  95.  162.  182. 

Polovitza,  i.  191. 

Polysnus,  1.  177- 

Polyandrium,  of  victorious  Ar- 
gives,  ii.  342  ;  disquisition  as  to 
the  monument,  343. 

Polybius,  son  of  Lycortas,  the  his- 
torian, his  statue  on  a  pillar,  ii. 
32  ;  epigram  relating  to,  308  ; 
various  references  to  his  histo- 
ry, i.  94.  106.  119.  134.  138. 
142—145.  152.  178.  202.  362  ; 
ii.  30  ;  speaks  of  the  subterra- 
neous channel  of  the  Alpheius, 
iii.  41  ;  his  narrative  of  the 
third  great  battle  of  JMantineia, 
87,  et  seq. 

Polychaon,  son  of  Lelex,  i.  456. 

Polycleitus,  i.  146;  his  works,  ii. 

342 ;  description  of  his  colossal 
statue  of  Juno,  390  ;  celebrity  of 
this  artist,  422. 

Polydeuceia,  i.  182. 

Polydorus,  king,  i.  161,  162. 

Polyfengo,  near  the  town  of  St. 
George,  iii.  339.  342.  353,  354. 

Polynices,  son  of  ODdipus,  ii.  47I. 

Polysperchon,  i.  65. 

Pondikokastro,  or  Rat  Castle,  Hel- 
lenic ruin  at  Cape  Katakolo,  i. 
22;  ii.  191. 

Pontinus,  Mount:  temple  of  Mi- 
nerva Saitis,  ii.  471  ;  copious 
sources,  473 ;  peaked  hill  and 
ruined  castle,  338. 

Poretjo,  ii.  240. 

Porinas,  river,  iii.  138.  142. 

Poro,  i.  218  ;  modern  town  of,  ii. 
451.  453. 

Portes,  or  Sandameri,  remarkable 
hill  of  these  names,  i.  4. 

the  gates ;   catacomb   and 

ancient  wall  at,  iii.  215. 

Posidonium,  i.  302  ;  of  the  Isth- 
mus of  Corinth,  iii.  286,  el  seq. 

Poseidium,  i.  62. 

Potami,  or  Koraka,  i.  11. 

Potamia,  i.  192.  265. 

Potamnia,  Apano,  iii.  174. 

Povergo,  village  of,  ii.  27- 

Pouqueville,  Mr.,  ii.  158. 

Pozaiti,  or  Bozaiti,  ii.  226. 

PrasicB,  or  Brasice,  remains  of,  ii. 
484.  498  ;  Eleuthero-Laconic 
town,  iii.  7- 

Prasto,  town  of,  ii.  483.  495  ;  the 
bishop  of,  496 ;  dialect,  499 ; 
near  Sparta,  iii.  10. 

Praxitas  the  Lacedaemonian,  cap- 
tures Corinth,  iii.  252.  374. 

Praxiteles,  works  of  the  sculptor,  i. 
108;  ii.  225. 

Priam,  King,  i.  147- 

Priapus,  temple  at  Ornese,  iii. 

Priniko,  i.  195—197.  199.  228  — 

Prinokokki  gathered  from  the  ker- 
mes  oak  for  exportation,  ii.  I7. 

Prinns,  the  road  from  Argos 
named,  ii.  413  ;  Prinus  and 
Climax,  the  roads,  iii.  46.  52. 

Procles,  i.  457- 

Prodromus,  monasterv  of  St.,  ii. 



Proesti,  disposition  of  the  Greek, 
ii.  177. 

PrfEtus,  founder  of  Tiryns,  ii.  355  ; 
chambers  of  the  daughters  of,  ii, 
355  ;  daughters  of,  iii.  3G0. 

Promachus,  son  of  Dryon,  statues 
of,  iii.  219. 

Propus^  the  hill,  iii.  125.  128. 

Proserpine,  i.  59.  94.  14C.  163;  iii. 
295,  296. 

the  Pure  Virgin,  i.  .391. 

Core  or  Soteira,  colos- 
sal statue  of,  ii.  34. 

Prospects,  grand  : — from  Ithome 
above  Mes.sene,  i.  38C;  from  Phi- 
galeia,  500 ;  from  Moiuit  Coty- 
lium,  ii.  11,  12;  from  Zakkiika 
above  Fanari,  including  the 
chief  part  of  the  Jlorea,  69;  from 
the  castle  of  Patra,  139 ;  line 
geographical  station  on  the  hill 
of  Khlemutzi,  I7I  ;  from  Mount 
Astra,  23C ;  from  Pellene,  iii. 
216;  of  the  Isthmus,  226  ;  mag- 
nificent view  from  the  Acro-Co- 
rinthus,  259  ;  from  the  hill  of 
Vasilika,  379  ;  from  the  khan  of 
Akrata,  395. 

Prosymna,  fable  relating  to,  ii.  392, 

Protections,  system  of  European : 
the  Baratlis  and  Fermahnlis,  ii. 

Proti,  island  opposite  to  Gargali- 
ano,  i.  428,  433. 

Protosyngelo,  i.  147- 

Prvtaneium,  at  Olvmpia,  i.  34.  35. 

Psamathia,  i.  306. 

Psamathus,  town,  i.  278,  279.  299. 
302.  304.  306. 

Psammis,  king  of  Egypt,  i.  8. 

Psara,  island  of,  ii.  432. 

Psari,  i.  75. 

Psaromvti,  Cape,  iii.  192.  207- 
395,  ' 

Psath6pvrgo,  anchorage  of,  iii.  186, 
194.  416. 

Psophis,  the  ancient,  ii.  62 ; 
strength  and  singularity  of  the 
site,  241  ;  its  temples  and  monu- 
ments, 244  ;  its  history,  245. 

Psykhiko,  i.  53.  154.  15?.  I7I. 

Psyltaleia,  i,  413. 

Pteleasimum,  i.  485. 

Pteleum,  i.  485. 

Ptolemy,  i.  213,  214.  330. 

Ptolis,  or  Uld  Mantineia,  its  posi- 
tion, iii.  97. 

Puik^dhes,  village  of,  i,  488,  489. 

Pulo,  Kyr,  of  Skala,  i.  478. 

Pylii,  the,  i.  60;  their  territory  de- 
scribed  by  Homer,  i.  413.  417  ? 
ii.  181  ;  their  wars,  193. 

Pylus,  the  Coryphasian:  the  Pyliac 
plain,  i.  59;  port  of  Navarin,  26; 
town  taken  by  Hercules,  329 ; 
contest  between  the  Athenians 
and  Spartans,  401 — 408;  founda- 
tion of  the  city  by  Neleus  :  and 
Nestor,  kings,  413  ;  proverbial 
verse  respecting  the  three  Pyli, 
416  ;  hititory,  424  ;  mention  in 
the  Catalogue  of  the  Iliad,  ii, 
182  ;  expedition,  193. 

of  the  Eleia,  i,  417,  420 ;  ii. 

228,  229, 

Triphyliacus^  or  Lepreaticus, 

i.  56,  67.  417-  424. 

Py)-(sa,  a  grove  and  sanctuary  of 
Ceres  Prostasia,  and  of  Proser- 
pine, iii,  352, 

Pyramia,  position  of,  ii.  479. 

Pvramid,  ruin  of  an  ancient,  near 
'the  ]\Iills  of  Kefalari,  ii.  339. 

the  Great,  of  Memphis, 

ii.  2.  354. 
Pyrgako,  or  Pyrgo,  near  it  are  seen 

the  walls  of  an  ancient  city,  ii. 

Pyrghi,  i.  1 1 .  46.  269. 
Pyrgi,  town,  i.  57  ;  ii,  207- 
Pvrgitfe,  i.  63. 
Pyrgo,  i.  3.  10.  22.  25.  44—47.  49. 

■51.   69.  262. 
plain  of,  i.  22;  ii.  187;  hay 

of,  i,  22. 

or  Pvrgako,  ii.  57- 

Pyrgos,  village  of,  i.  285.  315.  336, 
Pyrgus,  an  ancient  town,  ii.  76. 
Pyrrhias,  JEtolian  commander,   i. 

'362;  ii.  139. 
Pyrrhi  Castra,  ii.  525. 
Charax,  ii.  525, 

Pyrrhichus,  i.  275.  277. 
Pyrrho,  the  Sophist,  ii,  223, 
PjTrhus,  i,  179;  anecdote  respect- 
ing the  statues  of  Argos,  ii.  403 ; 
monument,  and  sculptures  repre- 
senting his  wars,  406  ;  the  king 
wounded  by  a  tile,  and  then  slain 
by  Zopyrus,  406  ;  account  of  his 
expedition,  407,  408. 




QuAGLiE,  Porto  delle,  i.  30G. 

Quails,  i.  336. 

Quatremere,  M.,  i.  3G;  his  opinion 
respecting  a  sculpture  of  Neptune 
and  Amphitrite,  iii.  291. 

Quercus  ilex,  or  olive-leaved  ever- 
green  oak,  iii.  52. 


Rafaelli,  Signor,  Ragusan  Con- 
sul, i.  434. 
Rarepani,  Castro,  i.  227. 
Rasa,  village,  ii.  213. 
Rat-Castle,  the  Hellenic  remains, 

of  Pheia,  ii.  191. 
Rate   of    travelling,    compufaliofi, 

iii.  411,  412. 
Renesi,  village,  ii.  95. 
Reonda,  or  Paleo  Korakoviini,   ii. 

509,  510. 
Retuni,  large  village,  ii.  168. 
Rhachus,  the  Crooked ;  a  celebrated 

wild  olive  tree,  ii.  448. 
Rhapsomati,  village,  i.  82  ;  ii.  44  ; 

iii.  40,  41. 
Rhea,  fable  regarding,  ii.  11;  cave 
of,  58  ;  her  wandering  on  Mount 
Alesium,  iii.  49. 
Rhegium^  emigration  of  the  Mes- 

senians  to,  i.  470. 
Rheiti,  fable  respecting  this  subter- 
raneous course  of  waters,  ii.  342, 
Bheitus,  near  the  Isthmus,  iii.  309. 
Rheneia,  island  of,  i.  413. 
Bherinus,  village,  ii.  270;  iii.  119; 

site,  122. 
Rhianus,  poem  of,  i.  461.  466.  485; 

ii.  14. 
lihipe,  ii.  102. 

Rhinm,  a  city  of  Messenia,  i.  457. 
459;  iii.  414  ;  the  narrow  passes 
between  it  and  Cynajtha,  iii.  130, 

Cape,  the  Morea  castle  on, 

ii.  147. 
Rhodus,  i.  329.  368.  371.  383. 
RhypcB^  site  of,  iii.   193  ;  ruins  of, 

413.  417. 
Rigani,  3Iount,  iii.  191. 
Rites,  sacred,  of  Ceres  and  Proser- 
pine, i.  391. 

Riviotissa,  i.  147- 

Roads,  ancient,  throughout  Ar- 
cadia  ;  investigation  of  the  sites, 
and  topography,  ii.  286,  et  seqq. 

Roani,  Mount,  ii.  329—331.  333. 

Robbers  in  Greece,  known  by  the 
name  of  Kleftes,  i.  385.  474 ;  pur- 
suit of  them,  ii.  152.  282;  object 
of  the  villagers  in  destroying  the 
banditti,  346;  executions,  iii.  36. 

Roebucks  and  wild  animals  of 
Mount  Pholoe,  ii.  215.  233. 

Romaic  dialect  uses  the  accusative 
in  the  names  of  places,  ii.  261. 

Roman  Empire,  i.  312. 

Romeika,  the,  i.  5. 

Romeiko  Tharso,  iii.  156. 

Rosa,  General,  ii.  144. 

Rozova,  town  of,  i.  265. 

Rufea  River,  the  Alpheius,  i.  11. 
23—25 ;  magazines  and  skala, 
45.  49  ;  fishery,  52 ;  the  river 
Ladon,  or  Rufea,  ii.  95.  97.  100. 

Ruga,  Ano  and  Kato,  i.  490.  497. 

Rumili,  transmarine  prospect  of  the 
hills  of,  iii.  159.  183. 

Russians,  the,  i.  207, 208.  316.  400. 

Saeta,   Mount,  ii.  269.  277 ;  iii. 

142—148.  151. 
Safetv,  temple  of,  at  ^Egium,  iii. 

Saints,  the  Forty,  monastery  of  the 

Aghion  Saranda,  ii.  520. 
Sakari,  i.  52 — 55. 
Salih,  a  janissary,  iii.  331. 
Salmeniko,  river  of,  iii.  193.  418. 
Salmone,  position  of,  ii.  192. 
Salon  a,  city  of,  i.  242. 
Samara,  a  village  near  Londari,  ii. 

44  ;  vestiges  of  Cromi,  297. 
Samia,    the   citv,    i.    64 — 66  ;    ii. 

Samiciim,  a  city  captured  bv  Philip 

of  Macedon,  i.  56.  60-68.  422 ; 

ii.  76.  78. 
Saminthus,  destroved  bv  Agis,  ii. 

Samus,  city,  i.  60. 
Sandameri,  hill  of,  i.   4  ;  it  is  seen 

from    Mount   Cotylium,    ii,   12. 

20  ;  the  Sandanu'riotiko  is  pro- 
bably Mount  Sco/lis,  184  ;  village 
H  H 



and  important  post  of  Sandameri, 

Sanga,  village  of,  iii.  53. 

Sanghia,  Mount,  i.  280—282.  285. 

Sapienza,  island  of,  i.  433. 

Saranda  Potamo,  i.  121.  123;  its 
katavothra,  iii.  42. 

Sarapis,  temples  of,  i.  165.  313. 
327.  371  ;  ii.  130  ;  iii.  244. 

Saratza,  a  village  near  Cape  Gallo, 
i.  439.  443. 

Sarma,  a  village  on  the  Neda,  i. 
500,  501. 

Saron,  king,  ii.  448. 

Sarona,  i.  73. 

Saronic  Gulf,  its  ports,  iii.  232. 

Saronis,  the  marsh,  ii.  444 ;  the 
lake,  449. 

Saurus,  sepulchre  and  hill  of,  ii. 

Scama7ider,  river,  ii.  100. 

Scarthon,  river,  ii.  230. 

Schcenus,  named  from  Schoeneus 
the  Boeotian,  ii.  300 ;  port  and 
bay  of,  iii.  297—303.  307,  308. 

Schoolmasters  of  the  ]Morea,  ii.  61  ; 
want  of  due  encouragement,  177- 

Schools,  ii.  496. 

Scias,  the  street  of  Sparta  thus 
named,  i.  1G3.  171—173;  vil- 
lage and  temple  of  3Iinerva  Scia- 
tis,  ii.  299. 

Sciathis,  zerethra  of  the  mountain, 
iii.  136.  142. 

Scillus,  the  residence  of  Xenophon, 
in  a  district  adapted  to  the  chace, 
i.  31  ;  ii.  86  ;  situation,  210  ; 
new  colony,  214 ;  festival  of 
Diana,  215. 

SciritiB,  they  occupied   the  left  of 
the    Lacedaemonian   armies,    iii. 
Sciritis,  Laconian  district,  iii.  19. 

28  ;  a  rugged  territory,  29. 
Scirocco,  the,  iii.  207,  208. 
Sclavonians,  i.  348. 

Sclavonic  tribes,  i.  186. 
Scollis,  a  rocky  mountain,   other- 
wise the  Petra  Oleiiia,  ii.   183  ; 
the  town,  184 ;    the  Sandame- 
riotiko,  230. 
Scopas  of  Pams,  works  of  this  ce- 
lebrated statuary,  i.  95,  96  ;  ii. 
25.  224. 
Scope,    Epaminondas    dying    wit- 
nessed the  battle  of  Leuctra  from, 
i.  112,  113  ;  iii.  51.  94  ;  a  point 

of    the    Maenalian    range,     ii. 

Scotita,  temple  of  Jupiter  Scotitas 

at,  ii.  522.  524. 
Sculptures,  curious  ancient,  in  low 

relief,    ii.    307  ;    statues   in  the 

temple  of  Despoena,  308. 
Scyllceum,  Cape,  now  called  Skyli, 

ii.  462. 
Scyras,  river,  i.  275.  277- 
Sea-coast  of  the  Morea,  climate  of 

the,  ii.  20  ;    retreat  of  the  sea, 

Sebrium,  i.  167. 
Sebnis,  i.  167. 

Secret  port,  of  /Egina,  ii.  434. 
Seid  Aga  of  Lalla,  i.  2.  55 ;    his 

house,  ii.  71  ;  chief  ay  an  of  Pa- 

tra,  155  ;  khan  of  Seid  Aga,  159. 

Seid  Ahmet  Aga,  i.  69. 
Sela,  mouth  of  tlie  river,  i.  428. 
Selemnus,  the  river,  at  Argyra,  ii. 

150;  iii.  417. 
Selinus,  river  near  Olympia,  i.  31  ; 

iii.  402 ;  or  river  of  Vostitza,  407- 
town  of  the  Laconice,  iii. 

7- 1 1 ;  the  temples  described,  280, 

Selitza,  i.  325. 
Sellasia,  this  fortress  was  a  bulwark 

of  Sparta,  i.  142,  143.  183 ;  ii. 

28.  31. 
Selleeis,  river,  i.  6,  7- 
Sepia,  mountain,  iii.  116.  139.  151. 
Sepulchre,  pyramidal,  of  the  Ar- 

gives,  ii.  349. 
Sepulchres,   i.   261.   267  ;    of  the 

Atreidas  at  Mycenae,  ii.  366  ;  se- 
pulchral niches  near  Vostitza,  iii. 

192  ;  sepulchres  of  the  Sicyonii, 

Serai    of    TripoHtza,    villagers    of 

Kandili  obliged  to  carry  snow  for 

its  supplv,  iii.  107- 
Seremet  Bey,  i.  234.  237.  321.  475. 
Serpents,  sacred,  of  the  temple  of 

jEsculapius,  ii.  426. 
Servoi,  village  of,  ii.  65. 
Servula,  village  of,  iii.  192. 
Sessini,  Dr.,  of  Gastuni,  i.  1  ;  ii. 

Shalesi,  village  of,  ii.  305.  318. 
Sheep  in  the  Morea,  management 

of  the  flocks  of,  i.  15 17. 

Shemseddin  Bey,  of  Gastuni,  i.  3; 

his  pj^rgo,  ii.  170.  238. 
Shimiza,  i.  367. 



Shrubs,  on  the  borders  of  streams, 
ii.  123. 

Sicily,  ancient  remains,  and  refer- 
ences to,  i.  21.  134  ;  ii.  4. 

SicYov,  city  of,  iii.  22G-237. 
240  ;  its  edifices,  walls,  sepul- 
chres, and  historical  importance, 
357  et  seq.  ;  strength  of  the 
Acropolis,  the  tabular  height  of 
Vasilika,  3G5 ;  New  Sicyon,  360 ; 
existing  remains,  369.  371 ;  view 
from  the  hill  of  Sicyon,  380. 

■ coins  of,  i.  Ill  ;  iii.  306. 


Sicyonia,  description  of  the,  iii. 
228.  324  el  seq. 

Sidherokastro,  i.  75.  77-  486. 

Sidus,  the  town  of,  iii.  256.  307, 

Silenus,  i.  275  ;  his  temple  at  Elis, 
ii.  223  ;  statue,  224. 

Silivena,  near  the  river  Akrata, 
iii.  174. 

Silk,  culture  of,  i.  347.  433 ;  ii.  50. 

Silk-worm,  the,  i.  349. 

Simiadhes,  village  of,  ii.  279 ;  si- 
tuation of,  iii.  95. 

Simias,  his  conduct  in  the  battle  of 
Mantineia,  iii.  92. 

Siraiza,  i.  376.  384. 

Simopulo,  village,  ii.  231. 

Sinai,  Mount,  i.  291. 

Sinanbey,  village,  i.  187,  188. 

Sinanu,  village  of,  i.  81  ;  road  from 
Karitena,  ii.  27 ;  description  of 
the  valley  of  JMegalopolis,  and  the 
site  of  the  ancient  city,  28 — 42. 

Sisvpheium  at  Corinth,  iii.  237- 

Sisyphus,  tomb  of,  iii.  291. 

Sitena,  village  of,  ii.  503. 

Skafidhaki,  village  of,  ii.  338, 

Skafidhia,  convent  of,  i.  11, 

Skala,  of  Strovitzi,  i.  56. 

on  the  Eurotas,  i.  196.  357, 


• ,  the  village,  i.  388  ;  on  the 

ridge  of  hills  from  Makryplai  to 

Ithome,  478. 
Skaloma,  i.  56. 
Skamnaki,  i.  257-  277- 
Skardhamula    the  site  of    Carda- 

myle,  i.  237-  316.  321.  323.  331. 
Skhiza,  island,  i.  433,  434. 
Skipezi,  Mount,  iii.  114.  142.  151. 
Sklavokhori,  i.  22.  133—136.  157- 


Skliru,   a  village  of  Mount  Cofi/. 

Hum,  ii.  8;  stream    and  sources 

near  the  village,  10. 
Skodra,  i.  347. 
Skopa,  i.  272.  312, 
Sko})6poli,  i.  272,  277. 
Skotines,  i,  226, 
Skotini,  village  of,  iii,  107  ;  zere- 

thra,  155. 
Skutari,  i.  235.  237.  252.  258.  262 

—264.  268,  269.   27 1,  272.  279, 

280.  282.  284,  308.  318, 
Slaves,  traffic  by  the  Turks  in  Afri- 

can,  i,  431. 
Sleep,  i.  170  ;  deity  friendly  to  the 

Muses,  ii.  443  ;  statue  of,  iii. 

Slingers  of  Patrae  and   DvTne,  ii. 

Smarlina,  village,  i.  500. 
Smenus,  river,  i.  266.  274.  277, 
Smerna,  mountain  of,  i,  51,  52.  55. 


village  of,  i.  30  ;  ii.  206. 

Smith  and  St,  Barbe,  merchants,  i, 

Smyrna,  i,  347,  348. 
Social  War,   events  of  the,  i.  138, 

362  ;  ii,   76.    164.    245  ;    iii,  9, 

131.  387. 
Sokh£,  i.  188.  265. 
Solar     worship     in     Greece,     ii. 

Solos,  village  of,  iii.  158  —  161.  166 

—168.  170.  173. 
Solr/geia,  town  of,  iii.  309—312. 
Solyyius,  INIount,  iii.  309. 
Sophocles,  explanation  of  a  passage 

of,  ii.  403. 
Sopot<3,  river  of,  ii.  241 ;  village, 

254  et  seq. 
Soron,  forest  of  oaks  called,  ii.  249, 

Sosipolis,  temple  of,  i.  39. 
Sostomiii,  ruin  at,  i.  501. 
Soteria,  [or  Safety,]  statue  at  Pa- 

tra»  of,  ii.  129. 
Sotiraki,  anecdote  of  him,  ii.  283, 

Spahis,  a  Turkish  corps,  i,  16.  21. 

368  ;  ii.  49. 
Sparta,  general  description  of  the 

site,  and  account  of  the  ancient 

buildings    and    topography,      i. 

ll.-J.    124—138.    144-161.    I70 

—  199.  246.  249.  277-  287-  289. 

307.  328.  362  ;  iii.  57—93.  229. 

303.     See  also  Lacedcemon. 
H  H  2 



Spartans,  the.  i.  274.  277.  360.  401. 

Spetziote,  i.  218. 

Sphacteria,  or  Sphagia,  i.  62.  400  ; 
tour  of  the  island   of  Navarin, 
401  ;  description  by  Thncydides, 
Spirceum^  Cape,  iii.  313. 
Spring  in  Greece,  described,  ii.  32. 
Sta  Nera,  the  khan,  ii.  337- 
Stadia,  in  various  cities,  i.  33 — 35. 
38—44.  102.  106.  111.  175.  231. 
376.   378.  380  ;  ii.  37- 
Stanhope,  Mr.  J.  Spencer,  i.  42. 
States  of  ancient  Greece,  good  and 
bad  effects  of  their  independence 
and  rivality,  iii.  25. 
Stathi,  his  farms,  i.  147- 
Statues  ;   colossal  statue  of  Apollo 
Epicurius,  ii.  7  ;  various  wooden 
statues  at  Megalopolis,  36 ;  square 
form  affected  by  the  Arcadians  in 
statues,  36  ;  acrolithic  and  chrys- 
elephantine statues,  130;  in  the 
Castle  of   Patra,   146;   at   Elis, 
222.  224  ;  of  the  Nile,  and  other 
rivers,  245  ;  of  Argos  described, 
ii.  402  ;  description  of  those  be- 
longing to  the  Argolic  Her»um, 
ii.    389 ;    invention    of    brazen 
statues,  iii.  137  ;   curious  art  of 
preserving  their  fine  statues,  in- 
vented by  the  ancients,  218;  seen 
near  the  monastery  of  Luku,  ii. 
488;  at  the  Isthmian  Posidonium, 
iii.  289,  290  ;  at  Titane,  377- 
Stavri,  Cape,  i.  272. 
Stavropighi,  i.  261.  315. 
Stazusa,  fountain,  iii.  358. 
Stemnitza,  near  Karitena,  ii.  22  ; 
a  tower  seen  on  a  precipice  near 
the   village,    25 ;    mountain    of 
Stemnitza,  62  ;  village,  64. 
Stena,  or   Straits  of  the  Alpheius 
near  Karitena,  ii.  22  ;   Stena  of 
the   Helisson,   52  ;   of  the  river 
near  Nezera,  121 ;  of  the  Ladon, 
Steno,  village,  ii.  328;  pass  of,  331. 
Stenuri,  i.  124. 
Stenyclerus,  site  of,  i.  479. 
Stenyclerus,  the  hero,  i.  391.  457- 

plain  of,  i.  391.  479. 

Stephanus,  i.  9.  279.  287.  362. 
Stoa  Pcecile,  i.  31.  37.  166. 
Storks,  migration  of,  ii.  50. 
Strabo,  descriptions  by  the  geogra- 
pher,  passim. 

Strabovo,  a  village  of  Mount  Ly- 

cseum,  ii.  27. 
Strane,  Mr.  Consul,  ii.  123.  134; 
his  house  at  Patra,  143;  iii.  209. 
Strato,    stoa   of   the    Athlete,    iii. 

Straton,  statues  by  the  sculptor,  ii. 

Strefi,  river  and  village,  i.  24;   ii. 

Stremata,  a  measure  of  land,  i.  14. 
Strezova,  town  in  a  lofty  situation, 

ii.  106.  240.  249. 
Strofilia,  a  species  of  pine  having 

esculent  seed,  ii.  165. 
Strotza,  i.  264. 

Strovitzi,  Skalaof,  i.  56;  the  village 
probably  the   site  of   Lepreuni, 
56.  73. 
Strnthus,  Cape,  ii.  463. 
Stuart,  IMr.,  design  of  a  Doric  tem- 
ple at  Corinth,  iii.  246. 
Style,  declining  taste  of  the  latter 

Greek  authors,  ii.  287- 
Styllang'mm,  ii.  77- 
Stymphalides,  the  birds,  iii.  11.3. 
Stymphalus,   descendant  of  Areas 

and  Callisto,  iii.  112. 
Stymphalus,  Lake  of,  ii.  34.3  ;   the 
Sfymphaiia,  iii.  107.144;  kata- 
vothra  of  the  lake,  108.  144;  po- 
sition of  the  ancient  city,  109  ; 
vestiges  of  a  temple,   110;   the 
river,  109,  110. 
Siy.r,  river,  iii.  139.  156;  described 
by  Homer,   Hesiod,  Herodotus, 
and  Pausanias,  161  ;   the  sacred 
oath,  162;  water  poisonous,  163; 
cup  able  to  resist  the  decomposing 
power  of  the  water,  164  ;  fright- 
ful precipice,  165. 
Subterraneous  rivers,  in  limestone 

ridges,  iii.  153,  154. 
Sudhena,  and    Pera  Sudhena,  ii. 

plain  of,  ii.  256. 

village  of,  iii.  180. 

Suetonius,  quoted,  i.  42. 

Sulim.^,  village  of,  i.  73,  74.  387, 

Sulphur,  i.  200. 
Sulinari,  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Lj'- 

kodhemo,  i.  398. 
Sumatia,  ii.  51. 

Summits,  remarkable  Grecian, 
mostly  crowned  with  an  ancient 
fortress  of  the  same  name  as  the 
mountain,  ii.  13. 



Sun,  the  Liberator,  altar  of  the,  ii. 

altar  of  the,  at  the  river  Ina- 

chus,  ii.  3!*2. 
and  Moon,  statues  at  Elis  of 

the,  ii.  224. 
Susa,  i.  368. 
Svania,  instrument  called  the,  i. 

14,  15. 
Sybaris^  the  fountain,  iii.  402. 
Syene,  i.  293. 
Sykena,    Apano,    village    of,     iii. 


Kato,  village  of,  iii.  209. 

— — — —  river  of,  iii.  417. 
Sykia,  village,  i.  201.  220. 

peak  of,  ii.  232. 

Sylimna,  village,  i.  116,  117;  ii-51 ; 

the  site  of  Sumatia,  306. 
Si/mbola,  i.  122,  123. 
Symbola,  the,  iii.  37  ;  here  the  Al- 

pheins    receives    the    source    of 

Krya  Vrysi,  42. 
Syracuse,  temple  of,  now  the  church 

of  Santa  Maria  delle  Colonne,  iii. 

Syriamu  Kurtaghi,  village,  ii.  105; 

vale  of,  ii.  272. 

Syrian  Goddess,  temple  of  the,  iii. 

Si//.has,  or  Sys,  river,  iii.  383.  393. 
Swallows,  migration  of,  ii.  50. 


Ttenaria,  i.  303. 

Tsenarian  promontory,  i.  301.  307- 

Taenarii,  i.  261.  291. 

Tffinarum,  Cape,  i.  276,  277.  291 

—293.  299,  300.  303.  459. 
Tisnarus,  i.  139.  261. 

montnnent  of,  i.  165. 

Takhurti,  i.   191  ;   stream  joining 

the  Eurotas,  iii.  4. 
Taki,  inundation  near  Tripolitza, 

so  called,   i.  84.  89.  91 ;  ii.  47  ; 

it  is  at  the  foot  of  Mount   Bo- 

reium,  327  ;   the  katavothra  of 

the  lake  Taki,  iii.  35. 
Taleliim,  sunnnit  of  Taygetum,  i. 

188.  252  ;  iii.  3  ;  the  peak  of  St. 

Elias,  4. 
Talthybius,   i.    162;   tomb  of    the 

herald,  iii.  189. 
Tnnus,   river,    now   the   Kani,   ii. 

498.  511,512. 

Tanus,  pass  at  Kastanitza,  iii.  10. 

Tara,  khan  of,  ii.  56.  240.  257. 
208.  274  ;  iii.  10.3. 

river  of,  ii.  269,   270;  its 

sources,  iii.  122. 

Tarapia,  on  the  Bosphorus,  school 
at,  ii.  496. 

Tarapsa,  i.  265. 

Taratzes,  village  of,  ii.  211. 

Tareiko,  the  :  or  river  of  Tara,  ii. 

Tarentines,  mercenaries  engaged  in 
various  contests  in  Greece,  i.  162; 
iii.  89. 

Tartar,  or  Tatar,  i.  220  ;  death  of 
a  horseman  i-elated,  iii.  338. 

Tartari,  castle  on  this  hill,  ii.  255. 

Taurion,  fllacedonian  general,  iii. 

Tavolaki,  Mount,  i.  389.  397 ; 
near  the  Coryphasian  Pylus,  4 1 6. 

Taxiarches,  Convent  of  St.,  near 
Vostitza,  ii.  167. 

Taygetum,  Moimt,  its  snowy  sum- 
mits, i.  83  ;  cultivated  middle 
region,  128;  velanidhi  and  pri- 
nokokki,  132;  rocky  gorge,  133; 
torrents,  136;  precipices,  137; 
counterfort,  151 ;  Cynosura",  178; 
remains  ofantiquity  near  Mounts 
Talelnm  and  Evoras,  188  ;  St. 
Elias  the  highest  peak,  191 .  251 ; 
Taletum,  252  ;  river  of  Passava, 
255.  277  ;  the  Makryno  summit, 
261  ;  Bardhunia  to  the  south, 
264 ;  upper  region,  265  ;  ridge, 
273 ;  Tsnarum,  or  Taygetic 
promontory,  301.  308 ;  steeps 
near  the  coast,  321  ;  mountain 
villages,  322  ;  torrent,  324. 

Tzani,  Kyr  Elias,  i.  .327. 

Teyea,  the  site  of  the  ancient  city 
at  Paleo  Episkopi,  i.  88  ;  the  four 
tribes,  89  ;  plain  of  Tegea,  90  ; 
columns  and  vestiges  of  antiqui- 
ty,  91  ;  Pausanias's  account,  92  j 
celebrated  fane  of  Minerva  Alea, 
94  ;  statues,  96  ;  wells,  99  ;  Te- 
geatic  plain,  121  ;  subterraneous 
rivers,  122;  great  beauty  of  the 
temple,  492  ;  the  masonry  of  the 
temple  of  Minerva,  ii.  6;  inaibles 
and  columns,  48;  the  demi  of, 
ii.  3.33. 

Tegeaticc,  the,  i.  124. 

Teichus,  capture  of  this  castle  of 
the  Dymai,  ii.  164;  iii.  132. 



Tekieh,  bay  called,  iii.  209,  210.  I 

Telamon,  i.  95  ;  heroum  of,  iii.  138. 

Teleclus,  king  of  Sparta,  i.  168. 
360.  363.  461. 

Telemachus,  son  of  Ulysses,  i.  60. 
08.  343,  344  ;  visit  to  Nestor, 
419.  423. 

Telephns,  his  contest  with  Achilles 
in  the  plain  of  the  Caicus,  i.  95 ; 
sacred  portion  of,  ii.  331. 

Telesilla,  figure  in  relief  of  the 
poetess,  ii.  4(15.  418. 

Temathia,  IMount :  or  Lykodhemo, 
i.  435.  438.  444. 

Temena,  or  Temeni,  village  of, 
iii.  211. 

Temeni,  Upper  ;  village  destroyed 
by  an  inundation,  iii.  402. 

Temenium,  position  of,  ii.  476 ; 
Mount,  and  the  tomb  of  Teme- 
nus,  494. 

Temples,  particulars  of  some  of  the 
most  remarkable,  of  which  ruins 
are  still  found  in  Greece,  i.  34 
of  Apollo  at  Bassffi,  ii.  1,  et  seq. 
of  Jupiter  Panhellenius  at  Mgi 
na,  440  ;  oaken    temple  of  Nep 
tune,  iii.  49;  Doric  fane  at  Co 
rinth    described,    245,    et   seq. ; 
Doric  architecture.  See  Note  to 
Chap.  XXVIII,  268-284;   the 
Posidonium  at  the  Isthmus  285, 
et  seq. ;  temple  of  Jupiter  Ne- 
meius,  331,  332. 

Tenea.,  town  of,  iii.  320 ;  the  na- 
tives of,  321. 

Tenedos,  iii.  320. 

Te7ieieE,  springs,  iii.  IO7.  155. 

Tennus,  son  of  Cycnus,  iii.  320. 

Terebinth,  or  kotrives,  ii.  99. 

Terror,  a  statue  of,  iii.  240. 

Tersane.'Emini,  the,  i.  220. 

Terzane-Tefterdar,  the,  i.  86. 

Tetrazi,  Mount :  Ceransinm,  i.  57. 
77.  482  —  487  ;  cultivation  at  its 
foot,  ii.  10—13  ;  height,  27;  oak 
and  chestnut  woods,  31.  70-  313. 

Teuthea,  town,  and  river  Teutheas., 
ii.  157,  158. 

Teuthis,  Hellenic  ruins  supposed 
to  be  those  of,  ii.  63  ;  city,  290. 

,  the  hero,  wounds  Minerva, 

ii.  290. 

Teuthras,  i.  275. 

Teuthrone,  i.  272.  275—277.  299. 

ThalamcB,    lofty    position    of  this 

strong  fortress,   i.   327-  315  ;  ii, 

193.  204. 
Thalassa,  iii.  290. 
Thaliades,  temple  of  Ceres  Eleusi- 

nia  in  the  plain  of  Syriamu,  ii. 

271    272. 
Tham'yris,  the  bard,  i.  390.  392. 

Thana,  village  near  Tripolitza,  i. 

117  ;  ii.  47  ;  ancient  fragments, 

48  ;  rocky  ridge  of,  iii.  35  ;  site 

of  Pallantmm,  36. 
Tharso,  village  near  Fonia,  iii.  110. 

Thaumasium,  mountain,  ii.  58. 
Theatres,    ancient,  the,   in    Pelo- 
ponnesus : 

of  jEgina,  ii.  434. 

of  Argos,  ii.  396. 

of  Cleitor,  ii.  259. 

of  Corinth,  iii.  240. 

of  the  Epidaurii,  ii.  422. 


of  Megalopolis,  ii.  32.39- 

•  of  Psophis,  ii.  243. 

of  Sicyon,  iii.  226.  296. 

359.  369. 
of  Sparta,   i.    164.   173. 


of  Typaneae,  ii.  83. 

Thebans,  their  wars.     See  Epami- 

Thebes,  in  Greece,  i.  169.  369. 
Theecaleon  at  Olympia,  i.  37- 
Theganusa,  a  desert  island,  i.  443. 
Theisoa,  nymph,  ii.  310  ;  the  Thei- 

soeea,  311. 

site  of  the  city  named,  310  ; 

at  the  Castle  of  St.  Helen,  315. 
Thehis  stream,  a  branch  of  the  Al- 

pheius,  ii.  298  ;  iii.  27. 
Thelpusa.,  ruins  of  a  Roman  Imild- 

ing,   ii.    98 ;  description   of   the 

ancient  edifices,   101  ;  road  from 

Psophis,  250.  271. 
daughter  of  Ladon,    ii. 

Theoclus,  prophet.,  i.  469. 
Theodore,  St.,  village,  i.  201. 
Theodoras  and  Rhcecus,  of  Samus, 

i.  103;  the  first  who  cast  figures 

of  brass,  iii.  137- 
Theopompus,  i.  1 68. 
Therapne,  i.  166.  182—184 ;  ii.  534. 
Therma,  the  Warm    Soui'ces,    iii. 

317.  319. 



Theras,  i.  167. 

Theritas,  i.  182. 

Thermodon,  i.  275. 

Thermopyle,  i.  163,  164. 

Thermus,  i.  138. 

Thersilium,  the,  a  council-chamber 
of  the  Arcadians,  ii.  36.  39. 

Theseium,  the,  temple  of  Theseus 
at  Athens,  ii.  .3 ;  dimensions  of 
the  temple  of  Theseus,  iii.  275. 

Theseus,  i.  95.  370 ;  finds  the 
sword  of  jEgeus  under  the  altar 
of  Jupiter  at  Trcezen,  ii.  447 ; 
iii.  247. 

Thetis,  i.  165. 

Thieves,  the  Forty,  of  Captain  Ni- 
cetas,  iii.  21. 

Thocnia,  ii.  38  ;  situation  of,  291. 

Thodhoro,  of  Mavroviini,  i.  253. 

Aio,  i.  292. 

Tholi,  circular  buildings  in  Greece 
called,  ii.  379. 

Tholo,   the   turbid  river  of,  i.   56. 

•  valley  of  the,  56. 

Tholus,  the  ;  marble  chamber  near 
the  great  temple  of  iEsculapius, 
ii.  421. 

Thomas,  the  Greek  despot,  ii.  136 ; 
iii.  191. 

Thornax,  village  of,  ii.  523.  534. 

Thrasymedes  of  Parus,  i.  370  ;  his 
statue  of  yEsculapius,  ii.  421. 

Thramtus,  town  of,  ii.  202,  203. 

Thryoessa,  or  Thryon  at  the  ford 
of  the  Alpheius,  i.  65  ;  ii.  198. 

Thucydides,  quotations  from,  i. 
159,160;  illustration  of  his  nar- 
rative of  the  contest  of  the  Athe- 
nians and  Lacedaemonians  at  Py- 
lus  and  Sphacteria,  401 — 415  ; 
his  narrative  of  the  First  Battle 
of  Mantineia,  iii.  63. 

Thuria,  i.  360-363.  368.  453.  472. 

ThuriatEe,  the :  of  3Iesseuia,  i.  360. 
454.  471. 

Thuriate  Gulf,  i.  459. 

Thursday,  Holy,  ceremony  on,  i. 

Thyamia,  iii.  375,  376. 

Thyestes,   his   tomb   called    "  the 

Rams",  ii.  391. 
Thyrceum,  ruins  of,  ii.  300. 
Thyrea,  ii.  332  ;  well  contested  ac- 
tion at,  47}) ;  city  burnt,  485  ;  re- 
mains, 486  ;  the  Polyaudria,  492. 

Thyrides,  Cape,  i.  300—306. 

Tiasa,  i.  145. 

Tiberius,  i.  363. 

Tigani,  i.  286. 

Tiparenus,  island,  ii.  464. 

Tiryns,  walls  of,  i.  53.  256  ;  ii.  6  ; 
the  Cyclopian  fortifications  of, 
350  ;  ruins  of,  350.  476. 

Tisamenus,  grandson  of  Agamem- 
non, iii.  197.  206. 

Titane,  I\Iount,  named  from  Titan, 
iii.  352.  376,  377- 

Tittheium,  Mount,  ii.  417.  420. 

Tjaban,  village,  i.  398. 

Tjarnaii,  village  of,  ii.  IO7. 

Tjefteri,  hill  of,  ii.  113. 

Tjimbaru,  Mount,  i.  82 ;  ii.  43 ; 
ascent  of,  45. 

Tjimova,  or  Tzimova,  town  of 
Mani,  i.  262  ;  lofty  clilfs  and 
harbour,  282 ;  ravine,  284  ;  civil 
dissensions,  305  ;  Limeni,  or  the 
port,  312;  jealousy  against  the 
Vityliotes,  314;  poetical  descrip- 
tion, 336  ;  piracies,  337. 

Tjivlo,  village  of,  iii.  174. 

Tleptolemus,  son  of  Hercules,  ii. 

T0I6,  Port,  ii.  463. 

Tombs  of  the  Kings,  at  Thebes 
in  Egj-pt,  i.  115. 

Tomeus^  hill  near  Coryphasium,  i. 

Tornese,  Kastro,  ruin  on  the  hill 
of  Khlemutzi,  ii.  I7I  ;  its  im- 
portance as  a  military  position, 

Tortoises,  lyres  made  of  their  shell, 
ii.  250  ;  of  Mount  Parthenium, 
332  ;  tortoise  of  Mount  Chely- 
dorea,  its  shell  made  into  a  lyre 
by  JMercury,  iii.  139. 

Towers  or  pyrghi  of  the  Morea,  i. 

Trachy,  the  mountain,  iii.  100  ; 
ravine,  102. 

Trachys,  site  of  this  fortress  at 
Trakhya,  ii.  456. 

Tragium,  i.  345. 

Tragoi,  village  of,  i.  488,  489.  501 ; 
ii.  2 ;  river  of,  10;  glen  below 
Tragoi,  16. 

Tragomano,  a  village  on  the  side 
of  Mount  Dhioforti,  ii.  21.  315. 
Traytis,   the   river,   ii.  249.  270  ; 
its  source,  iii.  119. 



Trametzus,  in  Epiriis;  the  theatre, 
ii.  424. 

Trapezus,  city  of,  ii.  291. 

— ■ — • statues  from,  ii.  36. 

Travellers  in  Greece,  best  season 
for  their  visit,  iii.  170. 

Treasuries  of  the  Atreidse  at  My- 
cenae, ii.  365  ;  excavation  at  the 
Spilia,  373  ;  description  of  the 
great  treasury,  374 ;  illustration, 
377  ;  romantic  effect,  382  ;  the 
second  treasury,  ib. ;  third  sub- 
terraneous treasury,  383 ;  fourth 
treasury,  384. 

Tremola,  ruins  of  the  modern  cas- 
tle called,  ii.  112 ;  mountain,  113. 

Trehis,  IMount,  ii.  372 ;  the  der- 
veni,  or  pass  of;  ancient  tower, 
ii.  387  ;  the  road  named,  iii. 
328 ;  ravine  of  the  Tretus, 

Triandafylia,  mountain,  iii.  148. 

Tricaranum,  mountain,  iii.  346. 

Tricoloni,  city,  with  a  square  sta- 
tue of  Neptune,  ii.  299. 

Tricrana,  island,  ii.  457. 

Tricrena,  or  the  Three  Sources, 
on  Mount  Geronteium,  iii.  116. 

Trieste,  i.  204.  348. 

Trikhiri,  ii.  465. 

Trikkala,  town  of,  iii.  213,  214. 

Trinasus,  i.  195.  230—233. 

Trinisa,  i.  195.  230,  231.  248,  249. 
254.  264. 

Triodi,  or  Three  Ways,  i.  107 ;  ii- 

Triopas,  i.  369. 

Triphylia,  district  of  the  Pelopon- 
nesus, i.  49.  59—67  ;  ii.  76. 

Triphylii,  the,  i.  59. 

Triphylus,  son  of  Areas,  ii.  76. 

Tripod,  prophetic,  stolen  by  Her- 
cules, iii.  146. 

Tripolis,  Laconic ;  valley  of  the, 
iii.  19. 

Tripolitza,  account  of  the  city  of, 
i.  87.  92.98.112.  117-  197.  208. 
327. ;  the  valley  of  Tripolitza, 
ii.  31.  47.  282  ;  iii.  55  ;  drew  its 
origin  from  Mokhli,  Tegea,  and 
Mantineia,  ii.  336  ;  iii.  35. 

plain  of,  iii.  44,  45.  56. 

Tripotamo,  khan  of,  ii.  241. 

,  course  of  the  three  ri- 

vers    which   give   name  to    the 
place,  ii.  240. 

Tris  Ghynekes,  three  rocky  peaks, 
ii.  114. 

Trisonia,  harbour  of,  iii.  192. 

Tritcea,  its  position  and  remains, 
ii.  117. 

Tritonis,  the  fountain,  ii.  76.  79' 

Trizu,  i,  265. 

Trochus,  the  site  of,  ii.  338. 

Trwzcn,  territory  of,  ii.  442  ;  acro- 
polis and  general  description  of, 
443 ;  sanctuary  of  Hippolytus, 
445 ;  extraordinary  antiquity  of 
the  public  edifices,  446 ;  the 
harbour  Celenderis,  448 ;  450. 

TropcBa,  and  the  grove  Artemisi- 
um,  ii.  251. 

Trophonius  and  Agamedes,  their 
oaken  temple  of  Neptune,  iii. 

Trophy  of  stone  erected  by  the 
Mantinenses,  iii.  85. 

Trout,  the,  ii.  101 ;  supposed  to  be 
musical,  ii.  263. 

Trupaki,  Panaghioti,  i.  315,  316. 

Trupia,  iii.  211;  church  of  St. 
Irene,  397.  399. 

Trygon,  sepulchre  of,  ii.  102,  103. 

Trvpi,  i.  150.  152.  180;  iii.  I7. 

TrVpiotiko,  i.  152—154.  157.  172. 
J74.  181  ;  river,  iii.  12. 

Tubaki,  Poliko,  a  chief  of  IMani,  i. 
282—285.  308.  311. 

Tumbiki,  village  and  khan,  ii.  96 ; 
artificial  mound,  101.  103. 

Tumuli,  ii.  96.  103  ;  near  .iEgina, 

Tunis,  i.  131,  132. 

Tilrali,  i.  196.  224.  232. 

Turk,  anecdote  of  one  grateful  to- 
wards the  English,  iii.  409, 

Turkovrysi,  i.  253.  255,  256.  259. 
266.  276. 

Turin,  i.  347- 

Turla,  port,  cape,  and  island  of,  ii. 

Turniki,  i.  88.  101.  112;  moun- 
tain and  village,  ii.  413. 

Turtovana,  mountain,  ii.  108  ;  iii. 

Tusia,  village  of,  iii.  1 10. 
Tuthoa,  river  flowing  into  the  La- 
don,  ii.  74 ;  now  the  river  of  Lan- 
gadha,  95.  102. 

Twelve  cities  of  Achaia,  iii.  197  ; 
their  names,  205. 



Twelve  Gods,  temple  of  the,  ii.  101. 

Tyndaridaj,  i.   144. 

Tyndareus,  i.   IGD. 

Tyndarus,  iii.  291. 

Typanece,  town  in  Triphylia^  i.  59 ; 
ii.  G9  ;  illustration  of  the  fortifi- 
cations and  theatre,  83. 

Typaeum,  rock  from  which  women 
were  precipitated  for  witnessing 
the  Olympic  Games,  i.  30  ;  ii. 
217,  218. 

Tyrtaeus,  poet  of  Athens,  i.  365. 

Tzakonia,  i.  151;  ii.  284;  monas- 
teries of,  505 ;  the  Tzakonic 
dialect,  505,  et  seq. ;  the  people 
remarked  for  beauty,  iii.  173. 

Tzanet,  Bey  of  I\lani',  i.  237-  240. 
253.  266.  332.  475. 

Tzanetupoli,  or  Mavrovuni,  i.  253. 

Tzanet  Gligoraki,  Bey  of  Mani,  i. 
234-236.  316—318.  323. 

Kutufari,  i.  323. 

Tzasi,  i.  195.  198. 

Tzeria,  i.  265. 

Tzerigo,  island  of,  i.  310. 

Tzerkovi,  ruins  at,  iii.  217. 

Tzernota,  village,  ii.  268. 

valley  of,  ii.  272. 

Tzerova,  i.  258. 

Tziniharu,  the  mountain,  ii.  20. 
318,319;  iii.  22.  24.  31,  40— 
43  ;  the  katavothra,  40. 

Tzinguri6,  i.  235,  236.  269. 

Tzipdti,  village,  ii.  260.  262 ;  hill 
of,  264. 

Tzipiana,  village  of,  i,  101.  109; 
iii.  95. 

Tzitzina,  river  at,  ii.  514.  520. 

town,  ii.  515,  516. 

Tz6ia,  river  of,  ii.  188.  191. 


Ulysses,  i.  162.  449 ;  iii.  2.38  ;  de- 
dicates  a  temple  to  IMinerva  So- 
teira,  and  Neptune,  iii.  34. 

Urania,  Venus,  temple,  i.  39 ; 
statue,  ii.  37. 

Vafio', remarkable  height  at,  iii.  4. 
Vakho,  i.  237.  258.  263.  281. 
Vakiif,  or  church  property,  i.  45. 
Valens,  i.  199. 

Valentinian,  the  Emperor,  i.  199. 

Valtesiniko,  village  of,  ii.  22.  105. 

Vamighiani,  village,  ii.  252. 

Vanena,  Hellenic  remains  at  the 
village  of,  ii.  96;  the  site  of  TheU 
pusa,  98.  103. 

Vanli  Pasha,  ii.  347. 

Vardhusi,  peak  of,  ii.  232. 

Varibopi,  i.  78. 

Varnevo,  hill  above  Trikkala,  hav- 
ing  a  fine  prospect,  iii.  223. 

Varsova,  i.  127,  150. 

Vasilika,  village  and  hill,  with  a 
Hellenic  wall  [of  Sicyon]  en- 
circling it,  iii.  226.  356  ;  inha- 
bited by  Albanians,  357;  ancient 
site,  364  ;  the  hill  of  the  Acro- 
polis, 372.  382. 

Vasiliko,  rise  and  course  of  the 
ri%'er,  i.  359.  387.  482. 

•  Cape,    in    Zakvtho,    ii. 


VasUi-Potamo,  i.  193  ;  ii.  45. 

Vasilo-Perama,  i.  192. 

Vatas,  district  of,  i.  272. 

Vatas,  town  of,  i.  308. 

Vathia,  village  of  JMesa  Mani,  built 
on  a  steep  hill,  i,  294,  295.  .336. 

Vathy,  port  of,  the  residence  of 
Antony  Gligoraki,  Bey  of  Ma- 
ni, i.  234  ;  contest  between  two 
priests  of  this  town,  237  ;  bay  of 
Vathy,  252  ;  the  hill,  259  ;  vil- 
lage, 266 ;  description  of  the 
port,  299.  302. 

Vathvrema,  a  brook  at  Kyparissia, 
ii.  28. 

Vatzeli,  the  measure,  i.  14. 

Veis  Aga,  village  of,  i.  354—358. 

'V'elani  oaks,  i.  200.  229.  244. 

Velanidhi  of  Mount  Taygetimi, 
gathering  of  this  produce,  i.  132. 

Velanidhia,  village  of,  ii.  80.  4']G. 

Velit's,  village,  i.  205,  221. 

Velika,  river,  i.  396. 

Vendra,  village,  ii.  119. 

Venetians,  their  occupation  of  a  part 
of  Greece,  i.  204.  219.  257.  264. 
306.  313.  324 ;  the  Lion  of  St. 
l\Iark,  430  ;  their  last  conquests 
in  the  iMorea,  and  their  duchv 
of  Chiarenza,  or  Glarentza,  ii. 
173 ;  their  restoration  of  the 
IMorea  to  the  Turks  in  1715,  ii. 
439  ;  their  fortifications  at  Co- 
rinth, iii.  260. 

Venus,  sanctuaries,  temples,  and 
statues  of  the  goddess,  i.  146.211. 



300.  369  ;  ii.  129.  309  ;  iii.  100. 
233—238  241.  248  ;  temple  on 
the  Acro-Corinthus,  248.  290  ; 
temple  and  statue  at  Sicyon,  362. 

•  Ambologera,  i.  170. 

Ascnea,  ii.  446. 

Catascopia,  temple  whence 

Phaedra    beheld  Hippolytus,    ii. 
445,  446. 

Erycina,  ii.  244. 

In  the  Tile,  i.  93. 

Mechanitis,  ii.  36. 

Melanis,  iii.  4?.  234. 

Aligonitis,  i.  24?. 

Morpho,  i.  168. 

Ni/mphas,  temple,  ii.  447- 

Olympia,  i.  163. 

Paphiu,  i.  94 

Pandemus,  ii.  224. 

Foiitia,  or  Limenia,  tem- 
ples, ii.  460. 

Symmachia,  i.  107- 

Urania,  i.  39 ;  ii.  37-  224. 

409 ;  temple  at  jEgeira,  iii.  388. 
Venitzanaki,  Anagnosti,  i.  316. 
Verona,  Museum  of,  iii.  289.  294. 
Verria,  village  of,  ii.  515.  525. 
Verus,  Lucius,  i.  384. 
Vervena,  village  of,  i.  124 ;  iii.  42  ; 

marble  of,  ii.  490. 
Vervitza,  in  the  district  of  Neo- 

kastro,  i.  400 ;  on  Mount  Fana- 

ritiko,   ii.    15  ;   on   3Iount  Vre- 

tembuga,  ii.  96.  104. 
Vespasian,  his    administration    of 

Greece,  iii.  205. 
Vesta,  sanctuary  at  Olympia  of  the 

goddess,  i.  34. 
Vezir,  a  Pasha  of  three  horse  tails, 

or  standards,  i-  45. 
Vial,   French    Consul-General,    i. 

Victory,  statue  of:  at  Athens,  i. 

Vidhisova,  i.  77- 
Viena,  JMount,  ii.  232. 
Vilayeti  of  Gastuni,  i.  19,  20. 
of    Karitena,    agricultural 

produce  of  this  mountainous  dis- 
trict, ii.  22. 
Villehardouin,   Guillaume  de,  ob- 
tained  possession  of  Achaia,   i. 

10;  ii.  136. 
Virgil,  his  account  of  Evander,  i. 

Virgin,  the  Holy,  i.  305. 
the  Pure,   (Proserpine)  i. 


Visoka,  village  of,  ii.  109. 113, 114. 

Vitina,  town  and  vale  of,  i.  118; 
ii.  22.  56  ;  river  of,  ii.  268— 

Vitruvius,  his  remark  on  the  Ionic 
order,  ii.  5  ;  reports  the  shape  of 
Greek  theatres,  397- 

Vityliotes,  the,  i.  313,  314. 

Vitvlo,  town  and  sea-port,  i.  241  ; 
ciiir  of  Ai-Elia  near,  253.  282  ; 
ruined  Venetian  fortress  near, 
258  ;  the  district,  262 ;  lofty  cliffs 
along  the  coast,  282.  288  ;  the 
mountain,  213;  the  port  de- 
scribed, 314  ;  voyage  from  Vitylo 
to  Kitries  described,  .^20  ;  the  an- 
cient CEtylus,  327.  330  ;  tradi- 
tion,  450. 

Vizitza,  in  the  vilayeti  of  Karitena, 
ii.  22. 

Vlakhi,  i.  487. 

Vlakhiotes,  i.  487-  489. 

Vlakhokhori,  i.  128 ;  terrace  in 
cultivation  at  the  hamlet  of,  iii.  2. 

Vlogoka,  iii.  141  ;  village  near  the 
site  of  jEgeira,  391. 

Voidhia,  Mount,  ii.  109.  121,  122; 
it  is  the  Panacha'icum,  139.  142. 
232;  iii.  193—195. 

Voidho-Kilia,  cavern  called,  i.  411, 
412;  port,  423. 

Voivodas  and  hodja-bashis,  council 
of,  ii.  283. 

Vokha,  olive  plantations  of  the 
plain  of,  iii.  228. 

Volantza,  village,  i.  24  ;  ii.  207- 

Vostitza,  ii.  Ill  ;  river  of  Vostitza 
joins  the  sea  at  Tjapes,  115;  town 
and  vicinity :  general  descrip- 
tion of  JEgium  and  of  Vostitza 
occupying  its  site,  iii.  178 — 210; 
earthquake  and  inundation,  402. 

Vrakhni,  village  of,  ii.  113. 

Vrakhori,  town  of,  ii.  140. 

Vretembuga,  mountain  of,  ii.  96. 

Vrina,  village  of,  i.  51  ;  ii.  206. 

Vromosela,  near  the  river  of  Da- 
via,  or  the  Helisson,  ii.  28.  293. 

Vryses,  village,  i.  76. 

Vrysomilo,  river,  i.  74. 

Vuliasmeni,  lake  of,  iii.  380. 

Vunaki,  village  of,  iii.  159. 

Vuni'ika,  Mount  :  or  mountain  of 
Alvena,  i.  56.  66.  68.  82.  85  ; 
sources,  89. 

Vurkano,  monastery  of,  i.  78.  366  ; 
its  fine  situation,  385. 



Vyzitza,  church  and  village,  ii,  U6. 


Wallachian  language,  i.  487. 

Water  of  Secrecy,  the,  i.  367- 

West  Indies,  i.  21. 

Wheler  and  Spon,  references  to,  ii. 
134.  155  ;  iii.  244  ;  Wheler's  de- 
scription of  the  cr  Je  o€  Corip.tlz, 
iii.  257—261.'  ""lEiH  )ii'M.  302. 

Wilkins,  Mr.,  his  Introduction  to 
the  Antiquities  of  Magna  Grascia, 
iii.  332. 

Winckelmann,  i.  43. 

Winds,  hot,  ii.  143  ;  violent,  149. 
prevailing  in  the  gulfs  and  hays 
of  Greece,  iii.  207,  208. 

altar  of  the,   ceremonies, 

iii.  378. 

Wine,  of  Herma^  ii.  92 ;  of  Tros- 
zen,Q^',  of  Kapsa  and  Dhesf ina, 
279;  oi  Carystus,  323. 

Wolf's  contest  with  a  bull,  tradi- 
tion at  Argos :  money,  and  sculp- 
ture, ii.  402,  403. 

Wolves,  ii.  517  ;  poisoned  by  the 
bark  of  a  tree,  iii.  360. 

Women  of  Greece,  employed  in  the 
severest  labours  of  agriculture, 
and  in  carrying  wood,  iii.  172; 
injury  to  their  features  from  this 
cause,  173. 

Wreckers  of  vessels  driven  ashore 
in  Mani,  i.  336. 


Xenophilus,  sculptor,  ii.  409. 

Xenophon,  his  possession  of  Scillus 
near  Olympia,  also  various  quo- 
tations: i.  29.  33.  143.  174.  182; 
ii.  86.  214;  his  statue,  216;  his 
account  of  the  stratagem  of  Age- 
sipolis  at  fllantineia,  iii.  69,  70  ; 
details  the  Second  Battle  of  fllan- 
tineia,  78. 

a  sculptor,  ii.  34. 

Xerilo.potamo,  a  branch  of  the  Al- 
pheius,  ii.  44. 

Xerokanibi,  cultivated  level  of,  ii. 

Xero-Karltena,  a  village  near  the 
bridge  of  the  Alpheius  at  Kari. 
tena,  ii.  21. 

Xeropigadho,  the  sea-beach  at,  ii. 

Xerovuni,   Mount,    the    northern 

summit  of  the  Taygetic  range, 

ii.  43. 
Xerxes,  iii.  300. 
Xuria,  Castle  of,  i.  80.  462. 
Xyh,  Cape,  i.  201.  222.    224.  227 

—229.  231  ;  ii.  518. 
Xylo-Gaidhara,  village  of^  ii..  192. 
Xvlo-Kastro,  rijTw.kif,  'i.i.  210.  213, 

'214.  224.  o64.  393. 
Xystus  of  Elis,  the,  ii.  221. 


Yanata'ki,  Kyr,  i.  88.  91.  100. 

Yaourt,  how  made,  i.  I7,  18. 
Ydhra,   island  of,  commercial  im- 
portance of,  i.  204.  210.  218.  240. 

243  ;  ii.  344,  et  seq.  432. 
Ydhriote,  i.  211. 
'Ysari,  a  village  belonging  to  Fa- 

nari,  ii.  2a;  ancient  site  near  it, 

Yusuf,  the  Valide  Kiayassy,  ii.  151, 

152 ;    negro    minister    of    Aly 

Pasha,  152. 
Effendi,  i.  220. 


Zaade,  the  bey,  i.  237. 

Zaimoglu,  village,  i.  397. 

Zakari,  plain  below,  ii.  85. 

Zakharia,  the  robber,  i.  252. 

Zakkuka,  an  old  castle  on  the  Fa- 
naritiko  hill  above  Fanari,  ii.  16, 
17  ;  it  is  a  work  of  the  middle 
ages,  19.  68;  description  of  the 
comprehensive  prospect  from  the 
hill  of  Zakkuka,  09.  71. 

Zakluril,  village  of,  iii.  175.  182. 

Zakhuli,  currant  vineyards  of,  iii. 
141.  386. 

Zakhulitiko,  or  river  of  Zakhuli, 
iii.  392,  393. 

Zakvtho,  island  of,  i.  20.  21  ;  ii. 
16;  iii.  211,  212.  227- 

Zalum-Osman  Aga,  i.  205. 

Zancle,  i.  470. 

Zanes,  or  statues  of  Jupiter,  i.  39. 

Zanim-bey,  i.  269.  281.  317. 

Zante,  voyage  from,  i.  2  ;  currants 
of  this  island,  ii.  141. 



Zarafona,  vicinity  of,  iii.  12. 

Zaraka,  lake  of,  iii.  108.  134. 

Zarax,  ii.  500 ;  position  of,  501  ; 
town  of  the  Argive  community, 
iii.  9. 

Zarnata,  in  Mani,  i.  261.  2G4.  313. 
315.  316.  318.325. 

Zarnatiotes,  the,  i.  326. 

Zf^'SkMn,  mountain  of,  iii.  142. 
15d'.  1^7  ;  village  of,  158.  160. 

Zatuna,  a  tV-Tvi^vi^-ir  Dhimitzana, 
ii..l9.  22;  its  shofis,  h'h. 

Zavitza,  Mount,  ii.  482.  486. 

Zerethra  or  katavothra,  descrip- 
tion of,  iii.  40 ;  those  in  the 
Mantinice  and  Tegeatice,  55 ; 
of  Mount  Apelaurum,  113;  of 
the  Stymphalia,  144.  153;  de- 
tail of  all  the  Peloponnesian  ze- 
rethra, 155. 

Zervo,  Constantine,  i.  236. 

Zevgalates,   or  Greek   metayer,  i. 

Ziza,  village  of,  i.  479. 
Zcetia,  temples  of  Ceres  and  Diana 

at,  ii    299. 
Zoga,  village  :  and  on  the  Peirus  a 

bridge    called    Polykhronia,    ii. 

Zugra,  village   and  hill,    iii.    214. 

Zulatika,  torrent  descending  from, 

Zuriomylo,  ria'ine  oy  ■::  ruined  tower, 
ii.  46. 

Zurtza,  koli  of,  i.  73. 

Zygos,  i.  261,  262.  315.  318.  .320. 

Zygovisti,  a  dependency  of  Dhimit- 
zana, ii.  63,  64. 

Zvria,  Mount,  iii.  109.  114.  151— 
"l58.  213—222. 


G.  Woodfall,  Printer,  Angel  Court,  Skinner  Street,  London. 


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